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Remedial Works For Roofing Defects Environmental Sciences Essay

Building defects besides known as imperfectnesss of a edifice which mean the edifice fail to carry through the demand of its map, public presentation, statutory of user and the edifice defect will demo an evident within the construction, services, cloth or other installations of the affected the edifice ( Watt, 1999 ) . Some illustrations of a defect are checking, harm and impairment of brick walls, drooping of roof, leaking and so on.

At the beginning of this chapter will sketch the assorted types of edifice defects that occurred presents.

Next will place the possible causes of edifice defect included the defect to the roof, ceiling, floor, external and internal wall, and foundation. Appropriate redress plants will be carry out at the terminal of this chapter. The research will merely stress on the defects that occurred in Malaysia.

2.2 Foundation


Whenever a undertaking begins their building on a new edifice, it is indispensable to foremost measure where and how they will construct the foundation. The foundation is a construction, most normally made of concrete for places.

There are different types of foundation designs and each serves a different intent and specific, but by and large, the use of a foundation is to reassign the weight of the construction and spread through the full Earth below.

A good foundation can prolong the edifice and defy it against any physical forces cause by the undersoil. In add-on, a good foundation can defy against chemical compound onslaught which readily contain in the undersoil and imposed assorted burden into the land with sustain and transmit safety in the sound of zero harm or defect to the edifice.

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( Douglas & A ; Ransom 2007 )

2.2.1 Soil Factors

Most dirts consist of solid atoms of changing forms and sizes, assorted with H2O and, to a lesser extent, which air make fulling in between the spread. Dirt originated came from assorted stones, when the stones bit by bit attack by conditions, it will break up and soften in topographic point, which changes into dirt, called residuary dirt. If the decomposed stone stuffs are washed off, normally by rainwater and watercourses, they are washed down to a lower country where they are deposited in vale undersides.

Normally dirt can be classified in two types:

Cohesionless soils- sand

Cohesive soils- silts, clays and peats. Cohesionless Soils

Sand by and large is considered as a favorable building stuff, and normally favorable from the point of view of foundation support, which do non necessitate much foundation construction. As sand does non keep H2O, therefore the stuffs may easy be washed off by H2O. Excavations in sand by and large do non stand really good, as moist sand may temporarily stand steeper, even perpendicular, for short periods of clip. Cohesive Dirts

Clay is really soft stuffs exude between the fingers when squeezed, it is composed of stone atoms ground highly all right. However, a ball of dry clay is difficult and hard to interrupt by manus.

Clay dirt normally keeps H2O in within a wet contents in the scope of 10 to 50 % by weight. When H2O is withdrawn by drying, the clay will shrivel clefts and becomes really difficult. Firm clay is a good foundation stuff. The diggings in steadfast clay normally stand good and steep, but if the Bankss are excessively high or steep, still there is a opportunity of landslide occurs.

2.2.2 Foundation Factors

Foundation defects, about all the clip, will related to dirty motion apart from the stuff defects. Swallow foundation stableness simply depends on the support of the dirt, when the dirt moves, most foundation will travel together. Remission is a downward motion under applied burden. The motion of dirt may happen as unvarying motion where the dirts move as a sweeping, such motion may do out smaller defect as the edifice settle uniformly.

The cause of remission may be every bit straightforward as the hapless dirt bring arounding before any building commend. Normally foundation and land remission arise from the land instability and altering in dirt stress-state. Whereas motions due to a altering dirt stress-state may take to dirty volume alterations, cause by dewatering, flora jobs or alteration of lading to the foundations.

By and large remission will be classified as three types:

Slope or joust

Differential motion

Uniform colony Slope or lean

This type of motion can happen when the foundation is distorted due to the dirt motion or landslide at incline. The foundation and the full construction that it attached to it will lean, normally in a declivitous way. When leaning occur, it do non means that the foundation is non stiff plenty to back up the edifice, but when the dirts below been moved or rinse off, the foundation will travel as a unit with the dirt.

In these cases, a foundation that experiences tilt many times does non hold a batch of decorative hurt ( Sheetrock clefts, brick howitzer clefts, etc. ) or structural hurt ( slab clefts ) . However inordinate joust will do snap because of the imbalanced gravitative forces on the superstructure but will non be excessively serious as comparison to differential motion. Differential Movement or Settlement

The differential motion or colony means that the foundation moves more in one country than in another as a consequence of localized dirt colony. This is due to the foundation is non stiff plenty to get the better of the motion of the dirts.

Differential motion will make slab clefts, brick clefts, particularly at the door and window degree, as the gap country is the weakest portion of the wall. Unfortunately, this is the most common type of foundation motion in expansive clay dirts. Uniform colony

The definition of unvarying colony means that the foundation moves downward without leaning. This is the best colony as even the foundation is non stiff plenty to react, but it will non bring forth any tilting or clefts at the wall. However, inordinate unvarying colony may do to the failure of belowground piping or installations, which the edifice burden will damage shrieking underneath the edifice.

2.2.3 Remedial Work for Foundation Defect

When a edifice is confronting colony and snap, the lone method can be done is to beef uping the foundation. There are many types of redress method such as:

Traditional underpinning

Pynford stools method

Jacked pile underpinning

Needle and hemorrhoids

Root hemorrhoids

Underpining by mini-piles

Land injection

Underpining pad foundations or column bases by needle and hemorrhoids

Underpining floors

Among all of the fix method, merely one will be selected harmonizing to the demands and recommendation by the structural applied scientist. Underpinning may be necessary when the edifice is confronting uneven colony, in which the uneven burden of the edifice, unequal opposition of the dirt action of tree roots onslaughts or cohesive dirt colony. Increase in lading of the bing edifice besides may necessitate the foundation fix. This could be due to the add-on of an excess floor or an addition in imposed burdens such as that which may happen with a alteration of use to the edifice.

2.3Roof Defect


A roof is an topmost portion of a edifice which protects the edifice and residents against exposure to the conditions. Generally, a roof non merely protects chiefly against rain, it may besides protect against some clime factors such as cold, heat, sunshine and air current.

Flat roof is one type of covering of a edifice. It can be horizontal or about horizontal which in contrast to a somewhat slope signifier of horizontal surface to let H2O to run off into a trough system. It is rather hard to make study or review on a level roof unless there is an next edifice environment to let a position above the edifice.

A pitch roof is a roof made up of two angled pieces which meet in the center, with gables at either terminal. Both side of the pitch roof is by and large the same, although sometimes they possibly pitched at different angles for aesthetic grounds. ( S.E, Smith, 2003 )

Failure of roof can be in assortment grounds such as hapless building, hapless design and deficiency of care. Therefore, extended fix plants need to transport out to major failures.

2.3.1 Ponding

Roof ponding is cause by the inordinate accretion of rain H2O on a low-slope or level roof. On the other manus, it is cause by the hapless design of the roof incline.

Sometime, roof pools can take to the prostration of roof if cipher concerned about this job for a long clip. The inauspicious effects of roof pool included:

Distortion of roof deck

When H2O on the level root can non pull off to runs-off in clip, the denseness of H2O can do the roof deflect into a dish form which will keep more H2O and make a greater warp.

The greater the dead H2O the greater the warp on the roof. As the warps on roof addition, it can do harm to the structural of the deck.

Penetration of wet into roof system through the roof membrane

The efficiency of thermic insularity of a roof can be reduced as wet content penetrates into the roof membrane. In other manus, wet besides can do harm to the construction, contents and residents.

Turning of algae and Fungi

The growth of algae and Fungi will probably happen when dead H2O base for a long periods on roof and may do harm to the roof membrane. In add-on, the turning of algae and other dust could barricade the drain and do extra ponding on roof.

2.3.2 Saging

Roof sagging can be found in both old and new edifice, it can be seen from the outside of the roof. Saging in roof tends to be caused by the faulty design of the roof prances and wrong design of tittuping beams.

The connexion or bearing points of a putrefaction lumber roof frames can take to an imbalanced forced which it is being imposed on the back uping walls, drooping may probably happen as the roof transportation tonss.

2.3.3 Leaking

Roof leaks are the chief cause of roof harm which caused by the hapless design of the roof and utmost conditions ability. Day after twenty-four hours, roof leaks may weaken the roof construction every bit good as destroy the material inside the edifice.

One of the factors that lead to leaking is inappropriate inclining country of the roof surface. Water on level roof accumulates faster than it runs-off hence form stagnant of H2O. As dead H2O accumulates on roof surface in a period of clip, it may ensue in escape job.

Another cause of roof leaks is by the obstructions such as dust, leaves, moss and subdivisions. Penetration of H2O block by the obstructions, as the rainwater downpipe can non work decently and do leaking on roof.

2.3.4 Remedial Works for Roofing Defects

Roof Pond can be repair by put ining EPDM ( Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer ) Rubber Membrane. It is a high-density gum elastic, lasting, dependable and easy to put in. Roof pool can be avoided if EPDM Rubber Membrane installed right.

The redress work for drooping on roof is retracing the tittuping beam of roof. It is necessary to replace a new construction if the roof sagged really serious and the new construction must be able to back up the coatings.

It is really easy to mend an early phase roof leaks which is clear all the obstructions from the roof as it prevents easy flow of rain H2O. Besides, leaking can be repair by using a new roof coating ; it is frequently made after the roof damaged.

2.4 Wall Defect


A wall is one portion of the buildingaa‚¬a„?s structural system. The basic map of a wall is to protect the covered or otherwise conditioned interior infinites from environing environment. A wall should be able to command mass, energy and particulate flows such as H2O, air, fume, smell, heat, visible radiation, noise, fire into the edifice. A wall can besides move as dividers which separate the infinites in a edifice into suites.

Other than that, a wall unit must be able to defy and reassign tonss which imposed from suspended floors and/or roof. In other manus, a wall has to supply the maps such as support, control, distribution of services and aesthetic.

2.4.1 Rising Damp

Rising moistness in a edifice can be identified by a by and large horizontal although irregular form of moistness. This is normally associated with the stain of interior surfaces, which may lift to 600mm above land floor degree. If lifting moistness occurs, the DPC stuff may hold failed or have been inadequately jointed. Alternatively, the DPC may hold been bridged. This would let moistness to travel around the DPC upwards through the wall. ( H.John, C.Geoff, 1997 )

The cause of lifting moistness can be caused by the failure of associating between the DPC in the wall and DPM in the floor. The stuffs of DPC and DPM are different which normally have different feature. If the DPC is above the DPM, moistness may travel to another topographic point which behind the hedging board. If the DPC is below the DPM, moistness can travel through the floor and into the wall.

Dampness incursion through uneffective articulation between DPC and DPM ( Source: H.John, C.Geoff, 1997 )

2.4.2 Wall Cracking

Cracks occurred in most of the edifice. Wall snap can be in horizontal cleft, perpendicular cleft and diagonal cleft. Cracking of wall can be due to assortment grounds. Horizontal cleft normally occur in any articulations of the brickwork and can be found in at least several articulations or may be in every articulation. Vertical clefts are normally widest at the top, consecutive and bit by bit smaller to the bottom portion of the edifice whereas diagonal clefts are frequently being widest at the foundation and stop up at the corner of a edifice.

Typical snap in wall Ground motion

Colony of edifice classified into two types, unvarying colony and differential colony. When a edifice settee every bit as whole unit, less harm will be suffer by the edifice as the colony is about the same and less cleft cause. But if one side of the edifice settle more than the other side, these will do several clefts develop along the wall particularly at the opening country such as door and window, this is because gaps country are the weakest portion of the whole edifice.

Differential colony is caused by the motion of dirt underneath of the edifice which groundwater motion and rinse off the dirt below the foundation, which the foundation no longer able to back up the edifice due to the running sand, local quiver effects and excavation remission. Sulphate onslaught

Sulphate onslaught is a chemical reaction between the sulfate salts in the bricks and portland cement in the howitzer and H2O. The compound that is formed is called Ca sulphoaluminate which can do considerable enlargement, decomposition of howitzer articulations and deformation of brickwork. The first characteristic mark of sulphate onslaught is horizontal snap of bed articulation which will take to enlargement of the howitzer. Moisture motion

Moisture content of brickwork depends on whether the walls are internal or external. Bricks themselves vary in their ability to absorb wet, they may absorb adequate wet to do enlargement in which instance they would likely besides dry really fast and shrivel.

Excessive enlargement and contraction can bring forth shrinking clefts of the brickwork and plaster.

2.4.3 Remedial Works for Wall Defect

Damage by clefts in brickwall is normally non sufficient to impact the stableness of a structural. All right clefts are frequently ignored, nevertheless a wider clefts will by and large necessitate fix. It is recommended to cut out and rebond utilizing a howitzer similar to that in the bing clefts which passed through bricks or howitzer wall.

Harmonizing to H.J. Eldridge 1976, there is no easy solution since it is non readily possible to take any of the stuffs needed for sulphate onslaught to topographic point, Portland Cement, H2O or the sulfate. Removal of H2O is more likely and some relaxation of the rate of onslaught can be obtained by attending being given to the drainage of the surface H2O around the edifice. Otherwise it may necessitate bit-by-bit replacing of the foundations or underpinning.

2.5 Wall Finishes


Wall finished is the most outer bed of a wall. The map of wall coatings is to protect the brick wall inside and move as aesthetic of a edifice. The common wall coatings are painting, stick oning, rendering and tiling.

Defects of wall coatings can be caused by environmental factors, faulty design, building factors and structural factors. Environmental factor is cause by the enduring consequence such as air current, rain, and thermic rhythm and UV radiation. Furthermore, faulty design is cause by the specification of stuff such as tile, adhesive or render. A building factor is caused by the readying of stuff and equipment whereas structural factors included spalling, checking, shrinking and colony.

2.5.1 Blistering of Paint

Blister occurs on the surface of the upper bed of pigment offprints from the lower bed. It can be identified by little to medium size of bubbles signifiers and normally happened in internal and external wall.

The formed of blisters are caused by the wet in the wall. When wet penetrates into uncertain walls, H2O moves through the pigment from the wall into the internal room, therefore force per unit area separate the pigment from the wall.

On the other manus, inordinate humidness can take to vesicate or paint bubbles, either during application of pigment or after the pigment started to dry. Paint blister fill with H2O absorbed from the wet in the air. Even late applied pigment that has already dried can bubble from inordinate humidness. Poor airing contributes to the job. ( L. Philips, 1999 )

2.5.2 Paint Skining

Paint desquamation is the most common pigment job. Painting over a hapless pigment surface such as being dirty, moisture or shiny may take to skining of pigment. Therefore, before using a new coat onto both old and new edifice, dust and soil should take from the wall foremost.

In every edifice, hapless care or faulty of design may do rain H2O penetrate through the coating of the external wall and cause defect the brick wall. Water which penetrates through the coating will piece in between the picture and internal wall can do the paintwork or wallpaper to skin off. Water discharge piping should be imply to dispatch the rainwater and prevent it from penetrate through the wall.

2.5.3 Remedial Works for Wall Finishes

Paint blister is due to moisture in wall so it is necessary to take the H2O in wall. Besides, avoiding from direct sunshine when making painting work and do certain the pigment is wholly dry.

Skining of pigment can be repair by repainting. There are few stairss of repainting work:

Measure 1: Scrape off skining pigment with a pigment scraper.

Measure 2: Lightly sand down the staying pigment borders to give the country a smooth coating. Wipe off with a clean shred or tack fabric.

Measure 3: Use a coat of primer and let drying exhaustively.

Measure 4: Use the top coat coloring material. ( Hjohnj, 1999 )

2.6 Research Gaps

For this thesis, the research spread will be the assorted type of edifice defects faced by the high rise edifice. In order to obtain the defects information, instance survey will be carry out and study on a few occupant within the condominium. The research will so continue and place the possible cause of defects. Lastly recommendation and redress fix work will be determine and suggest in the decision.

By transporting out this research, apart from place the spreads, the research worker can larn more about the possible defects, every bit good as determine the root cause and remedial work. Therefore prevent the possibility of defects occur while act as a counsel for farther betterment in future.

2.7 Drumhead

As there were so many edifice defects occurred, it is necessary to happen out the possible defects that might impact to the structural ; survey into the possible causes therefore recommends suited remedial plants onto it. By reappraisal to the aims of the undertaking thesis, in this chapter, the research worker has studied few types of edifice defects, identified the possible causes of defects and recommends the possible solutions for the defects.

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