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According to Suleimen and Edil (2014), in Kazakhstan, there is no enough convenience in order to recycle waste and other used materials. Only one percent of waste is reprocessed and there is no any progress to improve this situation. The figure shows that quantity of waste is 1,000 for each of our 17 million residents. This is mainly because Kazakhstan is a very large country comparing with European country and there is no shortage of space. Another reason could be industrial waste – much of it toxic – is simply dumped or buried. Recent statistics show that more than 22 billion tons of waste have been accumulated in Kazakhstan. Annually, up to 400 million 3 tons of industrial waste are generated and up to 20 million meters of household waste.
Moreover, there is the absence of a culture to collect garbage and to throw trash to right place among the population of the country. (Saliqjanova, 2016). The main causes of littering are ignorance, laziness, people don’t realize the effects of littering and in other words, there is no any container for each recyclable product (e.g. paper, plastic, and glass) in the streets of Kazakhstan. Therefore, people continue to throw mixed household waste which takes time to separate them into certain material as well as it would be hard to send directly recycling enterprises. Growing of the world population have been affecting on waste problems meaning that new packaging and technological products are being developed, in fact, much of these products contain materials that are not biodegradable. For example, according to statistics, plastic bags take 10-1000 years to decompose, while plastic bottles can take 450 years or more. (LeBlanc, 2017).
In such cases, recycling is essential as waste has a huge negative impact on the natural environment. Firstly, poor waste management and recycling lead to increasing landfill waste and these landfill waste contain many hazardous, chemical substance. “Methane is a very potent greenhouse gas, up to 20 times more effective at trapping heat in the atmosphere than carbon dioxide,” according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (as cited Newton, 2017).
Therefore, methane emissions from landfill sites can potentially exacerbate climate change particularly global warming. Second effect of landfill waste is considered to be air and water pollution. According to Beisenova (2010), most part of Kazakhstan’s water supply has been polluted by industrial runoff and waste, for example, approximately 35-40 percent of Syr-Darya river is contaminated with industrial and communal wastewaters. Third effects of poor recycling and waste management detrimentally impact on biodiversity. The Romanian Ministry of Environment and Forests informs that the growing of a landfill site means the loss of approximately 30 to 300 species per hectare. (as cited Newton, 2017).Therefore, many species of animals such as mammals birds had decreased last recent years. In order to refute this situation, all of the country on the planet should take serious measures.
https://waste-management-world.com/a/kazakhstan-better-waste-management-infrastructure-regulations-needed In Kazakhstan, only one percent of waste is reprocessed and it is a figure which is scarcely rising.
http://vtorothodi.ru/utilizaciya/problema-bytovyx-otxodovhttp://carecnet.org/assets/images/1_28_Information booklets on municipal waste.pdf
Our country, in fact, has practically no facilities for processing recyclable material. Industrial waste – much of it toxic – is simply dumped or buried. The amount of waste is now equivalent to 1,000 tonnes for every one of our 17 million citizens.
https://www.thebalance.com/how-long-does-it-take-garbage-to-decompose-2878033 stsssThe Effects of Landfills on the Environment
By John Newton; Updated April 25, 2017