Autism has been the focal point of extensive study and contentious debate. Issues pertaining to its etiology, classification, treatment, and education prolong to maneuver those who come into contact with this exigent disorder. In a contemporary perspective, clinical practitioners used the term to describe a withdrawal into fantasy in schizophrenia. Characteristics of autism, such as avoiding the gaze of others and showing no detection of a parent’s absence, continue to be viewed as archetypal symptoms—writers later described this communal dearth as withdrawal. Thus, despite all these, there has been overpowering sighting on autistic individuals; scholars resolute that children with autism had “good cognitive potentialities.” This then gave a spark of hope to parents and later scoured for means to at least try preventing the child from becoming autistic during his or her adulthood (Sicile-Kira, 2004).
Autism: In a Broad Perspective
Autism is described as multifaceted neurobehavioral disarray which is distinguished by mutilation in shared societal relations, communication impairment, and the existence of monotonous and typical prototypes of action, wellbeing, and activities. Basically, symptoms occur in the age bracket of three years and below, thus the severity of the medical impairment varies dependent on the diagnoses and on to what doctors would define as its “spectrum.”
Children with autism may be initially hard to distinguish since that the cases of autism are similar to that of the actions pf a normal infant (Ami Klin, Schultz, & Volkmar, 2003). Thus, it ranges on the verity of social interaction and the ability to express emotions that the distinction is then patterned. As a matter of fact, language and communication deficits are also considered as stereotypical factors, hence not undermining the possibility of being a “late bloomer.” However, unlike the previous centuries where autism has been treated as a genetically acquired and inevitable to cure impairment, studies and researches have shown that there are far more better means and a series of protocols to help treat autism in the verge of its early years to not only help the child but also give light to its families as well (Treatment, 2008).
Behavioral and didactic interferences have turn out to be the principal approach for treating individuals with autism. It includes operant conditioning, respondent (Pavlovian) conditioning, and cognitive approaches. Basically, it involves a reinforcer and a punisher. In this sense, the key players in the treatment process and similar to that of Ivan Pavlov’s theory, the student shall learn the essence of following the reinforcer so as not to be punished.
Cognitive Developmental Approach
Despite the behavioral factors that have been brought upon by scholars and medical practitioners, the neurodevelopmental differences were also observed to be an underpinning to the whirlwinds of autism. These are considered because of the following reasons: firstly, autism is a varied turmoil and is prone to have manifold potential etiologies; secondly, structural neuro studies have specified an array of dispersed anatomical dissimilarities, thus weighty to that of an untimely developmental transformation in the expansion or pruning of neural tissue. Further, relatively than contained abrasions; similarly, neurochemical researches advise early, neuromodulatory incongruities better than sickening or localized idiosyncrasies. And lastly, numerous boundaries on studies of neurologically involved activities that to date disqualify definitive answers to questions of how the brain functions and responds differently in autism.
Detecting autism earlier using new approach—this is the proposed strategy posted in me Medical News Today compliant to that of a press release of psychologists and psychiatrists in the University of New South Wales. By this means, it is said that it is an up-to-date way of understanding the autistic inclined disorder through the collaboration of psychological and biological factors which are most likely to lead to conditions that are medically curable.
Enactive Mind Protocol: Actions to Cognition
Level of evidence
Due to the increasing demand of resolving the magnitude of discrepancy upon understanding the pathophysiology of autism as transcribed in newer techniques, researches have been made to document and decipher the answer to the social discrepancy of these individuals. The EM protocol instigated from the work on ‘embodied cognitive science’—a neuroscience scaffold that drafts cognition as physical occurrences ensued as a product of an organism’s adaptive behaviour upon significant facets of the contiguous atmosphere. Perceivably, such offers a developmental premise of autism in which the progression of gaining of personified societal cognition is overturned prematurely, as an effect of condensed salience of social spur and parallel passing of generally extraneous aspects of the setting (Ami Klin et al., 2003).
Ease of use
Perceivably, two of the most intriguing puzzles posed by autistic individuals are their social reasoning discrepancy and their failure to do naturalistic actions on normal situations. Such distinction in character pounds them to the cognitive deficit of being different thus with the help of EM will then teach them better reasoning skills, which will have an impact on their real-life and communicative competence. Further, the fact that these individuals have several cognitive, linguistic, knowledge-based and potentially useful vocational assets—but consequently in the contrary finding social situations challenging—would serve as their strength which will help them compensate their autism, and EM will help make it easier.
For individuals with autism, however, the topology of salience, defined as the ‘foveal elicitation’ of socially relevant stimuli—exemplified in eye-tracking tests and in studies of preferential attention to social versus non-social entities. If corroborated in larger studies, this finding would point to a major disruption in a highly conserved skill that is thought to be a core ability underlying social engagement and, subsequently, the capacity to attribute intentionality to others. The EM approach early social predispositions are thought to create the basis and the impetus for the subsequent emergence of mental representations that, because of their inseparability from social action, retain their adaptive value (Ami Klin et al., 2003).
Barriers to implementation
In contrary though, when an effectual interference protocol is executed at as juvenile an age as possible, it is most likely to create a vast distinction in the child’s upshot and height of functioning later on in his or her adulthood. The kit is to be in an array of books, medicine and other materials which have been compiled by distinguished medical practitioners who have been focusing on looking for means to treat autism. The risk points out however, that the “social interaction tests” in this protocol may not hold hard evidence on determining a child from being autistic or the otherwise. But then again, even though the protocol is risky, giving the task to parents or guardians, it may help the general public save time and save money for that matter.
I chose this protocol for the reason that several studies have been documented similar to such and therefore, its level of evidence and feasibility in assessing and treating autism is valuable. We have learned that these characteristics—counting, tapping, flicking, or repetitively reiterating words—and habitual behaviors including as an inflexible observance to usual and an obvious struggle to change—are the most explicit signs of autism in a child. In essence, medical teams and concerned parents of these children are collaborating together to find the most efficient and effective protocol in treating autism before it becomes worse in the later life of any autistic child’s life (Simmons, 2007). Most importantly, these new protocols are characterized to be “out-of-the-box” since that it does not only focus on the potency of “psychological” instances but it has dwelled more on tangible factors which are then easier to distinguish.
The provisions of information and supplements to assist parents of young children who have been lately found to be within the autism gamut hastily put into practice an intercession course which is believed to bridge a treatment for autism (Ami Klin et al., 2003). Such protocol has profited a considerable proportion of brood within the vortex of the issue. Further, it is a sarcasm to articulate that it is overpowering to obtain a distressing judgment of autism and then to try to speedily establish a course of action to facilitate the medical challenge.
Conclusions and further remarks
Efficiency of the protocol, evaluation on the possible gaps, barriers to implementation—these are perceivably the astounding thoughts that may sprout in the midst of these shared and introduced protocols. Thus, the sheer actuality that science is always open to new ordeals is an assurance that there is always hope in anything. Even though these questions continue to be clouded by polemics, the results from systematic groups, as well as from classrooms all the way through the country point toward those constructive efforts to instruct students with autism can and do work (Sicile-Kira, 2004). In a like manner, the field of autism and developmental disabilities is beginning to recognize that the questions asked in the past may need to be changed.
There is an increasing identification of values such as enclosure, preference, and self-determination from mischief, and these are now being integrated into programs that concern the issue on assessing and treating autism. Protocols serve as proof that the challenge is well taken.
Ami Klin, W. J., Schultz, R., & Volkmar, F. (2003). The Enactive Mind, or from Actions to Cognition: Lessons from Autism. Journal, 358(1430). Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3558147
Mehl-Madrona, L. (2008). Imaging Children with ADHD: MRI Technology Reveals Differences in Neuro-signaling. Journal. Retrieved from http://www.healing-arts.org/children/
Sicile-Kira, C. (2004). Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Complete Guide to Understanding Autism, Asperger’s Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and Other ASDs. New York, NY: Perigee Trade.
Simmons, K. (2007). Autism Treatments. Journal. Retrieved from http://www.autismtoday.com/alternative_options.htm
The Association for Science in Autism Treatment (2008). About Autism. Journal. Retrieved from www.asatonline.org