1 Introduction With the development of science and technology, people increasingly feel the importance of talent. “The science and technology is the primary productive force. ”(Deng, 1998, p. 57) In China, more and more people realize that to accept education is a necessary process for growing up. The core part of the education is primary education. In China, primary education divided into the six-year and school is the basic organization of the primary education. Before this, children would receive the preschool education which is kindergarten. It is a short transition that maybe three years or two years.
In primary education, children will accept a lot of new knowledge, like speaking, reading, singing, listening, writing, counting, painting, etc. Of course, they must learn English. However, it seems give these too many jobs to learn, for them, some children just seven or twelve years old, it is a hard work. There is a system named “Nine-year compulsory” in China. This is a legally binding. It includes six years primary education and three years middle education. Primary education is the basis of the entire education to improve the quality of education as a whole, must start from primary education.
View from the life course of development, the primary stage is the most important. It is the most productive period which grows body and receives knowledge. Primary education is the beginning of the school education of children. At this stage, the children will take place three aspects of the transformation of the meaning of life enlightenment. First of all, it is a transformation process from casual gaming activities to convert to a purpose. Secondly, children will learn how to organize group activities. Thirdly, it is a transformation from oral language to written words.
These transformations allow children to break through the restrictions of time and space, to broaden the understanding of the scope, so as to promote the comprehensive development of a significant impact. It can be seen from the ideological and moral formation of children, the knowledge capacity development and enhancement of the physical fitness will be at the primary stage of education officially started. 2 The key developments affecting the delivery of the primary education The quality of primary education development affects the deeper level of education. There are some factors that influence the development of primary education.
2. 1 Teaching material In this section, there are three aspects. 2. 1. 1 Books Most Chinese primary school uses a uniform book. These books contain a lot of basic knowledge. For example, children want to learn more knowledge about history, they can read some history books and learn new knowledge, if they want too more, they will ask teachers for helping or ask these families or borrow some books from the library. However, these books are some of the very basic knowledge and the basic knowledge largely confined to the thinking of the children. For some smart kids, these could not satisfy them.
Educational books all audit by the State, which ensures that students learn all useful knowledge. However, this also limits the source of more knowledge. Students want to learn more knowledge only by means of the external factors. There is no innovation on educational books, year after year, repeating the same content, the negative effect is obvious, single teaching methods, teachers thinking aging or the other affects. These to some extent hindered the development of primary education. 2. 1. 2 Equipments After reform and opening-up, China’s economic develop rapidly. At the same time, the development of education is obvious.
From the equipments, it has a huge change. Previously, primary school just had some classrooms with a blackboard and a desk and students could not get more knowledge without books. Teachers used the chalk to teach. As we known, chalk is not a healthy product which could generate a lot of powder in the course of using. Liu (2002) introduces that these powders will fall into the eyes of the children who sitting on the front row, perhaps it will impact their vision. The blackboard is a simple device, but has too much trouble to use, need to repeatedly wipe and waste time.
Nowadays, teaching equipment comprehensive update. Computers used into teaching to make the whole process easier. Teacher can query information anytime, anywhere and guide students correctly. The chalk has its substitute, black oil pen and this document does not generate a lot of powder. The projectors are installed on many classrooms. This is a very convenient device. It can completely replace the blackboard as a new teaching facility. Total in all, the teaching equipments updated promote the further development of primary education. It makes the process of teaching more easily and convenient for students’ studying.
Take the teaching from the hard work to a relax job. 2. 1. 3 Websites In the previous education system, the teaching tool is fixed, like books, blackboards, chalk, etc. These are some simple teaching methods. With the advent of the era of science and technology, more and more teaching tools available. Like the Internet. Some schools will establish their own website and teaching students how to use it. After class, if some students want to learn more, they could go back home and open the computer to search some information what they want. It is not hard for students, even though they may seven or eight years old.
Using the website to teach has already begun in some rich area. However, it maybe impact students’ vision. Sometimes, excessive use of computer is not a good method, the students need to work and rest. In recent years, distance education has become a little popular. It is a teaching way which through the network, student can stay at home and learn some knowledge what they want to know. This is an important reform on primary education. It is a new teaching way and convenient for studying. More and more parents would like to choose this way to help children for their study.
The teaching material reform and upgrade bring more changes on the primary education. This is a contribution to improve the quality of primary education levels. 2. 2 Teachers Teachers are the heritage of human civilization, they promote the primary education rapid and healthy development, training high-quality innovative talents and teachers are the key. Teachers specialized has these requirements and the inevitable trend of the development of the modern education, it is an important orientation of Chinese teacher education reform and becoming the focus of attention of the community.
In the context of the new curriculum reform, the majority of primary school teachers should face the challenges of the new curriculum reform, an important way to enhance the professional development of teachers. “This is both an internal need to improve the social status of teachers, and is one of the important measures to promote the improvement of the quality of teachers. ” (Feng, 2001, p15) There are two sides to promote the professional development of primary school teachers and these are better for them. Firstly of all, establish to adapt to the new curriculum reform and humane education concept.
Advanced educational philosophy should be reflected in the “people-oriented” basic starting point. “People-oriented” is to “every student-centered”. Education sacred duties and obligations are to respect students, to care for students and to serve the students. This requires teachers took respect for humanity and caring for students, connect with the schools, classrooms, students and their own life course. In the teaching process, take the students in the dominant position and let them become masters of learning.
The teacher should shift from the traditional imparting knowledge to the participants, guide and collaborator, from the dominated by traditional teaching to the student organizers, facilitator and mentor, and continuous self-learning to improve their overall quality, in order to adapt to the high-speed development of the social. Secondly, continuously update their professional knowledge and promote professional skills upgrading. Teachers’ professional knowledge in addition to the common cultural knowledge, subject expertise, knowledge and education disciplines, also including a higher level of subject knowledge and the frontiers of knowledge in the discipline.
Now, the Internet become more and more widely, textbooks, students and the teaching process requires changing, This necessarily requires teachers should be thought of advancing with the times, update teaching concepts and teaching methods, efforts to learn all aspects of cultural knowledge to enhance the culture and knowledge of conservation, and constantly update professional knowledge structure in order to adapt to the needs of the new curriculum reform.
“Education skills, not take genius of art, but it is a need to learn in order to master the professional. ”(Makarenko, 1925, p. 26) This is the teaching skills of teachers put forward higher requirements. They may have the application of modern information technology capabilities, the ability to change teaching methods and the ability of the teaching and research. Teachers are important in the primary education, they are directly communicated with the students. Change the teaching methods is a long-time job, the teachers need make their own contribution to the primary education.
2. 3 Regional differences The difference between urban and rural areas in China is an old and reality problem and differences in urban and rural education are a major difference between urban and rural areas. The urban and rural differences in education are a hot topic which Chinese has been compulsory talking about. In the first place, there are the curriculum differences. Urban primary school curriculum completely, content is more colorful, and more of the characteristics of the times.
From the overall point of view, urban primary courses in addition to quality education courses, as well as auxiliary and special courses, that is to say a city primary school in addition to the emphasis on quality education, more emphasis on the training of primary expertise. However, rural primary school curriculum in big problem there is a considerable part of the vulnerability, quality of rural primary education curriculum is far less rich than the county. Secondly are the quality differences. The quality difference is class quality problems.
At the primary school level, because there is no school pressure, in the city, the primary schools pay more attention to the quality of the child’s education, educating people to “qualified & expertise” system, in addition to basic quality education, but also concerned about the student’s strengths and teachers for ethics construction and scientific research activities. Rural primary schools, although publicize the quality of education on the very important position, but compared to the city, is relatively simple.
Many of the activities carried out by the rural primary schools and courses are reached less than the requirements specified, also some aspects influence on quality issues. Thirdly, there exist some differences in student starting point. For example, in city, children begin kindergarten when they are three years old, while the rural areas go to primary school seven or eight years old. The city’s children have more a year than rural areas and in the primary school they begin on English and computer classes. This is impossible in rural areas.
3 The environmental and market forces of primary education In some extent, the environmental factors and market forces will be able to change the system of primary education and then let them carried some education reform. 3. 1 Environmental of primary education 3. 1. 1 Macro aspects In China, the country vigorously supports the development of primary education and developed a nine-year compulsory education system. It will be by the way of the policy ensure the development of primary education. In the policy, the development of primary education is to get national recognition and encouragement.
The State encourages primary founder various forms, in order to absorb more children to learn and to promote the development of the EFA (Education For All). With the development of science and technology, the primary education has also been a lot of development. Continuous modernization of school facilities, continuously improve the quality of teacher resources and the opening of the primary education. These are to promote the realization of the reform of primary education. Primary education first to follow the trend of the times, constantly updated.
It may church more students’ useful knowledge and to do the basic role of the education system in the whole education. Nowadays, people have a common view, talent is the key. In the social, people come into contact with new knowledge, new technology and new products. They need more expertise to enrich their knowledge. Therefore, in order to adapt to the development of the times, there is a growing emphasis on the culture of education. People want their own kids to receive good teaching and learning from a wealth of knowledge during these early ages, so that they can maintain their own advantage in the incentive competition.
3. 1. 2 Micro aspects The teaching environment directly determines the quality of teaching is good or bad. First of all, the teaching and learning environment must be open. As we all know, China has experienced two thousand years of feudal society, a lot of people’s minds is still relatively conservative. Chinese people are reluctant to premature acceptance of the exotic new knowledge, because of their traditional thinking. However, in education, this idea must be eliminated. Western countries education is worth the learning of the Chinese people.
Especially primary education, it should eliminate backward thinking earlier and inject new knowledge in the child of the enlightenment. As we have already mentioned, teaching facilities played a key role in the teaching and learning environment. The addition of the new technology makes the teaching process becomes simple. The popularity of the Internet allows students to learn what they want to learn anytime and anywhere. The teaching facilities constantly updated promoted the development of primary education. The relationship between teachers and students may be the most indispensable one in the teaching environment.
Students learn and teachers teach. This is a mutual relationship. The teacher must adhere to the “student-centered” teaching philosophy and teach some practical knowledge to the students truly rather than working for wages. Students should try these best to learning and do not waste learning time in school. How to deal with the relationship between the teachers and students will be a real problem in the primary education. 3. 2 Market forces China is a country which has the largest population in the world. There are too many students want to learn.
The government-controlled schools cannot satisfy the needs of so many students. Then we have to face a problem, admission. As a compulsory education, the primary education is universal cognitive. The government will make the greatest efforts to ensure that all children who have already reached the school age could go to school. Therefore, schools need to expand enrollment. However, if some schools expand their enrollments, how they could ensure the quality of teaching? Of course, the schools which own the richer power could undertake completely.
Tang (2005) explained that for some relative poverty schools, this is a kind of pressure. They cannot provide some good education facilities for students to learn. They need some help from the government or other departments. For students who are mass enrollment, they also need equal learning opportunities and conditions. Because of this reason, the growing number of primary school gets the recognition and support of the government and the community. Private primary school has strong financial, they are able to attract many good teachers and purchase some much better teaching equipments.
So, more and more parents would like to send their children to the private primary school to receive a good education. Now, the facts have proved that their choices are correct. In China, maybe the public primary school still located in the main location, but the increase of private primary school is an indisputable fact. It alleviates the adverse consequences of the expansion of enrollment in some extent. On the other hand, technological advances have brought not only more opportunities for primary schools, but also let them face more challenges.
The first is education reform. In today’s market economy, everyone learned how to obtain their own interests. As parents, they are more willing to their children have some better conditions for learning. This allows many primary schools are facing the challenge of insufficient enrollment. Primary school may be appropriate to update teaching facilities, in line with the requirements of the development of science and technology. In this way, it is not only can improve the quality of teaching, but also can be obtained under the conditions of the market economy more satisfaction.
4 Marketing strategies of primary education 4. 1 Foreign language primary school As we all know, English is the most widely used language in the world, it has been one of the required courses of the world’s schools, especially in China. Almost all parents hope their children will be able to learn English or the other foreign languages in primary education. This will be a good foundation in learning life. (Zhao, 2003, p. 89) The world is opening, in order to comply with the direction of the development of society.
The government encourages and supports the establishment of the foreign language primary school. Now, after several years of development, the practice has proved the founder of the foreign language primary school is successful. More and more parents would like send their children to the foreign language school because they trust this school will teach better. In China, many foreign language primary schools take the teaching of foreign languages and computer teaching as their characteristics. Some schools also opened German, French and the other common foreign languages courses.
Each school has its own characteristics, as a whole, the marketing strategies of the foreign language primary school are divided into the following categories. Foreign language primary school has been successful because they understand what the parents thinking about. In Marketing, we call it consumer psychology. Every parent wants their children to become much better, so if the children can learn one or more foreign language, they will be proud of them. It is also good for children later study life. Foreign language primary school could satisfy their requirements.
It offers so many choices for parents and children what they want to learn. Compared with the normal primary school, the foreign language school has many courses which the normal primary school does not have. It can offer the extra studying ways for children and help them learn more new knowledge. In China, the normal primary school attracts too many students. We can imagine that what a school can teach so many students, if like this, there may be eighty students in a single classroom. It is a limit to the number of the teacher. How the teacher could ensure every student to understand what they teach?
However, in foreign language primary school, there are small classrooms with twenty or thirty students. Every student could get a much better education. If they do not understand what the teacher teaching, they can ask them for help and the teacher have enough time to teach them one by one, because they do not have too many students, just twenty or thirty. Good teaching cannot be separated from the advertising campaign. In this regard, the foreign primary school is better than normal primary school. Chinese primary school is a public education, so it is unusual to take some advertisements.
Which schools chosen are based on the willing of the parents. Almost parents will choose the famous one because it is easy for their children to join in a better middle school. The foreign language primary school does not like this. They will take many advertisements on paper, television or Internet. They want all parents to understand them and choose them. The newspaper is a commonly used mode of transmission of the foreign language primary school, regardless of the size of the primary scale, they will use newspapers do marketing communications.
The newspaper is one of the cheapest of all means of communication, which also reduce costs for publicity. Most of the foreign language primary school has a large number of network marketing communications, but really play a better role in the account for a minority. The television advertisement may be the most expensive one, most foreign language primary school does not choose the television media to spread, but the schools will be make some short-term television media placements in order to shape the brand. The website is another means of communication which the foreign language primary school used.
Chinese normal primary school does not have these own website. Generally, the education department will establish a common website which includes education, culture, physical training and the other public services. The main primary school will be a part of this website. People could search it but just get a little information. This is not convenient for people who want to know more about this primary school. They have to make some phone or go to the school. Nowadays, the Internet has developed quickly and it has become the most popular tool for communicating with each other.
Therefore, it is very important to have a separate website. It could offer much useful information for some people who want to learn more about you. Almost foreign language primary schools do this. They have their own website and use it to show something about themselves. It is a good way to accept the supervision of the people. If there are some problems, they will correct rapidly. This will make parents feel comfortable because they can get everything what they want and do not need to go out from home. Establish a website is also a most powerful measure in Marketing.
The foreign language primary school uses this measure to get more loyalty. Different from the normal primary schools, the foreign language primary schools need to make some efforts on the public relationship. The fewer schools take marketing public relations behavior and promote enterprise behavior of public relations for the foreign language primary school spread acceptance, such as the reputation of the news conference, a variety of excellent title to better promote school psychology in the dissemination of the audience to accept degrees.
It is not like the normal primary school because it is a new product and need to do something let people accept. For foreign language primary school, the enrollment rate is one of the main questions. This is a common view during all primary school. How to improve the enrollment rate and send students to a better middle school is important. Every parent hopes their children learn more knowledge and get good grades. Therefore, strong teaching force and good teaching measure can solve this question. The foreign language primary school can do this and it will be attract more students come to study.
Perhaps the normal primary school do not need brand because they have the support from the government, but the foreign language primary school need. It needs to improve the brand awareness and reputation, enhance brand influence. Only in this way, the foreign language primary school will develop smoothly. The foreign language primary school is different from the normal primary school. It could offer many different studying resources and wide students’ interesting possibly. In China, it develops quickly and opportune. It also raises the level of primary education and makes their contribution to Chinese education.
4. 2 The primary school attached to the university In China, this is a new kind of primary school. Everyone would like to join in a good university, it shows that you will have a good future. Chinese students use their twelve years or much longer in order to get a good university’s offer. This is a fierce competition. From the primary education, the parents always try their best to sending their children to a good school for studying. As we discussed above, the foreign language primary school has been the first choice of some parents.
In recent years, this new school, the primary school attached to the university, has become more and more popular. The primary school attached to the university is connecting with the university. Almost this school not only has primary education, but also has the higher education. The university will give some concessions for the primary school. It means that there are two students with the same grade, the university will choose the one who had been studying at the primary school. Therefore, for the university, many parents send their children to the primary school.
Different from the normal primary school, the primary school attached to the university has a different work to do. It will teach students some knowledge about the university, like history, culture and so on. That means if you study here, if you do not too worse, you will be admitted by the university. Of course, everything is depending on your grade. Brand is the core of the primary school attached to the university. Brand marketing is important. For primary school, if it gets some powerful university’s support, it will be attract students for coming easily. Brand has its influence and it is great.
Perhaps some parents did not listen this primary before, but they knew this university, and this university was a famous one, it was possible for them to send their children to this primary school. In this regard, the most famous is the primary school attached to the Peking University. As we all know, Peking University is one of the famous university in the world. In China, it ranked No. 1. Every student wants to get an offer from Peking University. It is too hard. The parents send their children to this primary school because they know this is nearly to success.
If their children work hard, this is possible. Therefore, brand brings not only the powerful influence, but also a successful exertion. The primary school attached to the university also has its particular teaching method. Sometimes, it will hold some events, let student wide their eyes. Communicate with the other international primary school is a general measure. This is an innovation. In Chinese primary education teaching history, there is not this method. The reason that the students are too young, they could not communicate with the foreign students clearly. This teaching way is a brave accept.
The school teaches students how to speak. You can paint, write or use your body language to exchange with the others or ask teachers for help. This method is fully developed the independent skills of the students. All parents like this, in their opinions, the school give their children a good stage to show their own skill. It is contributed to their growth. In the primary school attached to the university, the school uses a special management method. No matter when and where, the students need to get together, like a family. They study together, eat together and play together.
The purpose of this is improving their collective sense. It is not seen in the normal primary school. In the normal primary school, after classes, the students all go back home, there is not enough time let them get together. They make friends at the back home road. When they rise from the grade one to the grade two, they have to make some new friends because the old friends are separated to the other classes. In the primary school attached to the university, from grade one to grade six, the students all get together. So, they have a good friendship with each other, it is important for them.
The students who study in the primary school attached to the university will study hard. They know that if they do not work hard, they may be fired. This is a policy in the school. Someone who do not work hard or get more bad grades, they will be fired. Just like the tiger eat the rabbit. In normal primary school, it will be not happen. Everyone will be graduated smoothly because they do not want to go to a good university at that time. The students in the primary school attached to the university understand that they must work hard in order to get the university’s offer several years later.
They have this realization from the first day when they come here. Perhaps it will give them too much pressure, when all is said and done, “they are child, and they should not have such a burden. ” (Li, 2003, p. 31) The primary school attached to the university is a kind of the primary school but it is different from the normal primary schools. The students here have more responsibility than the normal primary school. In recent years, this kind of the primary school has become more and more popular. In the earlier, people do not know what it is meaning, when they understand it, they know it is a good chance for their children.
It will practice them and improve their independent ability. Another reason for choosing this primary school is that parents are so busy that do not have enough time accompany them. The primary school attached to the university is an once again reform for the Chinese primary education. 5 Conclusion Primary education is the basis of the entire education, if want to improve the quality of education, it must start from the primary education. The primary education enlightenment on life is mainly reflected in three aspects. Firstly, it is a role of the enlightenment in the aspects of physical fitness.
The primary school is a period of rapid development of the body of a child, the child’s body than young children to much more robust, but with a heavy, long-lasting learning tasks or weak in comparison. Therefore, concerned about the physical and mental health of children, and enhance the physical fitness of children in primary education is very important. Secondly, it is the enlightenment role in learning knowledge. The primary school children are in the intellectual potential of the gradually revealed and rapid development period, an important task of primary education should enlighten children’s intellectual development.
Thirdly, it is an ideological and moral enlightenment. Primary schools can show the personality in order to provide children with the opportunity to actively choose, allow children to form healthy and happy state of mind and the ability to act independently. Primary education is the basis of the public education. It teaches student how to learn and use some learning tools and teach them how to survive when these parents do not accompany them. The school also teaches students to make new friends and take some good friendships. It is necessary to develop the primary education in order to improve the whole quality of the people.
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Subject: History of education,
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 4 October 2016
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