Reading theories Of the two approaches mentioned in reading research and literature, the bottom-up approach focuses on language elements such as grammar, vocabulary and cohesion, while the top-down approach includes a focus on background knowledge about content and organization, generally referred to as content and formal schemata respectively. A combination of these two approaches is generally known as the Interactive Model of Reading. The pedagogy in this study was based on the Schema Interactive Model of Reading (Simonsen and Singer, 1992).
7 able 1: Approaches and strategies Approaches Top Down Strategies # Generating questions from title Skimming questions Bottom Up for content, based generated# Skimming # on for writer’s thesis # Guessing meanings of words from context (vocabulary) use of modals, tenses Schema discourse) Interactive (text as # Concepts of cohesion and coherence and connections between paragraphs Text purpose and purpose at paragraph level # the # Understanding how language functions in context. E. g. Metaphorical models of reading Specific models of reading.
Bottom-up models Top-down models Interactive models Interactive compensatory model( nature inner knowledge) if there’s lack u should compensate it Word recognition model Simple view of reading model Dual coding model (2languages) Psycholinguistic guessing game: activate prior knowledge .. student is giving an aim for reading Reading strategies : . specifying a purpose for reading ? Planning what to do and what steps to take ? Previewing the text ? Predicting the contentes of the text or section of text ? Reflecting on what has been learned from the text ? Checking prdictions ?
Posing questions about the text ? Finding answers to posed questions ? Connecting test to background knowledge ? Summarizing infor ? Makin interferances ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Connecting one part of the text to another Paying attention to text structure Rereading Guessing the meaning of new word from the context Using discourse makers to see relationships Checking comprehension Identifying difficulties Taking steps to reapir faulty comprehension Critiquing the author Critiquing the text Judging how well purposes for reading were met (where you reached the aim of reading or not )
Reading is not decoding but building concepts Read is to acquire lge in order to know special notes In order to write u need positions + definitions Learning can happen without reading There is implicit relationship betwwen l1 and l2 It is natural to use L1 in L2 reading.. L1 IS The basis of L1 To accomplish this goal, instructors focus on the process of reading rather than on its product. ? ? ? They develop students’ awareness of the reading process and reading strategies by asking students to think and talk about how they read in their native language.
They allow students to practice the full repertoire of reading strategies by using authentic reading tasks. They encourage students to read to learn (and have an authentic purpose for reading) by giving students some choice of reading material. When working with reading tasks in class, they show students the strategies that will work best for the reading purpose and the type of text. They explain how and why students should use the strategies. ? ? ? ? They have students practice reading strategies in class and ask them to practice outside of class in their reading assignments.
They encourage students to be conscious of what they’re doing while they complete reading assignments. They encourage students to evaluate their comprehension and selfreport their use of strategies. They build comprehension checks into in-class and out-of-class reading assignments, and periodically review how and when to use particular strategies. They encourage the development of reading skills and the use of reading strategies by using the target language to convey instructions and course-related information in written form: office hours, homework assignments, test content.
They do not assume that students will transfer strategy use from one task to another. They explicitly mention how a particular strategy can be used in a different type of reading task or with another skill. By raising students’ awareness of reading as a skill that requires active engagement, and by explicitly teaching reading strategies, instructors help their students develop both the ability and the confidence to handle communication situations they may encounter beyond the classroom.
In this way they give their students the foundation for communicative competence in the new language. ‘ SLA: Second-language acquisition or second-language learning is the process by which people learn a second language. Second-language acquisition (often abbreviated to SLA) also refers to the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. Second language refers to any language learned in addition to a person’s first language; although the concept is named second-language  acquisition, it can also incorporate the learning of third, fourth, or subsequent languages.
Secondlanguage acquisition refers to what learners do; it does not refer to practices in language teaching. The academic discipline of second-language acquisition is a subdiscipline of applied linguistics. It is broad-based and relatively new. As well as the various branches of linguistics, second-language acquisition is also closely related to psychology, cognitive psychology, and education Is to acquire lg without effort : classroom/real life.. in natural way L2 reading is a reading problem.
is not letter decoding…when you read l2 text you activate your prior knowledge …l2 readers who are able to turn a txt into paragraph are better reader==) read faster/remember more There is no reading without : -phonological representation /guess meaning/ prior knwldge Implicit knowledge That we learn unconsciously Automatic knowledge The explcit will turn into implicit Output: what u speak input: what u read learn Explicit knowledge we can verbelize.
Subject: Second language,
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 17 October 2016
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