Promote person centred approaches in health and social care
Promote person centred approaches in health and social care
1.1. Person centred planning (PCP) should encompass every aspect of a service users support. Effective PCP is designed to ensure that the individual’s needs are always central when creating an effective support plan. Aspects such as an individuals goals, history, communication requirements, likes, dislikes and personal preferences should all be dutifully incorporated to create a fair, effective and unique care plan.
1:1 support with an individual is paramount when gaining an understanding of how their needs are to be met. Providing a chance for them to be involved with the planning process can provide an opportunity for service user empowerment as well as making sure that their support is fully tailored to their needs.
1.2. Using effective care plans that apply person centres values provides the service user the chance to create a plan that it directly linked to their values and needs. Nobody likes to feel as though a generic method of care is applied when considering his or her support needs. Everyone is unique with requirements that relate exclusively to themselves.
Creating a care plan that ensures that person centred values are met will make all the difference when considering an individuals ability to understand, agree with and engage with their support plans. A care plan should always relate directly to the individual involved. This can relate to the way in which any given goal can be effectively achieved or it could relate to how the individual interprets their care plan. For example if a service user found it difficult to read information could be conveyed through the use of pictures. It is incredibly important to ensure person centred values are applied within care plans to ensure that an individual agrees with the goals proposed as well as the best way in which to attain them.
2.3It is important to remain flexible when considering a service users support needs. An individual will always be changing and growing so it is
important that this is reflected within their care plan.
For example when I have previously supported NP goals relating to his ability to gain confidence whilst walking outside had to be met in a way that made the goal attainable. At first a goal of independent walking had been included within his IPP however any strict detail as to why and how this were to be most effectively achieved had to be assessed whilst communicating with him during our 1:1 support sessions. It turned out hat this goal was advised so that he could gain the confidence to go to work independently without the need to get a life from his relative.
As we would commonly visit the supermarket we created a method whereby the journey to the local supermarket was broken into segments where he would walk independently, slowly managing a further and further distance each week. Had I said that he should walk the entire journey by himself without breaking it down into manageable steps this goal would have not been completed. Therefore the effective completion of this goal was only attained through the needs of the individual being met on a personal level.
3.1Mental capacity can be a complicated and ever adapting benchmark when assessing a person’s ability to do what is best for themselves. People must always be allowed to make mistakes as this will always be an inalienable human right of any individual. Ensuring that people do not put themselves or anyone else in direct and immediate danger is the reason behind why the mental capacity act has been created.
Factors such as anxiety and tiredness can affect an individuals ability to express consent which is reflective of their true needs. When a care plan is created it is always best to do it at a time and place where a service user feels relaxed and able to express their needs in a manner that is in alignment with their true feelings. For example at time times when I have supported ES he has been unable to convey a true account of his feelings due to being anxious at the time. If this is the case it is best for ES to spend some time doing relaxation exercises so that he can effectively participate in the design of his IPP.
3.3If consent cannot be readily established an assessment of the persons capacity would need to be carried out. Firstly it would have to be considered that the individual understands what they are being asked to do, why they are being asked to do it and to what the concequences of their choices may be.
It is worth considering if they are relaxed, tired or preoccupied at this time. It can be beneficial to implement relaxation exercises to try and calm down a service user or even getting in touch with their family to ensure that their needs are fully met.
If they are putting themselves or anyone else in immediate danger it can at points be necessary to contact emergency services depending on the severity of the situation. However this should always remain a the last option available when trying to diffuse a situation.
4.1Active participation pertains to a method of support that ensures an individual can participate as independently as possible when completing everyday activities. It is important that a service user feels actively involved in the care they are receiving rather that just having a support plan prescribed to them which does not truly reflect their needs. It provides a chance for individuals to make choices that directly affect their life and as a support worker it is your responsibility to ensure that all the relevant information needed to make an informed has been provided in an impartial manner.
If an individual wishes to access local health care services or social events then you can help them get in touch with the relevant facilities. Accessing the community, especially for people who live by themselves provides an excellent chance for empowering an individual. It can provide an opportunity to meet new people, gain confidence and subsequently become more independent.
5.3Risk assessments are a vital part to an individuals care plan. It ensures that they will not be putting themselves or anyone else in danger. Whilst being an important part of any care plan they should remain as non invasive as possible to ensure that a service users retains the right to make their own choices.
Certain risk assessments will contain a higher risk factor than others. It is when risks such as crossing road in a dangerous manner are enacted that the service users choice can become secondary to the fact that they are putting themselves in immediate danger. Risk factors such as ones that relate to dietary factors often have a smaller risk factor making it more possible to fully involve the service user in the decision making process when trying to effectively manage the risk in question.
5.4If an individual is unhappy about decisions that concern them then a number of different procedures are put in place to guarantee that they are being treated fairly. Issues concerning decisions made in a social setting should often be resolvable by encouraging a service user to talk to the individual with whom they have a disagreement in a civil, informed and fair fashion.
It is important to provide an individual with enough information to make a responsible and informed choice without swaying their decision in any way. Everyone has different needs, values and requirements and it is very important to not mix your views with that of the service user.
If an individual still feels the need to contest a decision concerning them then there are commonly complaints procedures put in place to make sure that their wishes are fully met. If a doctor, a psychotherapist, social worker or any other similar health professional makes a decision relating to them that they do not agree with then it is best to explain the options available to them whilst ensuring they know the consequences of each decision available. It is also important to be sure that they are fully aware of why this dispute has developed, as it can be beneficial at times to explain that person they are in disagreement with may be trying to act in their best interests. However it is always vital that they are treated in an impartial, fair and considerate manner that fully takes into account their rights, values and beliefs.
6.1Identity relates to who we are and many people identify themselves in different ways. The factors included within this can stretch from social standing to religious beliefs or even age. The two main forms of identity are personal and social.
Social identity relates to the way in which we identify with people and social groups. This could include influencing factors such as religious beliefs, hobbies and interests or even political orientation that make it easier to identify with certain individuals or groups.
Personal identity is what relates to everything that we consider belonging to ourselves. This relates to inwardly identifying traits such as values, goals, passions, likes, dislikes, achievements, mistakes and ability. This largely influences the way we think and the decisions we make which is also largely ties in with self-image. A person will most often be aware that what they say, the decisions they make and the way they interact with other people influences how others view them. In other words it is how we think, or our self-image that influences how effectively we befriend certain people or groups.
Self-esteem comes from a positive identity, which is largely influenced, by our self-image or the way we think. If you are dependant on others or feel inadequate in some respect you will have a low self-esteem. If we feel independent and part of an accepting friendship or group then this will nearly always have a positive effect on an individual’s self-esteem.
6.2Many factors contribute to the well being of any individual. According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs this can be broken into 5 levels of personal development.
This starts with physiological needs such as food, water and sleep etc. The next stage is about an individual’s safety where issues such as security of family, employment, property and morality are what is required to feel fulfilled. The next stage is about love and belonging where an individual needs friendship, family and sexual intimacy to feel contented enough to move onto the next stage, which is esteem. This stage contains confidence, achievement and respect of others. The last stage is called self-actualization where an individual will refine their morality, creativity, lack of prejudices and problem solving as well as their ability to accept facts and be spontaneous.
This is a common model used within psychological practices to assess whether an individual has all the necessary factors to ensure that they are completely content and have no detrimental effects to their well being.
6.3When supporting an individual it is important to make sure that you can meet their needs in a way that promotes their sense of identity, self-image and self-esteem.
When I have supported MC he has explained about how he has felt unfairly treated at work. This was mainly due to his lack of career progression as well a request for a transfer not being met, although having been promised. To help with this we constructed an information leaflet about his condition, which we gave to his employers so that they were fully aware of how to best interact with him. I also started communicating with his employer about getting a transfer to a branch that was closer to where he lived. As a result of this he has now been transferred closer to where he lives as well as feeling more valued as an employee. This has helped with develop his self-identity and self image through an increased sense of self worth as well as helping to improve his self-esteem.
7.1Risk assessments are used to develop a suitable level of care for service users. Risk assessments help analyse the needs of the individual by making sure that their care is truly catered to their unique needs.
Risk assessments help decipher whether an individual needs 1:1 support or 2:1 support. They can also allow health care professionals to implement safeguarding techniques to guarantee that the service user will not come into harm. This can include procedures such as giving individuals location devices if they are prone to wondering of whilst not being fully aware of their actions amongst many other advantageous practices to ensure the individuals safety.
7.2Everyone has the inalienable right to be able to make his or her own mistakes in life. No one has the ability to make the right decisions at all times and at times like this people have the opportunity to learn from their mistakes and gain a better understanding of how to avoid similar mishaps in future.
Risk assessments must allow for an individual to be able to make decisions of their own accord. One of the roles of a support worker is to be sure that individuals are provided with all the relevant information to make an informed and sensible decision but it is not up to them to have the final call on a service users final decision.
Risk assessments should always be implemented to prevent a service user from harming themselves or other people but they should not be constraining to the point of refuting an individuals right to make their own decisions in life.
7.3Risk assessments should always be subject to constant change. An individual will be constantly growing and developing and this must at all time be reflected within their risk assessments.
The goal of effective support is help empower service users to the point where they feel able to lead an independent and rewarding life. As this is the goal of any support provider they must be aware that for one to achieve this they need to learn to manage the risks that they are subjected to in an independent manner. Therefore as a person grows and develops towards a heightened state of independence it is important to let them take control of their own lives and that means realising that risks that they may have formerly posed a threat to their well being will be withdrawn as they will know how to autonomously manage these hazards themselves.