Reasons for the failure of Germany in World War II
Reasons for the failure of Germany in World War II
Backing to the year 1933, National Socialist Adolf Hitler became the leader of Germany and began a massive rearming campaign. This worried France and the United Kingdom, who had lost much in the previous war, as well as Italy, which saw its territorial ambitions threatened by those of Germany. Hitler was convinced that fate had chosen him to rescue a humiliated nation from the shackles of the Versailles Treaty, from Bolsheviks and Jews. Thus he wanted to wage war in order to recover Germany. Eventually, in 1939 with the German invasion of Poland, the World War II’s European battleground began. On September 1st 1939, German armies invaded Poland and henceforth Hitler’s main energies were devoted to the conduct of a war he had unleashed to dominate Europe and secure Germany’s “living space”. The first phase of World War II was dominated by German Blitzkrieg tactics: sudden shock attacks against airfields, communications, military installations, using fast mobile armor and infantry to follow up on the first wave of bomber and fighter aircraft.
Poland was overrun in less than one month, Denmark and Norway in two months, Holland, Belgium, Luxemburg and France in six weeks. After the fall of France in June 1940 only Great Britain stood firm. Just as what he had prophesied at the end of January 1939, that “if the international financial Jewry within and outside Europe should succeed once more in dragging the nations into a war, the result will be, not the Bolshevization of the world and thereby the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe”.(Evans, R. J., 2005 ). For many points to the reparation payments that Germans had to pay after the first world war as the cause of this downturn. Both through envy and despise, he and many other Germans began to scapegoat the Jews as the cause of all their suffering. Jews were slaughtered during the World War II by German armies. Exactly as the film “Schindler’s List” (1993) directed by Steven Spielberg showed that the figure for the number of Jews who were killed in the Holocaust is about 5.7 million to 6.0 million.
However, it was still the same country which was always be regarded as the strong during the whole process of World War II, Germany was one of the vanquished countries of WWII. It was concluded from the army strength and the historical evidence of the condition of the WWII that although Germany was powerful during the World War II, Germany was defeated by its vanity, without people’s support and Hitler’s dictatorship. According to Lowe, K (2012), by Ian Locke’s examining the British attainment of German industry. Although German economic was better than any other European countries at that time, German was still not enough powerful to wage the war. The advanced science and technology might help Germany equip its army well. Which leads to most of the German tanks and other weapons were way ahead of anything their opponents had to offer.
Their tanks were faster, better armored and had a longer range than anything the allies had available. However, after America joined the war and supplied the British and Russians with armaments, the flood gates were opened and the battlefields were swamped by technically inferior but numerically superior weapons. Once overview the domestic ground condition of Germany in 1945. It was obviously that Germany made too many enemies. Germany during World War II, focusing particularly on the evidence gathered from archival sources at the Russian Federation’s Foreign Ministry Historical Documents Department. On April 27, 1945, the Soviet 70th Army of the 2nd Byelorussian Front under the management of Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky held the town of Prenzlau as part of the Soviet process to take Berlin, Germany.
The reason to this tragic historical event is that Germany had not been fully focused on the defense for the camp. Meanwhile, Germany was also fighting against Great Britain. (Zaleeva, A. A., 2010) During the World War II, it was the period that airpower was the element of crucial importance. Losing airpower usually means losing the victory. Based on the record of the history by Harvey, A. D(2012). German Luftwaffe battled against the British Royal Air Force during the Air Battle of Britain in 1940. The Luftwaffe failed to properly identify their numerical advantages over the RAF within their missions. Including Nazi military leader Hermann Göring, German Messerschmitt Bf109 military fighter planes, and U.S. Army Air Force Lieutenant James Doolittle. After the losses of the Air Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe never fully recovered. By 1944, they had lost control of the skies over most of Europe and were subject to 24hour bombing.
It was because lack of airpower meant lack of photo reconnaissance, so the German high commands were making decisions without proper intelligence. Since losing the resource gates in the previous battle and having blind confidence about the airpower itself. The air warfare strategies used for bomber and fighter aircraft during both events. It was because German looked down upon the Royal Air Force, leading to the lack of airpower so that lacking of photo reconnaissance. Eventually it resulted in German failure of WWII. Moving to the reason why Nazi government could not gain people’s support. From the career of Albert Speer, principal architect of the Nazi regime, who played the role in the atrocities committed by Germany in World War II. Among his major responsibilities was the procurement of manpower to keep the Nazi factories in operation which played an important role in the organization of the Nazi forced-labor programs. Since labors were forced to work, they were not willing to do it, so German domestic residents were not support the war.
They were working without their own willingness. In this case, not even to mention to gain any support from allies. Only the country who had the same objective by waging the war made friendship with Germany, most of other countries were standing against Germany, it also indicate that only through following people’s heart, can they lead a strong army. And Germany made too many enemies all over the world was another reason for its failure. (Forsgren, R. 2012) Last but seems to be the most general one is the system of organization. Looking back to Adolf Hitler’s biography, Strategy used by him to strengthen the violence on the roads; Purpose of the government for not legally banning communists; Connection between social democrats and communists; Reason behind the firing of judges, state prosecutors and judicial officials in Germany. Diplomatically, his style of leadership involved him personally taking all the major decisions, with little delegation.
Under the circumstances, his dictatorship dominated Germany. Leading to a dictatorial government in which one person has absolute power, often backed by the military, over the entire country and its people. What is more, he removed certain rights from people, most of the time trespassed certain human rights.(Zaleeva, A. A. 2010) The mental state of general Germans at that time was blind and lack of personal thinking. The way they followed was the responsibility which was given by their nation, no matter it was right or not. Under this situation, the wrong war was waged. It could be concluded from the personal diary of August Töpperwien, a German Protestant, who was not a Nazi and however maintained a loyal nationalism to the end. In so doing, it probes the troubled morality of someone whose conflicting senses of personal duty and political obligation found their vent in pages of silent self-reflection, and so reveal with an unusual simplicity of the underlying frames of moral reference, which so often remain implicit and argued in the short-hand and rational of other diaries and family letters, let alone macro-level surveys of widely held attitude.
From his personal feeling, the responsibility that led to Germany’s failure is that German’s soldiers wrongly regarded the support for the Nazi regime and for the war were the same thing then overrated their power to against the rest of the world. (Stargardt, N. 2010). World War II is the largest war in human’s history, which causes the most losses, either the number of casualties or economic losses, and brings human being disasters. It lasted for 6 years, more than 60 countries or regions took part in the war. The immediate cause of the outbreak of World War II is fascist regime, the rapid rise. Fascist rulers head of Germany, Italy, Japan in order to achieve the re-divide the world and expand their areas attempted to cause the War. With Germany was defeated in North Africa and Stalingrad. In 1943, with a series of German defeats in Eastern Europe, the Allied invasion of Fascist Italy, and American victories in the Pacific, the Axis lost the initiative and undertook strategic retreat on all fronts.
In 1944, the Western Allies invaded France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. In April 1945, the Soviet Union occupied Berlin as Hitler committed suicide. Germany surrendered unconditionally on May 7th, 1945. The war in Europe ended. Later 1945, World War II was completely ended with Japan’s unconditional surrender. Fortunately, this costed more than six years’ war eventually ended with the victory of the world anti-fascist alliance. Looking back to the history, by summing up the reasons why the result was occurred, it is reasonable that Germany would fail in this war obviously.
Under Hitler’s dictatorial domination and the excitation with their early victory, Germany became more and more arrogant. Regarding they could achieve whatever they wanted to come true. Dreaming to dominate the other nations all over the world even without their domestic support. History was correct, it chose the victory deserved to win. Peaceful Americans, grieved British, tough and tensile Soviet and Chinese made great contribution to international public. No matter how it was negative at the beginning of the war, they never gave up. By taking up the vital point of Germany, international public finally made the gorgeous reversal come true. How foolish that German looked down upon such opponents! Although Germany was powerful during the World War II, Germany was defeated by its vanity, without people’s support and Hitler’s dictatorship eventually.
1. Evans, R. J. (2005). Hitler’s Dictatorship. (Cover story). History Review, (51), 20-25. 2. Forsgren, R. (2012). The Architecture of Evil. New Atlantis: A Journal Of Technology & Society, 3644-62. 3. Harvey, A. D. (2012). The Battle of Britain, in 1940 and “Big Week,” in 1944: A Comparative Perspective. Air Power History, 59(1), 34-45. 4. Lowe, K. (2012). From the Archive. History Today, 62(2), 72. 5. Steven, S. (1993). Schindler’s List
6. Stargardt, N. (2010). The Troubled Patriot: German Innerlichkeit in World War II*. German History, 28(3), 326-342. 7. Zaleeva, A. A. (2010). Freeing Belgian Generals from the Prenzlau Nazi POW Camp. International Affairs: A Russian Journal Of World Politics, Diplomacy & International Relations, 56(4), 242-246.
Subject: World War II,
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 21 November 2016
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