It is a sad reality that : vulgarity and obscenity has corrupted our theaters as commercialization has become their main motive , this paper discusses these issues. Stage dramas are related to our society and culture, they were the part of our society and will remain, however modern changes have taken place . Dances and vulgar comments have no positive impact on our society and they fail to depict our culture. Background Indrasabha In 1855, the enactment of the play Indrasabha (the Heavenly Court of Indra) written by Agha Hasan Amanat Ali in the courtyard of the last Nawab of Oudh, Wajid Ali Shah, marked the beginning of Urdu theatre.
The drama dealt with the love story between a fairy and a prince. The Nawab, who was a Kathak dancer and had written theses on stage techniques, composed some of the songs and choreographed the dances for the play. It was a huge success. Its characters (Sabaz Pari (Green Fairy), Kala Deo (Black Devil) and Lal Deo (Red Devil)) live on as a part of the vocabulary of the South Asia.
Post Independence theater Pakistani literature The distinct voice of Pakistani literature came soon after the Partition of India in 1947. Since there were many cultural similarities, Urdu and English Literature was inherited by this new state.
Over due course, a literature which was somewhat uniquely Pakistani has emerged in every province. Initially the plays were all about the independence and the atrocities committed on the Muslims by the Hindus and Sikhs but this gradually began to change and the current trend is specifically Pakistani venturing into many different genres. Saadat Hasan Manto Main article: Saadat Hasan Manto Manto is arguably the most influential Urdu writer of the 20th century. He was one of the most controversial as well. His work is comparable with D. H. Lawrence.
This comparison is made because like Lawrence he also wrote about the topics considered social taboos of his Society. He addressed topics ranging from the socio-economic injustice prevailing in pre- and post-colonial South Asia; he stirred up quite a fury when he wrote about controversial topics of love, sex, incest, prostitution and the typical hypocrisy of a traditional South Asian male. In dealing with these topics, he wasn’t careful to conceal any of the facts and clearly showed the true state of affairs. His short stories were often intricately structured, with vivid satire and a good sense of humor.
Manto was a well known film writer of the Indian cinema and was making good money. He however, chose to abandon his lucrative career and migrated to Pakistan. In the seven years that Manto lived in Lahore he continuously struggled for survival. However, he proved to be a productive individual who gave some of his best writings to the literary world regardless of his domestic situation. It was in Lahore that he wrote many of his best known works. Manto was primarily known for his short stories of the South Asia, great literature out of the events relating to the Partition of India.
The literature, which came out of the period that followed, is considered to have been progressive in its tone and spirit. According to several critics it had not only evolved its own identity, but also had played a significant role in documenting the hardships and hopes of Pakistan in the latter part of the 20th century. Manto also wrote plays and many of his stories have been successfully adapted for the stage. Some of his characters have become legends in the minds of theatregoers. Farrukh Nigar Aziz The daughter of Abdul Aziz Falakpaima, Farrukh Nigar Aziz was a known literary figure even before the partition.
She and her sisters were educated along liberal styles of education. These women received opportunities that were somewhat of a rarity in their day. Formal education for Muslim women and having a career in the arts or performing arts was considered to be unrespectable. Types of theatre The general complaint in conservative circles is that commercial theatre is lowbrow and thrives on obscene dialogue and dances. The fact is that at least three departments are tasked with monitoring the activities of commercial theatre.
From the Punjab Arts Council, which is responsible for vetting the scripts to District Coordination Officers, who are authorized to monitor the screening of plays, to the Home Department that actually takes action against producers, directors, artistes and theatre owners, the dice is loaded against entertainment at every step. ” Local theatre Commercial theatre is surviving this accusation and, in some cases, even thriving this shows that people want entertainment and are prepared to watch plays despite the hazards of doing so. Just like any demand and supply situation, since there is a demand there will be a supply.
The arrival of commercial theatre in Lahore was in the early 1980s. The joint efforts of Naheed Khanum, Amanullah, Mastana and Baboo Baral ushered in the art the lively dialogues and innovative style was like a breath of fresh air for the citizens. The initial venue for the staging of these plays was Alhamra but a replacement venue had to be sought once Alhamra closed down for renovations in 1981-1982. Each and every script has to be cleared by the Punjab Arts Council (PAC). Lahore has five private (Tamaseel, Mehfil, Naz, Crown and Alfalah) and a government theatre (Alhamra).
The moral brigade’s claims of vulgarity and calls for closure of commercial theatre have become common in Gujranwala, Faislabad, Multan and Sahiwal. Most of the complaints originate from a small community of zealots while the majority of people enjoy the performances. In Lahore, most of the audience come from other cities. The theatres are packed on Thursdays, Fridays and Saturdays. A stage play usually runs for 16 days and earns around two million rupees in that time. Tickets cost from Rs. 200 to Rs. 1,000.
Training institutions Punjab Lok Rahs Main article: Punjab Lok Rahs Punjab Lok Rahs started working as an independent alternative theater group in 1986. The group has seen a number of upheavals both internal and external during its history. On average, the group has held a performance every fortnight since its creation. It started as a group of young men and women, primarily students, that was concerned with the military oppression of arts and cultural activities in Pakistan. The group cherished a society that has gender equity and democratic values, respects all humans and offers equal economic opportunities to all.
Rahs believes in organized and conscious efforts to realize this dream. Theater is its medium. Rahs’ experience in the art of theater is very deep as well. From staging classical epics to quick response street skits and from working out foreign adaptations to improvising ones with community and from performing at overseas festivals to villages and urban slums, Rahs has touched upon a host of issues. Rahs’ canvas is very wide and diverse as it has dealt with subjects like child marriage and women’s right to marry of their free will and staged plays against arms race and military dictatorship.
Besides experimentation and experience, Rahs has learned theater from its gurus like Badal Sarkar. Its members have received training from many institutions in other countries. The group has imparted theater training to a number of civil society organizations as well. It has supported scores of other organizations by performing for the communities with which they work. Rahs draws inspiration from Punjab’s indigenous theater tradition. Its name ‘Rahs’ is the Punjabi word for local form of theater and its logo shows the basic props of this theater.
The group aims to marry the tradition with modern techniques and concepts and make it an effective tool in the hands of organizations working for social change. Rahs performs plays only in the mother language of its audience – the people of Punjab. The group believes that the mother language lies at the heart of the issue of cultural identity. The group not only performs but also trains other dramatic societies and community organizations to do theater as an art and use it as an effective tool of communication.
The Rafi Peer Theater workshop is named after ‘Rafi Peer’ one of the pioneers and founders of Modern Urdu and Punjabi Drama in the Ind-Pak Subcontinent. The Theater workshop was founded in 1974 by Salmaan Peerzada and his brothers Usmaan Imraan Sadaan Faizaan and his sisters Kausar and Tasneem Peerzada. The Theater Workshop’s aim was to bring social and cultural change through the Arts. The theater workshops first Production was ‘Culture Culture’. An avant grade theater experiment for its time. It was an effort at creating original contemporary drama in Pakistan.
The Play was Performed both in Lahore and Karachi. It was Created and Directd by Salmaan Peerzada, Starring Kursheed Shahid, Perin Cooper,Salman Shahid, Rubina Saigol, Imraan Peerzada and Samina Peerzada. Over past three decades the Rafi Peer theater workshop has produced diverse and amazing body of work in Drama, Puppetry, Dance, Music, besides this it hosts four major Art Festivals. Rafi Peer theater workshop has done enormous service for performing Arts in Pakistan, by supporting Artists and the Arts.
Cite this essay
Representation of ethics in the stage dramas of Pakistan. (2016, Dec 07). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/representation-of-ethics-in-the-stage-dramas-of-pakistan-essay