Reading Aloud Essay
1. 0 Introduction More than half of our lives today concern about reading ability. Through reading people are being introduce to values and knowledge. People usually read to get a job, as a hobby or to fulfill their dream. Reading always intertwine with literacy and the experiences that one felt via reading often different with each other. Different people have different understanding on text read. Reading materials can be magazines, newspapers, books, research articles, journals and other written form of texts.
As long as people can write there will be always a text to read. Moreover, one academic skill that is especially important for school success is reading proficiency (Bernhardt, 2005). For children to succeed academically it is essential that they develop the foundational reading skills that will allow them to obtain knowledge fluidly through text and increased opportunities for learning (Joseph, 2006). Thus, reading proficiency is a fundamental skill which will help students to engage with new input or knowledge.
However not all proficient readers have the ability to read fluently. According to Hudson (2009), reading proficiency constitutes of reading for fluency and reading for comprehension: reading for fluency deals with the accurate reading behavior which deals with reading with correct pronunciation. Whereas reading for comprehension deals with reading for understanding a text. Reading fluency is the most important component in reading skills and the numbers of students who can acquire a good reading fluency is not great (Schatschneider, 2006).
Most curriculum in schools assumes that all students are literate and they can accumulate knowledge via reading (Rasinski & Hoffman, 2003). However not all readers can read a passage fluently even though they can comprehend the passage well (Baker, Smolkowski, Katz, Fien, Seeley, Kame’enui, et al. , 2008). Hence, for years reading fluency was the forgotten stepchild of the reading curriculum because teachers and reading scholars were more interested in moving students as quickly as possible into silent reading, not the level of expressiveness in oral reading (Rasinski et al., 2008).
Profoundly according to Elena Lilles et al. (2008) if students struggle with reading fluency, they will consequently struggle with other academic areas. Serious reading fluency problems in school limits success in most academic tasks and promote academic exclusion from intellectually rewarding and challenging educational opportunities (Entwisle, Alexander & Olson, 2004). Ellen, Ramp, Anderson & Martin, (2007) ask if students capable of comprehending a passage, will they also capable to read the same passage with correct pronunciation?
They also explain that if the students can achieve a good level in comprehending a text in English, it does not guarantee that the students can acquire an efficient level in oral reading. As a consequence, students will face problems in using English language orally as medium of communicative language in society. However, students who are struggling to read can be helped through monitoring their oral reading fluency through a suitable reading approach (Schatschneider, 2006). Daly III, Chafouleas & Skinner, (2005) has come out with several reading approach.
There are 1)reading aloud, where the students need to read aloud a passage given several time before being evaluate by teachers, 2) phrase drill error correction, where the error words are being repeated until the students acquire the phonic sound, 3) performance feedback, where the students need to give feedback on passage that they have read. 4) Listening while reading, where the students need to read the passage aloud in the class and the students who are listening will learn how to pronounce certain words.
5) Folding in flashcard instruction, where the students learn to pronounce a word through flash cards. In conclusion, students should be able to acquire reading proficiency both in fluency and comprehending a reading text. The consequences of lack in reading proficiency could affect their academic performance. As solution reading habits should be implement in school. Students should practice reading in order to prevent them from being a struggle readers. Students who can comprehend a reading text does not mean that they can read the text fluently with correct pronunciation.
Reading problem especially in reading fluency can be improved through appropriate intervention which seem to be suitable with the students. Thus, students’ weaknesses in reading a text should be identified in order to enhance their reading proficiency especially in reading fluency 1. 1 Background of the study Malaysia is characterised by a multilingual society where its population is made up of people who come from various ethnic and linguistic backgrounds (Harison, 2010). Thus, Malaysia has different kind of races that use different kind of languages.
Malay students will use Malay language to communicate, the Indian students will use Tamil language and the Chinese students will use Mandarin language. Most of the time they will read books that related to their languages because of the need to enhance their reading on their mother tongue (Abdul Rashid, Chew & Muhammad Kamarul, 2006). Hence, due to this matter, reading in English might being neglected or being less focused in school. When teacher conducting an oral test to our students, the interference of their mother tongue occurs and that made our students become a struggle reader (Siti Norliana, Roszainora & Muthusamy, 2009).
Most of the reading activities in Malaysian Secondary Schools focus on understanding a comprehension text which later the knowledge that they comprehend will be used to answer the questions given (KBSM, 2001). Therefore, secondary students reading skills was not optimally being explored. Teachers will ask several students to read aloud and most of the time will be silent reading. Indeed, the students only built their knowledge but they cannot read fluently which most of them having problem related to reading fluency (Siti Norliana, Roszainora & Muthusamy, 2009).
In order to find a solution for the reading problem related to reading fluency, a precise study on how can we help our Malaysian secondary students become a fluent reader is important to carry out. Reading fluency like has been mention above focused on students’ speed of accurate reading (Hudson et al. , 2005). Thus, this research focused on how we can help struggle readers to enhance their reading fluency. This study used reading aloud approach where the students need to read passage given orally. Reading passages were chosen from the Malaysian secondary English Textbook as the reading materials.
CBM was used to measure the accurate reading or the percentages of correct word read during the reading sessions. Accurate reading focuses on 1) words pronounce correctly, 2) words read incorrectly which consist errors of mispronunciations, substitutions, and omissions, 3) three second rule which the words will be counted as an error when the teacher help the students to pronounce it after they hesitate in pronouncing the words for three seconds. Exactly as the guidelines provided by Daly III, Chafouleas & Skinner, (2005, p. 78).
Thus, the result of this research sought to reveal on how far the reading will aloud approach can improve Malaysian secondary students reading fluency. 1. 2 Problem statement Models of World Englishes has been coined by Professor Braj B. Kachru on 1985 (Phillipson, 2008). This model explains how English widely spread and used worldwide. According to Kachru, B. B. , Kachru, Y. , & Nelson, C. L. , (2006), there are three circle models which can classify English as native language (ENL), English as a second language (ESL), and English as foreign language (EFL).
The three circles model are: The current sociolinguistic profile of English may be viewed in terms of three concentric circles . . . The inner Circle refers to traditional cultural and linguistic bases of English. The Outer Circle represents the institutionalised non- native varieties (ESL) in regions that have passed through extended periods of colonization . . . The Expanding Circle includes the regions where the performance varieties of the languages are used essentially in EFL contexts. (Kachru, B. B. , Kachru, Y. , & Nelson, C. L. , 2006).
Concisely, this model explains about three circles which roughly classify three different English learners worldwide. 1) The Inner Circle houses countries, like the United States, United Kingdom, Australia and so on, where English is traditionally the primary or native language (English as Native Language). 2) The Outer Circle comprises countries where English has a long history of institutionalized functions, usually owing to a colonial past, and is used intra-nationally among fellow citizens who are usually bilingual (English as Second Language).
Finally, 3) The Expanding Circle consists of countries in which English has no special status, but may be taught as a foreign language (English as Foreign Language) (Rajadurai, 2010). Applied to Malaysia, our country has traditionally been assigned Outer Circle status due to the British colonization. (David & Govindasamy 2003). Rajah stated that the independence of Malaya in 1957, however, saw a continuing change in attitude towards the English language, in favor of the Malay language. English continued to be a dominant language.
(as cited in Lee Su Kim, Lee King Siong, Wong & Azizah, 2010). Competence in English had become a crucial partition in Malaysian society after the independence, carving out for itself a role in the economical areas, in education and placing the society status or standard among Malaysian. (Lee Su Kim, Lee King Siong, Wong & Azizah, 2010). In the Malaysian school context, where English is officially stated and taught as a second language, learning English as a second language (ESL) in class always poses many language and cultural obstacles (Melor et al,.2012).
Thus, there is a widespread concern among educators about students who not having the ability to read or students who is struggling to read in English (Zulhilmi, 2005). In News Straits Times newspaper dated on 12th February 2006 reported a survey conducted by the National Union of the Teaching Profession (NUTP) on students’ ability to read in English among secondary schools students in Malaysia. From the 70 secondary schools population of 73,858 students were analyzed, and from the analysis there are 34,890 students who could not read in English.
What is more shocking is that some of these students are in Form five and having had eleven years of schooling and learning English as a second language yet they failed to achieve the basic skills of reading in English. Thus, students’ reading ability in second language need to be developed so that they can become fluent readers. (Noorliza, 2006). In order for students to succeed in reading fluently the teacher need to focus on enhancing their reading fluency (Baker, 2008). Baker also claimed that acquiring fluency in reading can also be considered important because it is also a part of developing reading ability.
One of the ways to help students in enhancing their reading fluency is through reading aloud approach. (Hale et al. , 2007). Thus, this research will show the insight of struggling readers enhancing their reading fluency through reading aloud approach. 1. 3 Rationale of the study Several models of reading development suggest that reading fluency is a one of the most important components of effective reading ( Kuhn & Stahl, 2003). Normally, students who are struggling to read will take longer time to develop their reading fluency.
Due to this subject matter using reading aloud strategy seem to be an effective and convenient way to help our struggling readers. (Compton, Fuchs, D. , Fuchs, L. S. , & Bryant, 2006) Rasinski &Padak (2008) claims that reading aloud approach should be an instructional routine in all classrooms, including those for student who experience difficulty in reading. Another advantage of reading aloud, especially for those who find reading difficult, is that it familiarizes students with the style and form of written language. It also provides students with a model of what fluent reading should sound like. (Goering & Baker, 2010).
Furthermore, Nurazila et al. , (2011) claim that the use of reading aloud approach is less being attempt to be studied by our Malaysian researchers. Indeed, they also stated that this reading approach strengths and weaknesses still need to be investigate deeper. So, the rationales of this study open up the chance to enhance students reading fluency using reading aloud approach. 1. 4 The Purpose and Objective of the study. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reading fluency development of our secondary school students using reading aloud approach. Henceforth, the objectives of this study are: 1.
To identify whether reading aloud approach can improve students reading fluency or not 2. To identify whether reading aloud approach has a positive influence on the subjects’ percentages of correct words read during the treatment was given. 3. To identify students common errors in their reading session. 1. 5 Research questions Thus, research questions of this study will be: 1. To what extent does reading aloud approach improve students’ reading fluency? 2. To what extent does reading aloud approach influences the subjects’ percentages of correct words read in each reading sessions during the treatment was given?
3. To what extent does students make errors in their reading sessions? 1. 6 Significance of the study 1. 6. 1. Society level At the society level, this study can help in developing number of peoples who can use English as a second language fluently which can cater jobs requirement as English is being used as second language in Malaysia. This study will also help the new generation equip with proper level English proficiency that can help them face the globalization era which English is widely being used as universal language. 1. 6. 2. School level.
This study will help school to improve their students reading abilities in order to gain better result in major examination in English subject. It is also will give an idea on how to save struggle readers in the schools. 1. 6. 3. Teacher At the pedagogical level, this study can assist the teachers in solving problems in reading fluency among the students. Students who are struggling readers could be helped through the approach used in this research which later could help teachers to easily conduct the lesson of the day without facing any problem in teaching and learning session. 1. 6. 4. Students.
This research might help the student in enhancing their reading proficiency. Students not only competent in reading to gain comprehension and knowledge but also can convey the knowledge fluently through oral reading using accurate pronunciation, intonation and reading rate. 1. 7 Limitation of the study 1. 7. 1. Time limitation In order to carry out this research, a consistent time management should be taken care of. This study has to be conducted 4 times a week, for 5 weeks. So, a proper supervision of time is needed. However, in school the periodic timetable given and the school’s programs will interrupt the suggested period of the research.
1. 8 Definition of terms 1. 9. 1 Reading fluency Reading fluency is often defined as “the ability to read rapidly with ease and accuracy and to read with appropriate expression and phrasing. (Grabe, 2008). In this study, reading fluency refers to accurately read the words in one minute without making errors in the reading sessions. 1. 9. 2. 1 Accurate reading. According to Fletcher, Francis, Morris & Lyon (2005) accurate reading is the ability to recognize word, how to sound a words which involve the process of pronouncing words correctly with the correct pronunciation.
In this research, accurate reading refers to reading a passage accurately without making errors in reading. The errors consist of mispronunciation, substitutions and omission, and three second rules which the words will be counted as an error when the teacher help the students to pronounce it after they hesitate in pronouncing the words for three seconds. 1. 9. 2 Reading aloud approach Rasinski (2003) defined reading aloud as a process of sounding the words in written forms loudly with appropriate facial expression, rhythm and use the correct punctuation marks in the texts read.
In this study reading aloud means students need to read passage given orally in front of teacher. Teacher will assist the students through monitoring the students’ reading. Students will be given chances to read the passages repeatedly before the students’ progress in reading were taken. 1. 9. 3 Curriculum Based Measurement Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is a standardize format for assessing reading fluency in one minute time. (Daly III, Chafouleas & Skinner, 2005). In this study, CBM refers to students reading progress in one minute.
CBM will show the level of students’ reading fluency gain through reading treatment given for the students. 1. 9. 4 Struggling readers Struggling readers refers to students who fail to recognize words, fail to comprehend various types of text, have little motivation to read and spend less time in reading. (Chard, Vaughn & Tyler, 2002). In this research struggling readers refers to students who fail to pronounce a word with correct intonation using appropriate reading speed and students who can comprehend the texts but having difficulties in sounding the words in a text.
Subject: French language,
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 15 October 2016
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