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Report on Industrail Training Essay

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Government policies established under decree No 47 of 1971 of industrial training fund. It’s also a skill-acquisition programme designed for the tertiary institutions as a complementary programme to the theoretical education and laboratory and workshop practices engaged in by students in tertiary institutions which, by industrial standards, are inadequate or insufficient to serve the practical needs of the industries. The exercise is for a period of six months. 1.

As a result of the complaints from the industries about the practical deficiencies of the graduates of the nation’s higher institutions, the Industrial Training Fund (ITF), a body established by the Federal Government which engages in the training of technical manpower, undertook to make up for the deficiencies by structuring and establishing Students Industrial Training (SIT), as it then called, about 1973/74.

With the rapids growth of higher institutions both in size and number, funding became a problem for ITF which single-handedly funded the programme initially.

And by 1979 the management of the scheme was passed on to the National University Commission NUC) a regulatory body for the Universities and its counterpart for the Polytechnics, the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE).

Today, all the bodies involved in SIWES operations each has specific functions to perform. The bodies involved include the tertiary educational regulatory bodies: NUC for Universities, NBTE for Polytechnics, the National Commission for colleges of Education (NCCE) for Colleges of Education; the institutions themselves and the Organized Private Sector (OPS) together with Governmental establishments.

And of course, as already stated the Federal Government and the ITF are all involved 1. 2 GOALS/OBJECTIVES OF THE SIWES PROGRAMMES 1. Providing an avenue for student in institution of higher learning to acquire industrial skill and experience in their course of study. 2. Preparing student for the industrial work situation they are to meet after graduation. 3. Exposing student to work methods and techniques in handling equipment and machinery that may not be available in their institutions. 4. Making the transition from the academic institution to the world of work easier and enhancing students contact for later job placement.

Arcelor Networks Limited is an indigenous ICT service oriented firm with years of experience in Data Communication Infrastructure solutions. VISION OF THE COMPANY The company is envisioned to be a world class company driven by excellence, customer satisfaction and continuous innovations and improvement, and also to provide fast responsive, informed expertise, and consistently high quality solutions, which will make Arcelor Networks a leader in ICT solutions provider in Nigeria and Africa in the near future.

To deliver our mantra, our firm has a working relationship with credible partners both our team of qualified employees in all designation and our outsourced partners that enables us deliver our promise of value addition to our respective customers. 1. 3. 2 ARCELOR NETWORKS LIMITED ORGANOGRAM Director of Business Development Managing Director Technical Director Director Of Information Sales Manager System Engineer I T Training Software Engineer Senior Manager Consultancy Manager 2.

During the time I spent at Arcelor Networks Limited, I focused mainly on three aspects of ICT: * Computer Networking * Computer Hardware * Computer Programming I used to think of physics as been too theoretical and abstract, but I have now learnt by experience that no industry can exist without physics. Physics is the very fundamentals with application in practically every industry. Many of the courses learnt in school became more practical during the industrial training.

The major courses applicable to my training are tabulated below Nature of Job at My Placement| Related Physics course| Computer Networking| PHY 419 (Communication Physics)| Computer Hardware| PHY 210, PHY 315,PHY 316, PHY 415| Computer Programming| PHY 407 (Computational Physics)| 2. 2 COMPUTER NETWORKING A computer network is simply a collection of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications among users and allow users to share resources. Networking is the interconnection of computers linked together by both hardware and software so as to facilitate communication between them.

The aim of networking is to enable resources sharing and some of the resources shared are Data, Message, Graphics, Printers, Fax Machine and various hardware resources. Computer networks can be classified into various categories including: * Personal Area Network (PAN) * Local Area Network (LAN) * Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) * Wide Area Network (WAN) The computers on a network may be linked through cables, radio waves, satellites or infrared beam. A NETWORKING DIAGRAM 2. 2. 1Benefits of Networking The benefits of networking computers and other devices include lower costs, speed and increased productivity.

With networks, resources can be shared, which results in less duplication and corruption of data. * Fewer peripherals needed – Printers, scanners, and backup devices can be shared among the network users. * Increased communication capabilities – Collaboration tools facilitate communicate between users; Examples: e-mail, forums and chats, voice and video, and instant messaging * Avoid file duplication and corruption – Servers store data and share it with network users. Confidential or sensitive data can be protected and shared with the users who have permission to access that data.

Document tracking software can be used to prevent users from changing files that others are accessing at the same time. * Lower cost licensing – The site license allows a group of people or an entire organization to use the application for a single fee. * Centralized administration – Fewer people needed to manage the network. Lower cost to the company. Easier data backup to a central location. * Conserve resources- Data processing is distributed across many computers to prevent overloading one computer with processing tasks. NETWORKING 2. 2.

2 DISADVANTAGES OF NETWORKING * Expensive to Install * Requires an Administrator * File Server May Fail * Cables May Break 2. 2. 3 WIDE AREA NETWORK A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a general geographical broad area i. e. , any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries. Usually, network providers and big businesses own such networks. WANs are mostly heterogeneous, meaning a large variety of LANs and equipment or other WANs can constitute a single WAN. An example of a WAN is the Internet.

WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks together, so that users and computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations. Many WANs are built for one particular organization and are private. Others, built by Internet service providers, provides connections from an organization’s LAN to the Internet. A router connects to the LAN on one side and a switch within the WAN on the other. Network protocols including TCP/IP deliver transport and addressing functions. Protocols and Frame relay are often used by service providers to deliver the links that are used in WANs.

A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and associated devices that share a common communication line or wireless link. Typically, connected devices share the resources of a single processor or server within a small geographical area (for example, within an office building). The most widely deployed local area network (LAN) technology is Ethernet. The term Ethernet refers to a family of protocols and standards that together define the physical and data link layers of the world’s most popular type of LAN.

Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet are variations of Ethernet that exist. The area office LAN is connected to corporate LAN in a star topology while their ISPs acts as Network control center to the area office . 2. 2. 5NETWORK TOPOLOGY A network topology describes the layout of the wire and the devices as well as the paths used by data transmissions. It is also the physical arrangement of linking all the devices together on a network in a scheme of creating a Local Area Network. There are many types of topology which includes: Star Topology, Ring Topology, and Bus Topology. 2. 2. 5. 1STAR TOPOLOGY

This is a type of topology in which all the hosts on the network are connected in a point to point configuration to a central hub to the connected devices. Has a central connection point: a hub, switch, or router, Hosts connect directly to the central point with a cable. Costs more to implement than the bus topology because more cable is used, and a central device is needed. Easy to troubleshoot, since each host is connected to the central device with its own wire . The area office LAN is connected to corporate LAN in a star topology while their ISPs acts as Network control center to the area office . 2. 2. 5. 2BUS TOPOLOGY

This is a type of in which all devices on the network are connected to one common cable that runs along the network. This common cable is known as the Bus which form the medium backbone of the network. In a bus topology,once there is a break in the bus,the whole network will be down but it is very easy to expand Bus topology is rarely used today. Possibly suitable for a home officeor small business with few hosts. 2. 2. 5. 3RING TOPOLOGY The devices of this network are connected in an unbroken circle in this network. It is a topology obtained by closing the loop of a bus topology i. e by connecting the two ends together .

Hence,all the devices are inter-linked in a cicular form. This topology ensures all signals to be routed through each host on the network. Ring topology offers a faster response time than other two topologies mentioned above. However, a lost of one host in the ring can bring down the entire network. 2. 2. 6LAN CABLING Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another. Cabling is one of the major part of computer network,it act as a network transmission medium carrying signal from one workstation to the other. There are several types of cable that are commonly used with LANs.

The type of cable chosen for a network is related to the network’s topology, protocol and size; this include Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable, Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable, Coaxial Cable, Fiber Optic Cable and Wireless Access. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable and Wireless Access are in use within the network TWO BASIC TYPES OF TWISTED –PAIR CABLE * Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) Has two or four pairs of wires. Relies on the cancellation effect for reduction of interference caused by electromagnetic interface (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI). Most commonly used cabling in networks. Has a range of 328 ft (100 meters).

Shielded twisted-pair (STP) Each pair is wrapped in metallic foil to better shield the wires from electrical noise and then the four pairs of wires are then wrapped in an overall metallic braid or foil. Reduces electrical noise from within the cable. Reduces EMI and RFI from outside the cable. 2. 2. 6. 1TYPES OF NETWORK CABLES CATEGORY RATING 2. 2. 6. 1. 1CATEGORY 5 CABLE: A multi-pair (usually 4 pair) high performance cable that consists of twisted pair conductors, used mainly for data transmission. The twisting of the pairs gives the cable a certain amount of immunity from the infiltration of unwanted interference.

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