Public library Essay
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Our technology today is on its way to a higher and greater success in the development of different equipment made of machines and electronic devices. Different types and sizes of computers find uses throughout the society. Computers are used nowadays in almost all institution, like hospitals and schools. We live today in the era of technology. In everything that we do technology plays a big part, there are always things that we do that have to include technology in it. Take a look at the computer for example.
It is what we call now the hero of the modern era. It is included in every part of our life. Whether it is in academic, scientific, or business purposes. It is very much a part of our life. Thus as we live today, we can’t help but wonder about the things a computer does to help ease the workloads that we have burdened ourselves with. Making researches is not as time consuming as before because of the fact that there is the Internet that is just a click away from every imaginable topic under the sun.
If we want to look and see the best example of this so called revolution we do not have to look far. The computer, it is simply one of mans greatest invention and thus so far has been one of the most widely used tool in this planet today. It is in such demand that almost all of the nig businesses today are trying to computerize their systems and even some small businesses are following their lead. It is hard to understand the fact that almost all of the information we need are to found in a computer.
Sometimes people think that the books are found in libraries throughout this planet is obsolete because of the fact that we can get all information we need from the Internet. But as they say the new has come so forget the past and let us welcome the future. The reason behind the computerization of their systems is as varied as the businesses they handle but generally it aims to make their jobs a lot easier, make their work a lot faster, thus making the use of their time in a better way so that they can cope up better with their growing clientele.
Most of the big businesses today are using computers, even small businesses are trying to get into the mainstream by also using computers in their daily business transactions. The reason behind computerization of their system is to make their work a lot faster, more accurate and precise and thus they save time and effort and devote more of the needed time in dealing with their customers who make their business grow. Learning to use the computer in such a way that you become informed and not be considered an ignorant in the ways of technology. To understand how it works and what are the things that make it work.
To make yourself knowledgeable is not saying that you are forgetting the past, but they are just trying to get you into the thick of things. It is just better to be updated and know something than not to know anything at all. It is also an essential part of business if you to be successful at all. Schools have many divisions and, there are the registrar’s office, the accounting office, the admission office, so as the school clinic and library. As I have observed, most public high school are still using the old manual cabinet in order to organize their files.
Also, they still manually manage the borrower’s card of the students, so as the input of data to it, Thus, I was convinced to make a Computerize Library Management System. The problem with the manual system still being used today by public school libraries is that they tend to make record management a tedious task for the personnel of the library. Updating and access of records of books available in the library is also time consuming thus extending the workload of the library personnel. Records of books could also be lost and because there are no backup a replacement has to be made again.
The proposed computerized library record management system will provide an easier and faster way of storing library records and files. It will be used to organize data effectively, with less mistakes and errors, thus minimizing the time and effort of the librarian and its staff. The proposed study will be efficient and will be very useful for the library. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Computerized Library Record Management system applications originates from all kinds of academic institutions and points vastly to different academic problems.
The computerization of the library record and the use of certain service offered by the institution is one of the most important component of many schools especially in the research and research materials for their students. Many people consider the definition of the problem to be the most significant phase of the project. Since it gives the requirements asked by the examination facilitator, or what the user expects the system to do, and thus setting the pathway for the entire project, it consists of the objectives of the project.
It is bound in terms of reference for the project. Limitation of resources is also often specific at this time to indicate the needed funds and personnel of the company available for the said project. INPUT-PROCESS-OUTPUT (I. P. O. ) DIAGRAM FEEDBACK Paradigm of the Study The Input-Process-Output Diagrams the flow of the System from the manual system being used to the construction and improvement of the manual system converting it into a computerized system that will enable the user to use it more effectively and efficiently. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study is focused on the design and development of a computerized record keeping system for Divisoria National High School. The researchers are proposing to computerize the system to reduce time and effort in accomplishing the library records management system. Specifically, it sought to find out the answer to the following questions: 1. What are the problems encountered in the present manual library records management system? a. How will the system be designed and developed? 2. How will the present system be implemented? Assumptions.
It is initially assumed that the new system will be more efficient, accurate, precise faster and more productive than the system presently implemented by the school. The proposed system will be faster, easier to use and would make the profiling of the students much easier and faster. Records are also harder to tamper with. A password would also protect the system so as to prevent tampering with the records of the system and only an authorized user would be able to access the needed information about the system. Significance of the study.
This study is envisioned to serve the following purposes: This software will serve as a powerful guide for the students to a faster easier and orderly way of selecting the needed books to be borrowed. It will make the present system like an old lady to slow compared to the speed of the proposed system. This would also make it easier for the librarian to prepare for reports especially if there is a request from the administration for one. The system would help him/her find the book that is needed to be borrowed because he can browse the records of the books and the borrowed books at the time.
For other and future researchers it would also be a great way to find reference materials that they can used for their own research. This study would be a good basis for them in formulating the basic structure for their own studies as well. This software would be a big help to the school in a way that it helps minimize the time used by the librarian in finding the records of a student and easier to locate a book needed by a borrower. SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY The proposed system is mainly developed for the Library Records Management.
System of the Divisoria National High School of Santiago City, Isabela and will be used by the library personnel of the school. A password will protect the system so as to give protection to the records of borrowers and the overdue accounts from being tampered with. The password will also be an assurance for the school and the library that nobody with a restricted access to the system may be able to change the records that are kept inside the system. DEFINITION OF TERMS Analyst – one experienced in identifying the source of problems and suggesting the means to correct them, especially for a computer program.
Application Software – software that performs user oriented function as opposed to operating system functions. Bookkeeping – process of recording financial transactions: the activity or profession of recording the money received and spent by an individual, business, or organization Automation – refers to the organization of machines handling of their routines or operation requiring minimal intervention. Browse – scan computer files: to scan and view files in a computer database or on the Internet, especially on the World Wide Web.
Code – computer information: a system of symbols, numbers, or signals that conveys information to a computer Computer – electronic data processor and storer: an electronic device that accepts, processes, stores, and outputs data at high speeds according to programmed instructions Computerized – run by computer: operated, organized, controlled, or performed by computer Computer Literacy – is commonly used today to denote some kind of basic understanding of computer concepts and terminologies.
It also refers to the attitude about the computers and the actual ability to do some tasks or programs on the computer. Computer information system – a total coordinated information system that includes computers, people, procedures and all the resources necessary to handle input, output and storage of data useful to an aspect of an organization. Encoder – convert computer characters into digital form: to convert input data, for example, analog signals, characters, and commands, into a digital form recognizable by a computer.
Hardware – computer equipment and peripherals: the equipment and devices that make up a computer system as opposed to the programs that are used on it Information Science – the study of the processes involved in the collection, categorization, and distribution of data, particularly with reference to computer data. Database Management – a computer program devised to design, create, manipulate, update, control, and interrogate one or more databases, often containing a proprietary query language for extracting data.
Data Processing – the entering, storing, updating and retrieving of information, using a computer. File – a complete named collection of information such as a program, a set of data used by a program or a user created document. Flowchart – is a way to represent a design of the computerized part of the system in terms of sequences of black-box processing steps and controls among those black boxes. The graphical form of an algorithm in which standard symbol present the necessary operations and show the order in which it is performed.
Hardware – Refers to the physical equipment that makes up a computer system. Information Science – the study of the processes involved in the collection, categorization, and distribution of data, particularly with reference to computer data. Input – data that serves as the raw material for the system processing or that trigger-processing step. Also, to access data and place them into the computer system. Inventory – a record of business’s current assets, including property owned as well as merchandise on hand and the value of work in progress and work completed but not sold.
Management Information System – type of computer information system that provides meaningful summarization of data to support organizational management control functions and highlights exception conditions requiring attention or corrective action. Model – mathematical or logical representation of a system that can be manipulated intellectually to access hypothetical change. Also, to make graphic or written representation of an information system and its function, to help people understand its function. Output – a product, or result of data processing.
Process – to transform input data into useful information through performance of certain functions. Profile – process of creating and using such a profile. Programmers – professionals who write the instruction that direct the computer to perform its tasks. Program – tells the computer how to accept and manipulate the data in order to turn it into information. Programming – the designing or writing of computer programs, Proposal – suggestions references for acceptance or selection. Record – To retain information usually in a file. Security – refers to the ability of securing something important.
Software – refers to the programs that instruct the computer what to do. System – a set of elements, which are functionally interrelated to form a unitary whole, designed to achieve a common purpose. System Analyst – professionals who assist in the identification of business problems and opportunities and in the specification of information system solution. System Software – the operating system and utility programs used to operate and maintain a computer system and provide resources for application programs such as word processors and spreadsheets.
User Friendly – a term used for computer software that could be used easily by any person with less help. Workload – this refers to the amount of work or task of a certain employee. Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Related Studies Whole Language in an Elementary School Library Media Center. ERIC Digest, “Lamme, Linda Leonard, Beckett, Cecilia”; 1992 This digest examines changes that are involved in an elementary school Library Media Program when the school’s instructional methods move from a basic skills to a whole language approach.
These changes are discussed in terms of three curricular foci—theme studies, process writing, and literature based reading—and new demands that are placed on the collection and the school librarian. Because the whole language approach relies heavily on children’s literature instead of textbooks, large numbers of trade books are required, and librarians must work cooperatively with teachers to ensure that the necessary resources are available in the media center when needed. Flexible scheduling in the school media center is important to the success of theme studies as it allows children to seek answers to questions as they arise.
Since whole language creates an enormous demand for books, videos, cassettes, and computer programs, library media specialists can expect dramatic changes in collection use as well as changes in their role. Not only must library media specialists become very familiar with the library collection, but they must also serve as a resource to students and teachers during the planning and execution of theme studies, a teacher of information skills, and an instruction leader. (10 references) (MAB) Developing Metacognition.
ERIC Digest; “Blakey, Elaine, Spence, Sheila”, 1990 “Studies show that megacognitive strategies can increase learning skills and that independent use of these metacognitive strategies can be gradually developed in people. The school library media center is the ideal place for students to learn how to develop metacognitive strategies; that is, they can learn how to connect new information to former knowledge, deliberately select thinking strategies, and plan, monitor, and evaluate these thinking processes.
There are six basic strategies for developing metacognitive behaviors in students: (1) they must consciously identify what they “know” as opposed to “what they do not know”; (2) they must then develop a thinking vocabulary so that they can verbally describe their thinking process; (3) they should keep a thinking journal or learning log in which they reflect upon their learning processes;
(4) they must also learn to assume responsibility for regulating their learning activities, including estimating time requirements, organizing materials and scheduling the procedures necessary to complete an activity (the media centers’ resources lend themselves quite well to this tak);
(5) they must learn how to review and evaluate these strategies as either successful or inappropriate; and (6) they must participate in guided self-evaluation through individual conferences and checklists focusing on the thinking process. Metacognitive environments must be established in schools if teachers and media specialists are to be able to encourage students’ development of problem solving and learning skills.
($ references and 4 additional readings)(MAB)”; According to the Manila Bulletin, integrating computer as an effective teaching strategy for all teachers in the country now. How the strategy for public and private schools. The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and the Department of Education Culture and Sports (DECS) cognizant for the major impact of computer in the Philippines education system has started adopting technical reforms in meeting the demand of the modern technologies of the 21st centuries.
Both agencies note that there have been a slow growth of computer expert in the teaching profession and both believed that teachers should now undergo training and acquaint themselves with the latest tent in computer use both hardware and software. With the technical gains in teaching can be facilitated and easily motivate millions of students already, DECS gas started computer utilizing its educational program by tapping leading foreign groups. Lesson plans, library cataloguing and other educational system filling is among the top priorities.
With this standard for primary and secondary level will be established, particularly for government run school. The integration of multi media and teaching strategies is surely an integral part of the modernization of our educational system. There is no excuse for our educators not to utilize them for quality teaching. The success of the government programs to update the quality of education of the million of students is anchored to their teachers technical capabilities. The school on the other hand, should utilize its powerhouse, the faculty helping them to be exposed to the latest trend in modern teaching using computers.
Related Literature Library (institution) Introduction Library (institution), repository for various forms of recorded information. Although the word library is derived from the Latin liber, meaning “book”, the term now refers to collections of data in many other formats: microforms, magazines, phonorecordings, films, magnetic tapes, slides, videotapes, and electronic media. Types of Libraries Library collections are varied, as are their purposes and clientele. Most developed nations have libraries of several types. Generally, all libraries of one type within a country are linked through professional associations and lending agreements.
Libraries of different types are connected through a number of interlibrary systems, through loan arrangements, and through other cooperative programmes. National Libraries National libraries, such as the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, the Library of Congress in Washington, D. C. , or the British Library in London, are primarily supported by public tax funds and exist to serve the needs of the government and of a general scholarly public by providing research materials. Research Libraries Research, or reference, libraries are often supported by private endowments and contributions and mainly serve the needs of scholars.
Because such collections contain many rare and valuable materials, use is almost exclusively confined within the library buildings. Such libraries often publish scholarly studies of materials in their collections, sponsor lectures, and arrange exhibitions of their most important holdings. Academic Libraries College and university libraries, such as the Bodleian Library in Oxford, differ from research libraries in their need to serve readers with various levels of expertise, and in their responsibility to support the teaching and research programmes of their institutions.
They usually obtain most of their financial support from the parent institution. Public Libraries Public libraries attempt to meet a wide variety of readers’ needs. In addition to traditional literature, their collections contain social services information, reference works, phonograph records and CDs, and recreational books and films. Many public libraries sponsor lectures, group discussions, dramatic, musical, or film presentations, and exhibitions. Services to children may include storytelling and even provision of toys and games.
Public libraries also provide reading machines and audiotapes for blind people, and large-print books for visually impaired people. Material in the libraries can usually be borrowed without charge, although some charge may be made for films or CDs, for example. School Libraries Like academic libraries, school libraries support the curricula of their parent institutions. They also provide extra-curricular books to encourage the development of reading skills. Many provide a variety of audio, visual, and electronic media. Special Libraries Some countries have special libraries which are designed to serve specific professional needs.
Most are an integral part of businesses, corporations, organizations, and institutions, the employees or clients of which require the services of these libraries in the course of their work. Members of staff of a special library are usually trained in appropriate subject areas as well as in library science. History of Libraries Libraries, as repositories for written records, began where writing itself began—in the Middle East between 3000 and 2000 bc. Libraries of Antiquity The oldest libraries were those of the Sumerians, housing clay tablets inscribed with business and legal records in cuneiform.
Their libraries were destroyed by earthquakes and fires, but great numbers of the clay tablets survive in museums today. The first Egyptian library, containing 20,000 papyrus scrolls, was founded by Ramses II in 1250 bc. The greatest library of the ancient world, however, was that established by the Greeks in Alexandria in the 3rd century bc. A centre of learning for the entire Hellenistic world, it consisted of a museum, a library of 700,000 rolls on papyrus or linen, and facilities for copying and translating texts in many languages.
By the 1st century bc, wealthy Romans began to develop private libraries of Greek and Latin works; with the growing demand for books, copying businesses and bookshops developed, and libraries for the public were established. By the 2nd century ad, such libraries had been established in Rome. Libraries of the Middle Ages Many scientific and mathematical texts were copied and preserved by Muslim scholars in the 8th and 9th centuries. Their adoption of Chinese methods of papermaking lowered the cost of books and facilitated their dissemination throughout the Muslim Empire.
By the 10th century, for example, Cordoba, Spain, had a library of 400,000 books. In Western Europe, literature was preserved in monastic libraries such as those of St Gall in Switzerland, Lindisfarne in England, and Fulda in Germany. Each had its scriptorium, a room especially for writing, in which monks produced manuscript copies of classical and religious works. These libraries were enriched with previously unknown classical and scientific works brought back as spoils from the Crusades of the 10th and 11th centuries.
The rise of universities in Salerno and Bologna, Italy, as early as the 11th century also stimulated the development of library collections for students and scholars. The 14th century, despite such catastrophes as the Hundred Years’ War and the plague, was a notable period for the establishment of European libraries. In France, Charles V began a collection that formed the basis of the French Royal Library; in England, Richard of Bury, bishop of Durham, described in Philobiblon his method of book collecting; in Italy, the followers of humanism began to copy and collect long-neglected classical texts.
From the Renaissance to the 19th Century With the invention of printing in the 15th century and an expanding economy, books became more readily available and reading increased. During this period the Vatican Library in Rome was expanded, an important private collection by the French bibliophile Jean Grolier was built, and the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana in Florence, Italy, was developed to house the Medici collection. Western collections benefited from the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453 and the resultant dispersal of Byzantine literary treasures.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, national libraries began to be established throughout Europe. The library at the University of Oxford was firmly established by the English scholar and diplomat Sir Thomas Bodley, who arranged for copies of all books printed in England to be deposited there. Learned societies, such as the Royal Society of London, founded in 1660, set up specialized collections for research. The first academic library in the United States was founded in 1638 by the English clergyman John Harvard with a bequest of 300 books to the college in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which became Harvard University.
A new form of library was also developed, the lending library of popular literature, operated for profit by booksellers and patronized by a large clientele. The first public library, supported by government and designed for the education of the masses, was begun in Manchester, Great Britain, about 1850. Acquisitions Acquisitions departments of libraries obtain materials from a variety of sources: publishers, book wholesalers, and second-hand book dealers. British copyright deposit libraries, such as the Bodleian in Oxford and the National Library of Scotland, are entitled to receive a copy of every book published in the British Isles.
Gifts are another source, particularly essential to rare book and historical collections. Cataloguing When material arrives, it is sent to the catalogue department, which determines how the work will be described in the catalogue and where it will be located in the collection. The catalogue descriptions are then prepared, and the material is marked with the library’s name and an identification number or code. For leading material, labels or card pockets are affixed. An indication is made in the library catalogue that the material is available, and the newly acquired item is placed in its proper location.
Much of the work of technical services is of a clerical nature. Record keeping, ledger notations, unpacking, typing, marking, and shelving can be done by clerks or, in academic libraries, by students. The cataloguing process, however, is a highly skilled operation and is usually performed by professionally trained librarians. Online public access catalogues are the automated equivalent of the card catalogue, intended to provide efficient access to a library’s holdings while reducing much of the manual work of the traditional card catalogue.
Online catalogues provide additional searching possibilities for the users but are still somewhat hampered by the incompleteness of the data included. Such systems can communicate with one another about which materials are held in other libraries and use the computer to borrow various materials from many other libraries through interlibrary loan systems. Binding and Preservation In addition to acquiring and cataloguing library material, technical services sections are also responsible for the physical preparation and preservation of materials.
Since World War II, libraries have become increasingly aware of the problem of deterioration of paper and books. Libraries must decide which materials require special handling and treatment to prolong their useful lives. They must then select bindings, wrapping materials, methods of storage, and heating and lighting systems that will contribute to the preservation of these materials. Where important materials are extremely fragile, the library may photograph the contents and thus preserve them on microfilm, microfiche, or in electronic formats. Reference Services
Reference work for a librarian is the process of helping users find information; it is one of the professional public services, demanding skill in communication, familiarity with information sources, and a wide general knowledge. In recent years, reference librarians have tried to anticipate users’ questions and to respond to recurring queries by preparing guides, flyers, signs, and audio-visual presentations to aid library users. In academic institutions, reference librarians offer courses in bibliographic instruction, library use, and research methodology.
As the computer has changed the forms of the library catalogues, reference librarians have found themselves increasingly involved in helping users with these tools. During most of the 20th century, library catalogues consisted of drawers filled with printed or typed cards. Catalogues are now on microfilm, on microfiche, in book form, and on the computer terminal. A whole new subfield of reference librarianship has developed rapidly in the last decade in the form of database searching, with librarians helping users by searching the commercially and publicly developed databases of
bibliographic information about materials in a great variety of fields. Originally devoted largely to the sciences, such automated databases now embrace a comprehensive array of subject fields. The cost of these searches, whether covered by the library or the user, is often offset by the great efficiency. Circulation Computers have also increased the reliability of lending records. The traditional card found in the book pocket inside a book for loan has given way to encoded labels on the book and on the reader’s identification card that are read and recorded by optical scanners.
Other methods of automation for circulation and inventory control were being tested and implemented in the mid-1980s. Library Buildings Library buildings have changed over the centuries in response to five major influences: the form in which information is recorded, the nature of the library’s use and readership, technological developments in both architecture and librarianship, the availability of funds, and recognition of traditional architecture as part of the cultural heritage. The Oldest Structures
Roman libraries, open to a wider public than the ones in Alexandria and at Pergamum in Asia Minor, usually contained a single large reading room, ornately decorated and lined with shelves for scrolls and codices (bound volumes of manuscripts, the progenitors of books). In the Middle Ages, European libraries were usually housed in monasteries, universities, or, in a few instances, royal households. Books were commonly kept in cupboards or on shelves and were read at counters, at study cubicles, or in alcoves near windows.
Since manuscripts were rare and costly to produce, they were often chained to the wall or desk. With the spread of printing and literacy from the 1400s onwards, libraries expanded their reading areas and developed storage systems. Large halls, richly decorated, housed both readers and books or manuscripts. In some libraries, bookshelves or cabinets were arranged in tiers around this central room and were reached by ladder or balcony. Readers sat in stalls and at desks in the grand halls. 19th Century Developments.
Drastic changes in library building took place in the 19th century. With the emergence of a large literate public and an enormously expanding stock of books and newspapers, libraries had to extend their storage capacities. Free-standing bookcases furnished with metal shelves became common. Until the early 20th century, readers in larger libraries were accommodated in decorated, fairly large, central reading rooms furnished with rows of long tables and simple wooden chairs. In the larger libraries, smaller rooms housed specialized collections.
Contemporary Library Design Today, library buildings are constructed so that they can be easily expanded or modified to accommodate changes in collections, formats, and user needs, including those of users with disabilities. The rapid expansion of information technology since World War II has forced libraries to consider new methods of storage such as compact movable shelving, the microfilming of bulky or deteriorating materials, and the relegation of less-used materials to storage.