Psychology of Child Development
Psychology of Child Development
Behaviorist theory: The teacher can utilize the ideals of Operant conditioning. Frequently referred to as instrumental conditioning, it is a method of learning that operates through giving rewards or punishments for a specific behavior. Operant conditioning associates or establishes a connection between a behavior and a consequence regarding that behavior so that children will gain an insight of what is right and what is wrong. Susie should know that even if she is bullied by other children, it is not right to do the same thing onto them.
In this scenario all of them should be given punishment and the teacher should not take sides. Moral theory: Kohlberg asserted instrumental exchange with the golden rule as a precise example. The teacher should tell Susie that she should not do things that please her alone. A feeling of satisfaction about a certain deed does not mean it is a right thing for everyone. It is a matter of satisfying needs without necessarily doing revenge to others. Situation2: Behaviorist theory: Operant conditioning is appropriate for this situation.
Joe should be given punishment for this act to make him understand that it is not a right thing to do. Punishment is a consequence of physical retaliation and it clearly differentiates good acts from bad, as what was discussed on situation one. Environmentalist theory: According to environmentalists, kindergarten readiness is the stage when young children can either respond appropriately or inappropriately to the school or classroom environment including rules and regulations, policies, activities and directions or instructions from teachers and superiors.
When young children are unable to respond appropriately to the classroom and school environment, there is a possibility that they are having some learning disabilities in terms of learning school curriculum or learning to display appropriate behaviors at all times. The teacher should also emphasize that academic learning and establishing healthy relationships with other people particularly fellow students are equally important. Situation3: Moral development theory: Individualism and Exchange.
According to Heinz, children or young adolescents account for their individual perspective and judge actions based on how they satisfy individual needs. For this group age, adults should make them know that reciprocity is very important. Reciprocity is not made to serve an individuals own interest, it serves to establish a mutual and peaceful relationship within people and that not anything can be just done according to one’s wills and wants. These adolescents should be guided about moral or societal conducts because if misguidance occurs, it can result to other somewhat antisocial behaviors.
Personality theory: Ethnocentrism and egocentrism are the issues here. Since they are adolescents and grew up in modern times. They should be guided about practicing the more conservative norms and make them understand that not anyone can stand what they are up to or what they are used to do. About the ego, everyone is unique and these peculiarities should serve as eye openers the two adolescents. If they will be asking why some find them disturbing, parents or guardians should explain we were born with different interests and point of views and that what they do is usual for them but is perceived unusual by others. Situation4:
Personality theory: Openness: This trait features characteristics such as imagination and insight, and those high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of interests. At this stage, the child grows to become very inquisitive and vivid in imagination. They should be given reading materials or pictures to satisfy their need to learn more complex things. Cognitive development theory: Based on theorist Jean Piaget’s theory, children think differently than adults and because children play an active and important role in gaining knowledge of the world, accepting or entertaining their thoughts and views about things are a must.
Situation 5: Attachment theory: Attachment is a special emotional relationship that involves an exchange of comfort, care, and pleasure. When a securely attached child is left by his parents, ambivalence is the outcome. Diversion of attention can be done through giving toys and some other materials they can play with. Play theory: Play theory is one of the best ways to free children of stress. It is also fundamental in a child’s development. In this case, aside from the picture book, the caregiver can also give the baby non-choking, appropriate toys for his age. This theory supports the first theory mentioned.
Situation6: Psychoanalytic theory: Ego is underdeveloped in young children. This ego identity is constantly changing due to new experiences and activities of daily living. Erikson believed that this character motivates a sense of competence in behaviors and actions. This argument is an early sign of competency. The parent should teach the child that it is unlikely to think that there seems to be favoritism. If the child handles this situation very well, his ego strength or ego quality will be mastered in a sense that he will handle every competent situations smoothly.
Cognitive development theory: Piaget emphasized the reasoning processes of children at various ages. Children tend to have different understanding of things and adults should learn to recognize these differences. Various levels of understanding can either makes sense or nothing at all that is why it is a must to explain to them if something non-significant to their eyes is somewhat significant in reality. Situation7: Sociocultural theory: Sometimes, children utter or speak words without knowing what they really mean. In this situation, it is obvious that self-directed speech is used by the children to acquire learning.
At this point, minimal guidance is done by parents or teachers so that they will not interfere the children’s independent thinking. Environmentalist theory: Environmental interaction motivates an individual’s behavior, learning and thought processes. Different cultures and different people probably have different perspectives and views. These children should be thought of different contextual views and be opened to new doors of learning if and only if, independent thinking is difficult to achieve. References http://nwscc. cc. al. us/childdevelopment/CHD201Theories. htm
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 22 October 2016
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