Pages 9 (2230 words)
Recruitment from the first phase at the same time, which continues with selection and stops with the positioning of the prospect. It is the next step in the procurement function the first being the manpower planning. So recruiting makes it possible to get the number and kinds of people. It is necessary to guarantee the continued operation of the organisations. So recruiting is the finding of possible applicants for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. So it is a connecting activity combining those with jobs, and those seeking tasks.
So recruitment has been considered the most important function of individual management, because unless the ideal type of people are employed even the very best plans and best control system would refrain from doing much great.
There are numerous elements which impacts the recruitment due to the fact that all the organisation whether large or small do take part in recruiting activity, through not to the exact same extant since organisations vary in the size organisation, employment conditions, impacts of previous recruiting efforts, working conditions and wages and perquisites, rate of growth, cultural, economic and legal factors.
So the key requirement documents should have a very good quality, so that it can attract the job seekers towards the job and it should provide all the information, which can peruse the target, the job seekers having the same skills, which is required by the organisation. A good recruitment document while providing prospective candidates with helpful information should also help to discourage applications from the people who don’t have the e required qualification for the job.
So it is the first impression document. The organisations, which I have, choose for my portfolio is Sainsbury’s. Sainsbury’s is UK’s leading supermarket. The key recruitment documents used by Sainsbury’s are:
- Key Recruitment Documents
- The key recruitment documents used by Sainsbury’s are:
- An application form
- The application form
A majority of the businesses, including Sainsbury’s, use an application form when recruiting staff, to find out about applicants by asking information in a structured way. The standardisation means that comparison between applicants is easier. The information needed in an application form is:
- Personal details e.g. name, address, age, etc.
- Education and qualifications
- Declaration of a criminal record
- Experience/employment history
- Other information e.g. reason of interest in job, why they applied for it
- Sainsbury’s also ask for details such as the times that can be worked, and whether they want a full time or part time job.
- CV-curriculum vitae
This is a structured way of listing a person’s achievements under suitable headings. A letter stating the job being applied for and giving relevant references should accompany the CV. A CV and letter of application is a way of an applicant to sell themselves to their employer in this case Sainsbury’s. It is usually the first contact with the employer and if it has no impact then there will be no interview and no job. A CV should contain necessary facts about the person, but not what they hope to do. A CV should be prepared on a computer; this can be done using a CV template available on some word-processing packages. A CV includes similar details to an application form; the only difference is that a CV would not be in a question answer form. Sainsbury’s usually do ask for a CV when a person is applying for a job.
RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION AT SAINSBURY’S
- Identifying future staffing needs and planning for a supply of appropriate labour is what the human resources plan is concerned with. This can be done within Sainsbury’s by using the existing staff more efficiently. This ma be done in a various number of ways including:
- Changing job roles e.g. one person could carry out two jobs at one given time, or switch jobs so they are not always doing the same job.
- Retraining staff e.g. staff could be taught new ways of working and to use new technology.
- Introducing flexible working practices e.g. annualized hours
- When there is not sufficient staff to carry out effective production within Sainsbury’s, decisions are made to recruit new employees.
- Recruitment requires careful planning, because it is an expensive process.
- The whole recruitment process can be summed up in a simple diagram shown below:
- Diagram to show the Recruitment Process at Sainsbury’s
The Recruitment Process
- The human resources department and the managers of the section requiring staff at Sainsbury’s carry out the recruitment and selection process. The stages of the recruitment process, shown in the diagram, are explained below.
- There can be vacancies at Sainsbury’s due to:
- Staff leaving Sainsbury’s through retirement, or resignation-because they may have found a new job or they want to do something different.
- Staff have been dismissed
- Staff have been promoted to a higher post so their old post becomes vacant
- Due to Sainsbury’s expanding, additional staff may be needed
- Job roles may be changing e.g. jobs may be redefined
- The finance department which has to make sure that Sainsbury’s can afford to employ new staff
This is the first stage for recruiting an employee. The managers of Sainsbury’s may gather information by questioning the job holder (who will be retiring or resigning) or observing the jobholder at work. The information gathered is carefully recorded and analysed. Further information might be obtained through discussions with the job holder’s manager or supervisor. The job analyst compiles a description of the main responsibilities of the job by asking:
- What are the main tasks of the job and how often do they need to be completed
- Are any specialist technological skills required to do the job?
- What mental processes are required to do the job?
- Is the job holder required to take decisions and use initiative?
- What are the limits of the job holder’s authority?
- Is the output from the job a part or a whole?
- Does the job holder have to work with others, or control the work of others?
- What are the required performance standards and how are they measured?
When the job analyst has gathered all the information from the job analysis then he/she can put it into a summary report setting out what the job entails. This summary report is usually known as a job description. It contains two types of information: it describes the tasks of the job and it describes the behaviour necessary to actually do these tasks satisfactorily.
- A job description usually consists of:
- General information
- Job title
- Position within the business
- Job summary
- Job content information
- Tasks involved
- Purpose of tasks
- Methods involved
- Other duties
- Working conditions
- Physical environment
- Social environment
- Economic environment
- Performance information
- Criteria for measuring performance
- The job description has several users:
- It can help Sainsbury’s tell candidates for a job what is expected of them
- It helps personnel officers decide on the qualities the successful candidates must have
- Once a candidate has been appointed, it can be used to gauge whether an employee is doing his/her job properly
- Disputes about what work an employee has to do can also be settled by reference to the job description.
- The job description allows the person interested know what is expected from him/her and allows the person to know whether he/she fits the criteria.
Sometimes known as a personnel profile – the person specification describes all of the attributes and skills required to do the job in hand to the satisfactory standards. For example, in Sainsbury’s’ mission to require a part-time sales assistant, the HRM would need to specify clearly in the person specification whether or not the employee had to have special ICT qualifications in order to work a till. Sainsbury’s would specify this sort of information in one of six categories shown in the person specification – as known as the six-point plan. Basically the six-point plan is listing the requirements under broad heading:
- Physical make-up. What should the jobholder look and sound like
- Achievements. What education, qualifications or work experience should the applicant have?
- Specific skills. What special skills and talents do the applicants need?
- Interests. What kind of hobbies or past-times should be required of the applicant?
- Personality. What motivation and temperament and attitude should the applicant have?
- Personal circumstances. What personal and domestic arrangements might the ideal person have?
Job advertisements form an important part of the recruitment process. Sainsbury’s is able to communicate job vacancies to a selected audience by this means. Most job adverts are written (or at least checked) by the personnel department, task involving the same skill as marketing a product. Adverts must reach those people who have the qualities to fill the vacancy.
- The nature of the advert will depend on the following:
- Who the target audience is – potential managing director, supervisor, operatives etc
- Where the advert will be placed – on a notice board within the workplace, in the Financial Times, at the local job centre etc
- Job advertisements therefore take many forms, according to current requirements. Good adverts contain at least the following information:
- Job title. This should form the main heading, possibly in bold print.
- Job description. This should highlight the major requirements of the job in a concise format.
- Organisational activities and marketplace. There should be a brief description of the environment in which the organisation operates.
- Location. Applicants need to know the location of the organisation and the location of the job (which may be different).
- Salary expectation. Figures are not always necessary, but an indication of the salary level should always be given.
- Address and contact. This should appear, with a telephone number if appropriate.
- Qualifications. Certain jobs require a minimum entrance qualification, which should be clearly stated.
- Experience. This should be quantified, as it will have a bearing on the expected salary level.
- Fringe benefits. The advertiser may wish to mention a company car, a health insurance scheme and so on.
- Organisational identity. This may be in the form of a logo (or simply the name of the organisation).
- A good job advert, while providing prospective candidates with helpful information, also helps to discourage applications from people who do not have the required qualifications for the job.
- The presentation of the advert is very important as it gives prospective employees a first impression of the organisation.
- When drafting adverts, the Sainsbury’s also need to respect the law related to employment and recruitment. They are:
- Equal Pay Act 1970 (1994)
- Sex Discrimination Act 1975 & 1986
- Disabled Persons Act 1944
- Race relations Act 1976
Sainsbury’s might already have people within the company, who have the right skills to do the job needed, especially if their training and development programme has been effective. Where this is the case, Sainsbury’s might appoint someone for the job internally, but this means that a post elsewhere may become vacant. Vacancies are advertised internally by putting advertisements on notice boards, and in company newsletters, bulletins and newspapers. These advertisements can also be used to promote Sainsbury’s as a whole. There are disadvantages and advantages to appointing internally. The advantages are that it is cheap, fast, and problems with training and induction can be avoided. Sainsbury’s will also know the person appointed. The disadvantages are that existing staff might think that they have an automatic right to promotion. Also Sainsbury’s is preventing the incoming of new ideas and skills that could be brought in from outside, meaning that they would become resistant to change.
Most of the time it is necessary to appoint staff externally, and some companies are obliged to advertise all vacant posts externally. Therefore the recruitment and selection process must be carefully planned, so they have the right people applying for the jobs. The process of external appointing can be very expensive and can take up valuable time as the following steps have to be taken, advertising, despatching application forms, checking returned forms, shortlisting and interviewing, which is often done by senior staff.
There are many ways of looking for staff outside Sainsbury’s:
- Through job centres, which is a free service
- Employment agencies sell a service of finding people jobs
- Educational establishments e.g. schools and colleges
- Management recruitment consultants used to recruit senior management
- Executive search consultants are employed to recruit senior staff directly
- Advertising in the media is the common way of attracting staff.
- The advertisement should:
- Attract attention and arouse interest among the right people
- State what is being offered-at least in general terms
- State what is required by the employer-such as experience, qualifications, ability
- State what the next step is-how the candidate applies
- Applying for the job, The steps in selection Process
- Before calling applicants for interview, Sainsbury’s will draw a shortlist of applicants whom they think that they are suitable for Sainsbury’s by looking at their application forms and CV.
Many people would have applied for a particular job, but not all of these may be suitable for the job, so interviewing them all would be a waste of time. Shortlisting is selecting a smaller group from the long list of applicants by working through it. From this small group the final candidate will be chosen. Shortlisting starts with items from the person specification being used as selection criteria. Each method of application will be checked against these. The judging should be based only upon the written application whether the applicant is known to the organisation or not.