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Socialization is the process by which children and adults learn from others. We begin learning from others during the early days of life; and most people continue their social learning all through life (unless some mental or physical disability slows or stops the learning process). Sometimes the learning is fun, as when we learn a new sport, art or musical technique from a friend we like. At other times, social learning is painful, as when we learn not to drive too fast by receiving a large fine for speeding.
Natural socialization occurs when infants and youngsters explore, play and discover the social world around them. Planned socialization occurs when other people take actions designed to teach or train others — from infancy on. Natural socialization is easily seen when looking at the young of almost any mammalian species (and some birds).
Planned socialization is mostly a human phenomenon; and all through history, people have been making plans for teaching or training others.
Both natural and planned socialization can have good and bad features: It is wise to learn the best features of both natural and planned socialization and weave them into our lives. Positive socialization is the type of social learning that is based on pleasurable and exciting experiences. We tend to like the people who fill our social learning processes with positive motivation, loving care, and rewarding opportunities. Negative socialization occurs when others use punishment, harsh criticisms or anger to try to “teach us a lesson;” and often we come to dislike both negative socialization and the people who impose it on us.
There are all types of mixes of positive and negative socialization; and the more positive social learning experiences we have, the happier we tend to be,especially if we learn useful information that helps us cope well with the challenges of life. A high ratio of negative to positive socialization can make a person unhappy, defeated or pessimistic about life. Some people will defend negative socialization, since painful training can prepare people to be ready to fight and die in battle, put themselves at great risk in order to save others, endure torture and hardship. This is true; but many people receive far more negative socialization than they need, and hopefully fewer and fewer people will need to be trained for battle, torture and hardship.
Functions of Different Social Processes
1.Cooperation- The most favored of all the social pocesses, promotes solidarity and cohesion. I.primary cooperation exist when individulas share the task and rewards with all the members, when the sharing itself becomes both the ends and the means. II.Secondary Cooperation is mere formal type of cooperation existing in modern societies and formal groups. 2.Conflict and cooperation- there are generally considered destructive forces, especially the conflict process but both also fulfill certain function in our society or else the process will oersist competition for one encourages people to exert their best.
It stimulates individuals to improve their skills and evidence their knowledge. 3. Differentiation- As individuals they carry with their status or positions in the social system. The status determines the role play in the social situation. As society become more and more complex, roles and function of members in the social system becomes more and more specialized. Differentition role may depend in such factors as sex, age, wealth accumulated and others.
http://www.soc.ucsb.edu/faculty/baldwin/classes/soc142/scznDEF.html Reporter: Danilo L. Sorio Jr.
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