Principles of Assessment
Principles of Assessment
Question 1: Define the key concepts and principles of assessment We should always consider what the assessment experience of assessment is like for our learners. Considering key principles in the designing of our assessments will keep our views fresh and reflective. Key principle 1: Put the learner at the heart of the assessment. The assessment experience should be a motivational one for our learners. It is only by developing the learners understanding of the function of assessments and enabling their development as a learner that a motivational experience is facilitated.
Learners often feel detached or on the periphery of assessment because they perceive it as something that is forced upon them rather than a tool that they can use to aid their development. In order to achieve this, assessment needs to be an ongoing process that the learner can take ownership of by highlighting their own areas for development. Subsequently the learner feels a greater sense of autonomy which helps develop confidence in their own ability. Key principle 2: Assessment needs to provide a view of the whole learner.
Assessment should reflect our objective of developing the whole learner. In order to achieve this, a broader picture should be painted, both for the learner and the assessor. To achieve this we need the learner to draw on experiences that are external to the learning environment. Developing links with the community, peers and family members will enable the learner to make connections between skills that are gained in the classroom and relate them to situations and skills in life. This can only be positive as an increase in motivation and relatedness will inevitably be enjoyed.
Key principle 3: Assessment is integral to teaching and learning. Embedding assessment in teaching and learning is essential to creating personalised learning. In order for this embedding to be successful, we need to recognise the signs that learning is being achieved and by integrating multi-modal experiences and activities, we can generate a multitude of evidence that learning is taking place. Making assessment the focal point of a session facilitates differentiation and highlights individual learners’ needs and potential pathways to future learning.
However, assessment needs to be planned carefully and in detail so that most assessment activities can be learner led with minimal input from the tutor/assessor. Key principle 4: Assessment includes reliable judgements about how performers are performing related, where appropriate, to national standards. Linking assessment is essential for consistency, tracking progress and evaluating the impact of the assessments. National standards ensure consistency within the specific educational establishment and across various institutions, which is a minimum entitlement of all learners.
Evidence can be shared by tutors and assessors within a department, a college and within an entire sector in order to share best practice and gain confidence. Through national standards, learners have the opportunity to track their progress and compare it with other learners and institutions. Question 2: Explain the responsibilities of the assessor. First and foremost, assessors should be the guardians of standards by not comparing the work of one individual to the work of another’s. Using the assessment cycle will add structure to the tutor and enable them to integrate a continuous process of assessment throughout the curriculum.
Stage 1: Assessment design – quality assessments should be planned to give the learners the opportunity to engage with formative tasks. They should also get the chance to undertake summative tasks to demonstrate their learning. The use of realistic, authentic experiences will help energize the learners. Stage 2: Communication – this phase is where the standards and content of the assessment is communicated to the learners. Parameters of assessment outcomes are set. Stage 3: marking – marking is not just about providing a grade.
Techniques and activities should be introduced so that learners and peers can actively take part in the grading process. This can assist students in the understanding of the task and also inform future learning. Stage 4: Analysis of results – consistency in marking is essential to help keep learners motivated. If inconsistencies are seen in a group, maintaining positivity becomes difficult. Learners should explore results and be offered the opportunity to comment on their grading. Stage 5 – Feedback – possibly the most important element of the assessment cycle.
Supportive, informative and constructive feedback should be offered to enable students to see how they performed. The feedback should include advice on how to improve their learning and future performances (feed-forward feedback). Feedback should be offered continuously and in a cyclic manner. Question 3: identify the regulations and requirements relevant to assessment in your own area of practice. Regulations • It is a requirement that centres provide CYQ with the following: • List of named assessors with signatures • Details of all assessors’ qualifications and experience (CVs).
• Copies of all relevant certificates • Clear specification of the assessment roles and responsibilities • A well planned assessment process from induction to final assessment day plan • A valid and reliable assessment of knowledge and skills that is appropriate to the CYQ syllabus and aligned to the national standards • Evidence of Assessor/internal quality assurer meetings to review and standardise assessment practice to meet national standards • Centre policy and practice in relation to fair assessment provision for any individual assessment needs of learners Requirements.
• Carrying out assessments in accordance with CYQ assessment specifications and assessment documentation • Ensuring evidence provided by learners is sufficient to meet CYQ requirements • Providing feedback to the learner about performance and achievement • Devising and agreeing an assessment action plan with the learner as appropriate • Completing all relevant assessment forms and returning them to the internal quality assurer/Centre Contact • Providing feedback to the internal quality assurer • Upholding the standards of the award http://www. cyq. org. uk/files/role-of-the-assessor.
pdf Question 4: Compare the strengths and limitations of a range of assessment methods with reference to the needs of individual learners. |Assessment method |Strengths |Limitations |Meeting individual needs | |Group work |-Seeing peoples’ point of view. |-Learners with more introverted |-Social loafers can be put into groups | | |-Learn from one another. |personalities may be uneasy in a |that include environmental influencers | | |-Improves social interaction. |group situation. |to ensure an even workload. | |Peer and self-assessment |-Increased autonomy.
|-Validity can be reduced due to |-Can inform summative marking by | | |-Encourages self reflection. |self-grading. |assessing individual contributions. | | | |-Reliability can be reduced due | | | | |to peers grading each other. | | |Patchwork texts |-Help contribute to an holistic |-Intensive prep time to produce |-Embedding literacy helps achieve level| | |understanding of content. |resources. |2 content. | | | |-Complexity of task means less |-Encourages diversity through | | | |able learners need additional |interaction with many people | | | |guidance. |continuously. | http://www. reading. ac.
uk/web/FILES/eia/AZ_of_Assessment_Methods_FINAL_table. pdf Question 5: Summarize key factors to consider when planning assessment. Disability Adequate provision must be made for students who have disabilities and / or special educational needs when designing and planning assessments. Legislation requires learners’ needs to be anticipated (The Equality Act 2010). This is so that measures are in place to meet needs before they are actually required. These measures can potentially be beneficial for all learners. Know what you are assessing Criterion-referenced assessment is the most commonly used method of assessment.
We must ensure that assessment criteria are clearly defined so that learners are fully aware as to what is expected of them. This will also keep the feedback specific to the assessment and specific to the learning outcomes, enabling learners to highlight potential future learning pathways. Timing your assessments If you conduct formative assessments at too late a stage, constructive feedback cannot be acted on, making the assessment pointless. Conversely, summative assessments being conducted too early will take away the learners ability to develop their knowledge and can lead to reduced confidence.
You must make an effort not to over assess. Too much assessment can mean less time to reflect, feedback and act on areas for development. Question 6: Summarize the types of risks that may be involved in assessment in your own area of responsibility. Health & safety – the suitably of the environment must be considered during the planning stage of assessment. Maximum utilization of preventative measures should be observed e. g. risk assessments should be carried out to minimize risk of injury. Equipment checklists should be completed to ensure that any equipment being used is fit for purpose.
First aid kits should be available if required as well as communication to relevant health and safety officers and assigned first aiders. Timescales – particular attention should be paid to timescale parameters in assessment. Every effort should be made to ensure that adequate time is provided for the assessment to be completed and for feedback to be provided to the learners. It is essential that time parameters are realistic and achievable for ALL learners. Learning impairment – any learners with visual, hearing or any other learning impairment should be considered during assessment.
Different levels of differentiation should be utilized to ensure that ALL learners’ needs are adequately provided for. For example, you could provide larger print or zoom for learners with a visual impairment or writing with different coloured markers on a whiteboard for learners with dyslexia. Technology – when using assessments that include the use of technology, it is always a possibility of technological failure. Weather – if planning practical assessments in an outside environment, you are always planning against the elements, particularly in this country.
Question 7: explain how to minimise risks during the planning process Adequate preparation of the assessment environment is essential to the provision of the safety of the learners. A risk assessment should always be carried out before the assessment begins. The appropriateness of the environment is also a major consideration. The assessment environment should suit the type of assessment that you are carrying out. For instance, when planning practical assessments in the gym, it is down to me as the assessor to ensure that the environment is fit for purpose i. e.the equipment in the gym must be regularly safety checked and maintained.
There should be documented evidence that safety checks and maintenance has taken place that can be checked by Internal and External Quality Assurers. Any repairs that are required should be carried out within a reasonable timescale and documented so as not to disrupt the smooth running of the programme. Assessment should always assess what is meant to be assessed, in accordance with the curriculum and awarding body specifications. Failure to adhere to these guidelines will mean that the assessment will be invalid.
Consistently meeting the set standards of the awarding body and the institution will make the assessments reliable. This means that the assessments will be reliable and consequently, any external or independent assessors or IQA/EQA can make judgements at any given time. Keeping learners informed as to the time, place and nature of their assessment will enable them to prepare adequately for it. It will also act as a timetable for us as tutors/assessors to enable us to prepare adequately and make sure that there is sufficient quality and relevance in delivery prior to the assessment taking place.
It is always a good idea to share your assessment ideas with colleagues before submitting them to learners. Sharing ideas and information with peers is a great way discovering and enabling best practice. Question 8: Summarise the types of information that should be made available to learners and others involved in the assessment process The course planner is made available to learners from day zero of the course. The course planner contains all key information as gleaned from the scheme of work. Key information would include; session topics, aims and objectives, activities and assessment methods.
The course planner is available on moodle so that learners can access it. In the sessions I make the session aims and objectives available to learners from the moment they walk through the door. Immediately, the learner is aware what is required of them in the session. Leading from the aims and objectives, the learners are made aware of the activities that they will be doing and how these activities relate to the objectives. I will usually do this through a prezi. All prezi’s are subsequently embedded onto moodle. I embed web links into the relevant moodle page so that learners can research relevant information from credible sources.
It is crucial that timescales are made available on the course planner and assignment deadlines are reiterated constantly throughout the duration of the course. Learners are always made aware of the, methods of assessments that will be taking place. This enables the learner to prepare themselves for the assessment and fill any gaps in their knowledge that may exist. Question 9: Explain how peer and self assessment can be used effectively to promote learner involvement and personal responsibility in the assessment of learning |Peer assessment |Self assessment | |Strengths |limitations |Strengths |limitations | | | | | |.
Subject: Educational psychology,
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 26 September 2016
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