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Public Speaking Chapter 2

Classical Canons of Rhetoric
the five concepts that effective speakers must attend to while preparing a speech, according to Cicero

Invention
one of the five classical canons of rhetoric, this refers to using a variety of techniques and sources to gather and choose ideas for a speech

Arrangement
one of the five classical canons of rhetoric, this refers to the effective organization of ideas to present them to an audience

Style
one of the five classical canons of rhetoric, this is a speaker’s choice of language that will best express his or her ideas to the audience

Memory
one of the five classical canons of rhetoric, this refers to the process of preparing and practicing a speech to ensure confident and effective delivery

Delivery
one of the five classical canons or rhetoric, this refers to the speaker’s varied and appropriate use of vocal and nonverbal elements, such as voice, hand gestures, eye contact, and movement, while presenting a speech

Audience Analysis
the process of learning about an audience’s interests and backgrounds in order to create or adapt a speech to their wants and needs

Topic
the subject of a speech

Rhetorical Purpose
one of three goals of a presentation: to inform, to persuade, or to mark a special occasion

Thesis Statement
a single sentence that conveys the topic and purpose of a speech

Main Points
key ideas that support a thesis and help an audience understand and remember what is most important about a speaker’s topic

Supporting Materials
examples, definitions, testimony, statistics, narratives, and analogies that support or illustrate a speaker’s main points

Brainstorming
a strategy for generating topic ideas in which a potential speaker lists every idea that comes to mind – without evaluating its merits – in order to develop a sizable list of ideas quickly

Research
the process of gathering information from libraries, the Internet, and interviews to increase a speaker’s credibility and understanding of a topic

Bibliographic Information
details about a researched source, including author, title, publication date, and page numbers or URL

Outline
a means of organizing a speech using sentences, phrases, or key words

Body
the section of a speech that falls between the introduction and the conclusion and contains the main part of the speech

Subpoints
ideas gathered from brainstorming and research that explain, prove, and expand on a speaker’s main points

Subordination
a principle of speech outlining that dictates the hierarchy in the relationship of main points and supporting materials

Introduction
occurs at the beginning of a speech and serves several purposes, including gaining the audience’s attention, presenting the thesis statement, building common ground with the audience, establishing speaker credibility, and previewing the speech’s main points

Conclusion
the final part of a speech, in which the speaker summarizes the main points and leaves the audience with a clincher, such as a striking sentence or phrase, an emotional message, or an anecdote

Transition
a sentence that smoothly connects one idea or part of a speech to another

Word Choice
taking into account the audience, occasion, and nature of one’s message when choosing language for a speech

Presentation Aid
anything beyond spoken words that a speaker uses to help the audience understand and remember his or her message

Extemporaneous Delivery
the ability, enabled by practice, to deliver a speech smoothly and confidently from a speaking outline without reading from it

Speech Anxiety
nervousness before giving a speech that can result in a variety of symptoms

Visualization
a method of easing speech anxiety in which the speaker imagines him – or herself giving a relaxed, well-received speech from start to finish

Relaxation Strategies
techniques to be performed before giving a speech to help relieve muscle tension and banish negative thoughts

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