Michael E. Deutsch, Dennis Cunningham and Elizabeth M. Fink ”Twenty Years Later — Attica Civil Rights Case Finally Cleared for Trial” Social Justice, Vol. 18, No. 3 (45), Attica: 1971—1991 A Commemorative Issue (Fall 1991), pp. 13-25 This is a journal uses the commissioner, the director of the correctional, Russel Osward as a center role to recall the Attica Riot, condemning his failure of management of the prison regime and the inhumane assault he had set to end up the uprising. The government had covered the facts of violent assault of the riot for years, but it had been dug out by the protest of the riot survivors 20 years after the riot, and they finally won the negotiations and gained their civil rights. Quotations can be cited for discussing how the negotiation had gone through. It also provides me some background information of the riot. It also gives a sense of what kind of civil rights had been violated and what had been brought back. I can use these rights as reference to seek changes of the State laws.
Vicky Munro-Bjorklund “Popular Cultural Images of Criminals and Prisoners since Attica” Social Justice, Vol. 18, No. 3 (45), Attica: 1971—1991 A Commemorative Issue (Fall 1991), pp. 48-70 This journal focuses on the popular culture images that been shaped after the Attica Riot. It argues that the misunderstanding of the prisoner had been changed since the uprising, and media is also a force that pushes the prisons into reform. Because of stereotype, or the popular cultural images of the prisoners, no one had paid that much attention to the prisoners before the increasing exposure of the real “prisoners’ life” after the Attica Riot. The description of the popular cultural images of the prisoners in Attica is really a good resource to use. This resource is mainly a statement of the prisoners’ image. I do not need to describe the change of the images because I am focusing on the law changes, so nothing will be quoted, but it makes me think in a new way: The affection of exposure from the public or social media.
George Edwards, “Foreword: Penitentiaries Produce No Penitents” forward-penitentiaries produce no penitents, 63 J. Crim. L. Criminology& Police Scl. 159(1972): 154-161 This journal focused on how the social media have done to help the colored people inside the US penal system by using the example of the media affection of the Attica Riot. It focuses on and the cultural images that shape the stereotype of the black people so that they are isolated from “us”. The prisoners’ lives in the prisons have become more transparent through the social media after the Attica Riot when the social media have paid attention to them and cover more about them. Social media is condemning the brutal treatment to the prisoners and the injustice of the sentence through different ways. This paper is searched after the previous one, it is a good resource for seeing how the social media had pushed the State to change their correctional method and give back prisoners’ civil rights.
The Naturalization Act of 1790 am L. Wilbanks The report of the commission on Attica, 37 Fed. Probation 3 (1973): 3-5 This is a prime summery of the national commission report of the Attica Riot published on September 13,1972. It briefly summarized and explained what is the Attica Riot, recorded the cause of it, reported the negotiation of it, and analyzed the assault and the aftermath of it. The main highlight of the riot from the report is that it happened at a time when the prison was about to reform for better, and the violent assault was because the prison inmate was asking for general pardon, but the government refused so, yet the result was still inhumane. This report is brief and comprehensive; it is providing background information for the public to get the general idea of the riot. Part of it can be quoted for a prof of inhumane treatment after the uprising.
Gerald Benjamin and Stephen P. Rappaport, Attica and Prison Reform, Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science, Vol. 31, No. 3, Governing New York State: The Rockefeller Years (May, 1974), pp. 200-213
This journal focuses on reporting the details of the negotiation and the assault of the Attica Riot. Informing us assault is because of the failure of the negotiation. This journal also mentioned that the riot happened when the reform was just about to be taken into practice. After the riot, the reform began, including the facilities change and the treatment changes. Changes are based on the fund from federal and the State, though something still needs to be change, it was already a big step. It is also showing some significant changes such as the change in the employment of the facilities from all whites to Latinos, the shortened time of locking. Though this journal is really detail, I need to quote the changes of laws rather than just physical changes in this piece.
Angela Y. Davis: Are Prisons Obsolete? Seven Stories Press New York, 2003: 10-19, 84-104 Chapter 1 introduces us with an idea of prison reform, which gains the majority supports of the public and it is also the reason for the Attica Riot. It also reveals the idea that not many people outside the prison are willing to think about the life inside the prison, which is going to be a support of why I said that there is not that much attention had been paid for prison treatment. Chapter 5 tells us how a mass of private companies and industries are gaining a lot of profit from the prisoners so that prisoners are not gaining what they are supposed to be gained. Both chapters are supporting the idea of why prisons should be paid attention and be reformed. Thought the industrial complex of the prison is written recently rather than the immediate fact, I would use them as reference of things that haven’t been improved after the riot.
Bruce Burgett and Glenn Hendler, Keywords for American Cultural Studies, New York University Press, 2007: 37-42
This piece gives readers a brief history from the ancient Greek to now of how Citizenship has come to its status in the United State. The civil rights have been violated by the sovereignty, but finally came to equality through the push of institutions, religions, as well as civil movements. This piece also introduces us that how the technology and transportations are important to a new understanding of citizenship. This piece is important for analyzing the prison rights because I am writing through the prospect that prison inmates are also citizens, that they should have the same rights as those normal citizens, but prisoners’ rights are somehow always been valid or even ignored by the U.S. penal system. This article helps to define the citizen in my paper.
Jael Silliman and Anannya Bhattacharjee, Policing the National Body Sex, Race, and Criminalization, South End Press Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2002: 1-48 Chapter one gives us a general idea on how the US penal apparatus has been enforced by the participation of multiple “relevant” institutions. It is showing audiences how those institutional officers themselves are offending the laws but still act as a law executive, and how they use the name of immigration law to violate the rights, especially the rights of the women with colors, they offence their bodies, and use them to incarcerate colored men. This helps to analysis the female prison treatments in recent time. Though it is a good example to show the violation of the civil rights but it might be a little different from the topic that I am writing about because it is mainly focused on the recent time and the immigration laws.
Dylan Rodriguez, Forced Passages, Imprisoned Radical Intellectuals and the U.S. Prison Regime, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, London, 2006
This chapter focuses on the formation of the key word: The War. Though the war is supposedly be the conflict between states, the writer tells readers that the U.S. government is using the war zone as a way to control the citizens. It talks about how the power is contributed through the use of the prison regime. I would like to quote the history of the prison regime to inform that the prison today has a slavery background and that is what makes the rights of prisoners been blurred so reasonably.
U.S. Naturalization Act of 1790, The Transcript of 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865) The naturalization act is the fundamental act to the U.S. citizens. It indicated that free white of good moral character that had lived in the U.S. for two years and swore allegiance. It can be used as a historical accordant to the descriptions of the history of the prison regime. The 13th amendment establishes birthright of citizenship due process and equal protection, formally extends citizenship to newly freed, black men. Both of these laws can be use as track of the citizenship as proves of the inequality of the civil laws roots.
Citizenship refers to the link between state and person who lives in. Citizens by broad should be within the link and should be someone who lives in the sate. Prisoners as a special type of citizen are supposed to have the same civil rights and be protected by the same laws, yet their circumstances put them into a situation where their rights are violated constantly with or without justice. Prison treatments in the US, can been seen as a significant example of the violation of the prisoners’ civil rights.
It has never been paid attentions until the four-day uprising in the Attica Correctional Facility burst out in 1971. Attica Riot was the most violent riot in the entire U.S. history. Through out the uprising, many inhumane treatments of the prisoners have been revealed through the exposure of the social media. As a curiosity on the affects of prison uprisings on the New York State government, this paper is going to discover some significant changes that had been made by the New York State immediately after the riot through the aftermath negotiation of the Attica riot to indicate that the prisoner rights are still not have been treated rightly.