Psychology Articles Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 17 February 2017

Psychology Articles

1. Glazer, H. R., Clark, M. D., & Stein, D. S. (2004). The Impact of Hippotherapy on Grieving Children. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing 6(3), 171-175.

This article is a study on the effects of hippotherapy or therapeutic riding on grieving children affected by the death of a family member. The topic focuses on the grieving of children specifically because of the observation that their bereavement often coincides with issues relating to their natural growth and development. Thus, sometimes it is difficult to ascertain whether a child’s reaction should be properly classified as growth or grief (Glazer, Clark & Stein, 2004).

In order to add substantial information on the literature on children’s bereavement, the authors conducted a study that would determine how a 6-week hippotherapy program would work on grieving children. They sought to determine how stakeholders, such as the parents, children, and adult volunteer would perceive the program (Glazer, Clark & Stein, 2004).

The study involved a 6-week program where selected children with ages 4 to 14 stayed at the Buckeye Ranch for sessions that taught them how to ride horses. Each session ended with the children telling the things they learned for that session. The parents and adult volunteers were also asked to reflect on their perception of the therapeutic riding session.

The authors found positive results from the study, consisting of increased confidence, self-esteem, and trust among the children. The children also gained communication skills as a result of the study. Finally, both guardians and parents found the riding therapy as a positive experience. Thus, they concluded that riding therapy is a good way for finding expression of grief.

2. Andrews, C. R. & Marotta, S. A. (2005). Spirituality and Coping Among Grieving Children: A Preliminary Study. Counseling and Values 50, 38-50.

This article describes grief as a “natural part of human experience.” The authors of this paper, however, note that literature on grieving mostly focus on adults’ coping mechanisms. Particularly, literature on adult bereavement focuses on religious practices and spiritual beliefs as effective coping mechanisms. Therefore, the authors aimed to extrapolate from such literature and attempt to apply major themes among grieving children (Andrews & Marotta, 2005).

The authors completed a sample size of 6 children between the ages of 4 and 9, coming from various institutions. All participants experienced death within the family in the past 18 months before the period of the study. Parents’ consent was secured from each participant. During the 3-month study period, children, parents, and main caregivers were given semistructured interviews. Such interviews led to qualitative data. There were also check-in sessions conducted every month. The study utilized a phenomenological approach so that specific aspect so f bereavement could surface (Andrews & Marotta, 2005).

The authors found that children’s grief are not necessarily similar to that of adults’. Children grieve repeatedly as they go from one developmental stage to the next. Certain objects or mechanisms were also found to have been effective in dealing with the grief of children, such as puppets, games, bibliotherapy, and drawings. They also note that certain spiritual aspects like linking objects and connection through metaphorical play may play a huge role in comforting grieving children (Andrews & Marotta, 2005).

3. Abeles, N., Victor, T. L. & Delano-Wood, L. (2004). The Impact of an Older Adult’s Death on the Family. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 35(3), 234-239.

This article reviews extant literature on issues of death and dying. Specifically, it is concerned with the impact on the death of an older member of a family to surviving members, particularly on surviving adult children. It also aims to derive implications for treatment based on the study (Abeles, Victor & Delano-Wood, 2004).

The methodology involved a simple review of literature, both on theoretical and empirical levels, on the topic of death and bereavement. Based on such literature review, the authors suggested individual or play therapy, psychoeducation, and different interventions as treatment options for grief. The authors likewise concluded that each individual may cope with loss or death of a family members in different ways. Some may not undergo the usual stages of grief. Thus, understanding of various coping mechanisms could also help surviving family members in dealing with grief (Abeles, Victor & Delano-Wood, 2004).

4. Ens, C. & Bond, J. B. (2007). Death Anxiety in Adolescents: The Contributions of Bereavement and Religiosity. Baywood Publishing Co., Inc., 169-184.

This article aims to determine possible relationships between religiosity, bereavement, and death anxiety levels of adolescents. This is done to achieve greater understanding of adolescents, who face difficult challenges during bereavement (Ens & Bond, 2007).

The authors conducted a study with 226 adolescents as participants. These participants have ages ranging from 11 to 18 and come from rural and urban private schools. Both the parents and student participants gave written consent before participating in the study. The authors formulated one questionnaire that consisted of several scales that measure bereavement, religiosity, and death anxiety. This questionnaire was administered to participants and the data was analyzed (Ens & Bond, 2007).

The data showed a strong correlation between death and grief due to death in the family. Consequently, the authors concluded, “grief due to bereavement was the only factor found to independently contribute death anxiety for adolescents.” Finally, the authors found weak relationship between death anxiety and personal religiosity (Ens & Bond, 2007).

5. Papadatou, D., Metallinou, O., Hatzichristou, C. & Pavlidi, L. (2002). Supporting the bereaved child: teacher’s perceptions and experiences in Greece. Mortality 7(3), 324-339.

This article reports a national survey conducted by the authors, aimed at determining how Greek teachers perceived bereaved children. More specifically, this study aimed to analyze experiences of children who grieved the death of a relative and a classmate. These aims result from the belief that grief is affected by the level of support received by bereaved children (Papadatou, Metallinou, Hatzichristou & Pavlidi, 2002).

The authors selected participating population by applying a specific criterion on a list of Greek schools provided by the Ministry of Education, National Statistical Service. The authors handed out 3,500 questionnaires among Greek educators, and data was gathered from the responses (Papadatou, Metallinou, Hatzichristou & Pavlidi, 2002).

The national survey resulted in several important findings. For one, it appears that Greek educators feel that the experience of death in the family or classmate negatively affect the performance of a bereaved child in school. Moreover, educators who had more years in experience as teachers had more opportunity to observe grieving children and the effect of bereavement on them. Finally, most educators appeared comfortable talking to bereaved students and cooperate with their family to help them cope with their loss (Papadatou, Metallinou, Hatzichristou & Pavlidi, 2002).

6. Charkow, W. B. Inviting Children to Grieve. Professional School Counseling.

This article discusses the importance of grieving for children who have experienced death in the family. It reviews literature and shows how society and families often shield children from the fact of death. This paper aims to establish the importance of grieving for children by showing how shielding children affects them (Charkow).

The article basically reviews literature on death and the responses to its experience. These factors affect how the loss of a person through death could be traumatic to a child. For example, the relationship of the child with the deceased is a relevant factor to consider.

Through the study of extant literature on bereavement, the author laid down several implications for stakeholders, such as parents, teachers, and counselors. The author concludes that being up front with children about the realities of death would lead them to cope properly through understanding and grieving appropriately.

7. Cohen, J., Goodman, R. F., Brown, E. J. & Mannarino, A. (2004). Treatment of Childhood Traumatic Grief: Contributing to a Newly Emerging Condition in the Wake of Community Trauma. Treatment of Childhood Traumatic Grief After 9/11, 213-216.

This article is a response to the events of the 9/11 attack in New York City, which resulted in the death of many parents. The authors report that more than 10,000 children lost parents and loved ones on that fateful day. Hence, the authors’ concern about childhood traumatic grief (Cohen, Goodman, Brown & Mannarino, 2004).

This article basically reviews extant literature on childhood traumatic grief, particularly those relating to treatment interventions and psychotherapeutic approaches to childhood traumatic grief (Cohen, Goodman, Brown & Mannarino, 2004).

After reviewing literature on interventions to childhood traumatic grief, such as client-centered therapy, the authors discussed various factors that affect the assessment and treatment of the condition. Finally, the authors provided suggestions for future directions, particularly since the literature on childhood traumatic grief is still in its infancy (Cohen, Goodman, Brown & Mannarino, 2004).

8. Crenshaw, D. A. (2005). Clinical Tools to Facilitate Treatment of Childhood Traumatic Grief. OMEGA 51(3), 239-255.

This article aims to describe strategies and techniques that address childhood traumatic grief in order to how clinicians how to address youth experiencing such condition. These strategies use themes such as abandonment and attachment (Crenshaw, 2005).

This article’s methodology consisted mainly in reviewing and describing various techniques and strategies used in dealing with grieving children. The authors then analyzed how such techniques helped children with their bereavement (Crenshaw, 2005).

The strategies described in this article illustrate how themes such as facing unknown dangers and leaving behind loved ones and family help children cope with loss and address unresolved issues (Crenshaw, 2005).

References
Abeles, N., Victor, T. L. & Delano-Wood, L. (2004). The Impact of an Older Adult’s Death on the Family. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 35(3), 234-239.

Andrews, C. R. & Marotta, S. A. (2005). Spirituality and Coping Among Grieving Children: A Preliminary Study. Counseling and Values 50, 38-50.

Charkow, W. B. Inviting Children to Grieve. Professional School Counseling.
Crenshaw, D. A. (2005). Clinical Tools to Facilitate Treatment of Childhood Traumatic Grief. OMEGA 51(3), 239-255.

Cohen, J., Goodman, R. F., Brown, E. J. & Mannarino, A. (2004). Treatment of Childhood Traumatic Grief: Contributing to a Newly Emerging Condition in the Wake of Community Trauma. Treatment of Childhood Traumatic Grief After 9/11, 213-216.

Ens, C. & Bond, J. B. (2007). Death Anxiety in Adolescents: The Contributions of Bereavement and Religiosity. Baywood Publishing Co., Inc., 169-184.

Glazer, H. R., Clark, M. D., & Stein, D. S. (2004). The Impact of Hippotherapy on Grieving Children. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing 6(3), 171-175.

Papadatou, D., Metallinou, O., Hatzichristou, C. & Pavlidi, L. (2002). Supporting the bereaved child: tracher’s perceptions and experiences in Greece. Mortality 7(3), 324-339.

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