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Ans:There is a homeowner who engages him in violet struggle then dies because of heart
attack.The cause of death is severe coronary atherosclerosis and mechanism of death is cardiac
arrhythemia but manner of death is homicide in such a way arrhythemia occur as result of
precipitation by struggle.while some individual will rule case a homicide even if there is no
physical struggle, only just sufficient psychological stress to have precipitated the arrhythemia
and ultimately death.This is very controversial.
Ans:If body is charred to such extent that all facial structure are multilated and no fingerprint is
obtained then other identification method can be used.Dental identification is commonly
used.For this purpose dental chart should be make and X-Ray of the jaw can be obtained.
can be compare with dental X ray and chart of individual who is believe to be deceassed.In
fact,positive identification can be madeusing only one tooth.So dental identification is just as
reliable as fingerprints.If identification cannot be made by fingerprints or dental record then
identification based on personal characteristics like scars,tattoos and absence of organ can be
Ans:This situation occur in death due to drug overdose.
If an individual dies as result of overdose
of central nervoud system depressant drug.Individual has long history of overmedicating but at
same time also has long history of attempting suicide.Sometime it is posssible to differentiate
on the basis of drug metabolites but sometime it is not possible to expain manner of daeth.In
some instance,based on circumstances surrounding a death,a rulling as to made manner of
death without cause of death.Decomposed body of 32 years old woman was found in ditch
two miles away from her burglarized home.She was found in pajama,bare foot and her hands
were found behind her back.An autopsy fail to find out cause of death.The cause of death
wasruled undetermine but manner of death is homicide.The manner of death based on
surrounding condition but not on autopsy findings.
Ans:Permanent cessation of repiratory and cardiac function is called death.Death fall into
following categories.suspicious death,unexpected and sudden death and violent
death(homicide,suicide and accidental).Determination of cause and manner of death are two
important dunction of medical examiner’s or coroner’s office because lawyers and lay public
have difficulty in understanding the cause ,manner and mechanism of death.
Major duties of forensic pathologists include to
Ans:Actuall difficulty arise in harvesting of organs and moving of brain dead individuals.For the
harvesting of organs,family permission must be obtained.If the case is under medical
examiner’sor coroner’s case then permission must be obtained from medical examiner’s or
coroner.This is because individual he or she is dead becomes a medicolegal case.At that time
harvesting of organs can interfere with the duties of medicolegal system,therefore constitute as
crime.In most medicolegal system,permission to harvest organ after pronouncement of death is
automatic,because importance of organ harvesting is recognised by coroner’s offices.
Ans:A woman came into hospital for an abortion.A solution of hypertonic saline was injected to
woman and labour pain start and delivered live infant.Chemical burn was appear on skin of
infant due to saline solution.Child survived an hour and then died.Death was not suicide but
may accidental,natural death or homicide, so manner of death in this case was unclassified.Or If
an individual die due to massive hemrrhage(mechanism of death) due to gunshot wound to
heart(cause of death)with manner of death being suicide(they shot
themselves),homicide(somebody shot individual)accidental(weapon fell and discharge) or
undetermine or unclssified (one not sure about what happened).
Ans:Sudden death are those occuring instantaneously or within 1 hour of onset of symptoms.If
individual complaining about chest pain and difficulty in breathing survive long enough to get
the emergency room of hospital where EKG shows that an acute myocardial infarct and
laboratory tests show elevated level of enzymes,then myocardial infarct can be made and case
is not medical examiner;s case.Main cause of sudden unnexpected natrual deaths seen at
medical examiner officers are due to cardiovasular diseases while central nervous system
lesion,pulmonary disease and sepsis are less common cause of death.
Ans:In both criminal and civil cases determination of time of death is important.Factors include
Body temperature (algor mortis)algor mortis is condition in which body temperature cooling
down untill it reaches to ambient or room temperature.
Skin decolouration(livor mortis)liver mortis is condition after death in which body blood is
accumulating to that area of body that is close to ground.
Rigor mortis(stiffening of muscles)due to disappearance of ATP(adenosine triphosphate)from
muscles.ATP is basic source of energy for contraction of muscles.
Biochemistry of vitreous humour
Decomposition and entomology
Ans:Appearance of reddish purple coloration after death in different part of body due to
accumulation of blood in small vessels in area dependent to gravity.In death livor mortis has
cherry red to pinkish colour due to carbon monoxide,this is actually due to
carboxyhemoglobin(Deoxygenated blood).After death livor mortis is usually evident within 30
minutes to two hours.Livor mortis develop its maximum coloration at 8 to 12 hours then it said
to be fixed when blood shifting is no longer occur.Livor mortis also occur internally as obvious
in lungs.In asphyxial or slow death when blood accumulation occur in dependent
areas,pressure of blood can rupture the small vessels,result in minute hemorrhages(petechiae)
is actually indication of decomposition is fast approaching.
Ans:For muscle contraction ATP(adenosine triphosphate) is major source of energy.Muscles
need continous supply of ATP in order to contract because ATP amount is sufficient to maintain
muscle contraction only for few seconds.In body for the continous supply of ATP three
metabolic systems are responsible.This include aerobic system,phosphagen system and
glycogen lactic acid system. Rigor mortis appears in 2 to 4 hours and fully developed in 6 to 12
h.Stiffening of muscle occur in small muscles like jaws then occur in lager muscles.Actin myosin
muscles becomes permanently complexed and rigor mortie occur in absence of ATP.This
condition remain untill decomposition start.Upon decomposition rigor mortis
disappeared.Stiffening of mucles can be delayed in presence of cold.
Ans:Rigor mortis may be deleyed in or very weak in emciated individuals.Rigor mortis may be
very rapid in infants. Infection may acelerate the stiffening of muscles,poison like strychnine
produced convulsion, can acelerate the development of rigor mortis.Disease condition or
envirnmental factor like increase body temperature can also speed up the stiffening of
muscles(Rigor mortis).So hyperthermia,loss of body regulatiory temperature due to cerebral
hemorrhage and infecton may accealrate the rigor mortis.In drwning cases,rigor mortis may
developed fully within 2 to 3 hours,this is due to exhaustion of ATP through struggling while
Ans:If one person drinking too much alcohol every day from last 18 years and got liver cirrhosis
(liver cancer) due to alcohol,the manner of daeth is ruled out as natural.If someone drinks too
much alcohol and then died due to alcohol intoxication,this is ruled as accidental.If two people
‘kidding around’ with a gunand one points gun at another and pull the trigger,this is classified
as accidenatl or in some case considered as homicide.An individual walking in street and hit by
automobile,then driver stop then considered as accident but if driver continue on his way then
according to jurisdiction,this is classified as homicide.
Ans:If individual is fat or clothed then heat can be retain as compare to thin or nude
individual.Infants and childeren rapidly cool because they have large surface area than its mass
but this thing is opposite in obses people that have less surface area reletive to mass. In dead
body heat is lost by conduction(adsorption of heat by objects come in contact with body),
convection(movement of air) and radiation(loss in the form of infra heat rays). If dead body is
find in sunlight will retain heat for longer period of time than in shade.A wet body conduct heat
Ans:Decoposition involve two process,autolysis and putrefaction.Putrefaction is destruction of
soft tissue by fermentation or bacterial action.After death bacterial flora in gastrointestinal
tract spread throughout body produceing putrefaction but in septic individual this process is
accelrate throughout body before death.A chemical process that cause the breakdown of cells
and organs by intracellular enzyme.Autolysis can be accelerate by heat and slow by cold.Organs
that have more enzymes have faster autolysis than organs have less enzyme.This is actually
reason, pencrease has more enzyme than heart and autolyse faster then heart.
Ans:Hemolysis of blood in vessels due to reaction of hemoglobin and hydrogen sulfide
produced marbling and along vessel result in the development of greenish black colour.while
vesicle formation ,skin slippage and hair slippage produceing bloating.Body colour turn from
pale green to green black colour.Bloating first notice on face like features becomes swollen,eye
bulging and tongue protruding between lip and teeth.The face has pale greenish colour
,changing to greenish black ,then turn to black.From mouth and nose, decomposition fluid is
Ans:Cold weather slow down or stop decomposition.A frozen body noyt undergo
decomposition untill it is defrost.Obesity,heavy clothing and sepsis keep dead body
warm.Decomposition rate can be delayed by tight clothing or by putting body in metallic or
stone surface will cool body rapidly by conduction.In case of sepsis,rate of decomposition
becomed faster so immediately refrigeration can slow decomposition.A septic dead body of 4
to 5 h have appearance to 5 to 6 days dead body even if refrigerated.As decomposition
progress ,hair slips off the head and skin from the hand.
Ans:At the end of pier, a young lady was stood,put gun on her chest and pulled the trigger.The
bullet struck onto her chest and she fell backward into harbour.Her body was pulled out of
water with the help of police boat.At autopsy,its become clear that she has gunshot wound on
left breast ,with bullet producing only soft tissue injury and bullet not entered the chest
cavity.Drowning was the actual cause of the death and manner of death was ruled as suicide.
Ans:In very hot ,dry climate like desert body becomes dehydrate rapidly and turn into
mummification rather then decomposition.Skin turn from brown to black leathery appreance
and continous deterioration of internal organs occur in mummification.Adipocere is greyish
white to brown wax like material composed of palmitic and stearic acids.During putrefaction it
is produced by conversion of natural fat to acids.It is most seen in bodies immersed in water or
in damp or in warm envirnment.In adiporcere, fat undergo hydrolosis to free fatty acids by
endogenous lipase and bactreail enzymes.
Ans:Dating of contusions mean age of bruise.Two method use for bruise age are histology and
change in colour.Consistent microscope dating of contusions is not possible so this method is
disposed of rapidly.Most commonly method use for dating of contusions is based on colour
changes of contusion.Contusion dept and skin colouration effect the appearance and colour
detection.Dark skin colour may hide the bruise.Location and depth of bruise can influence its
appearance time.Like eyelid bruises appear immediately whlie deep bruises not appear for
Ans:Pointed instruments can produced stab wound,these kinds of wounds are deeper in
the skin.In the skin,edges of wound is typically sharpe without any contusion.Most
commonly use weapon knife is use to produced Stab wounds.Other devices like broken
glass,,scissors,pen,pencil and forks also use to produced Stab wounds.How much force is
needed to perforate in the skin based on the sharpness of tip of knife and
configuration,sharper tip of knife easily perforate into skin.In skin length of stab wound
can be equal,less or greater than width of the knife.The size and shape of stab wound in
skin depends upon nature of knife and blade,movement of blade in wound and state of
relaxation and tension of skin.
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