With the gradual rise of more complex civilizations in the river valleys of Egypt and Babylonia, knowledge became too complicated to transmit directly from person to person and from generation to generation. To be able to function in complex societies, man needed some way of accumulating, recording, and preserving his cultural heritage. So with the rise of trade, government, and formal religion came the invention of writing, by about 3100 BC.
Because firsthand experience in everyday living could not teach such skills as writing and reading, a place devoted exclusively to learning–the school–appeared. And with the school appeared a group of adults specially designated as teachers–the scribes of the court and the priests of the temple. The children were either in the vast majority who continued to learn exclusively by an informal apprenticeship or the tiny minority who received formal schooling. (http://history-world. org/history_of_education. htm, 2014) Soon the creation of schools became more structured and systematized, and was adapted into practice around the world. History of Philippine Education
Education in the Philippines has undergone several stages of development from the pre-Spanish times to the present. In meeting the needs of the society, education serves as focus of emphases/priorities of the leadership at certain periods/epochs in our national struggle as a race. As early as in pre-Magellanic times, education was informal, unstructured, and devoid of methods. Children were provided more vocational training and less academics by their parents and in the houses of tribal tutors. The pre-Spanish system of education underwent major changes during the Spanish colonization.
The tribal tutors were replaced by the Spanish Missionaries. Education was religion-oriented. It was for the elite, especially in the early years of Spanish colonization. Access to education by the Filipinos was later liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863 which provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government; and the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. Primary instruction was free and the teaching of
Spanish was compulsory. Education during that period was inadequate, suppressed, and controlled. The defeat of Spain by American forces paved the way for Aguinaldo’s Republic under a Revolutionary Government. The schools maintained by Spain for more than three centuries were closed for the time being but were reopened on August 29, 1898 by the Secretary of Interior. The Burgos Institute in Malolos, the Military Academy of Malolos, and the Literary University of the Philippines were established.
A system of free and compulsory elementary education was established by the Malolos Constitution. An adequate secularized and free public school system during the first decade of American rule was established upon the recommendation of the Schurman Commission. Free primary instruction that trained the people for the duties of citizenship and avocation was enforced by the Taft Commission per instructions of President McKinley. Chaplains and non-commissioned officers were assigned to teach using English as the medium of instruction. (http://www. deped. gov. ph/index. php/about- deped/history, 2014).
Enrollment Statistics in the Philippines According to the latest data from UNESCO as shown below, there has been a minimal increase in the net enrolment rate (NER) in the Philippines from 2007 onwards for both primary and secondary schools in the country. 1 / 2 Majority of the population in schools all over the country are from the primary level who are children from ages 6 to 11. Hence, more primary level students are expected to be enrolled in both public and private schools within the country. (http://www. uis. unesco. org/DataCentre/Pages/countryprofile.
aspx? code=6080&SPSLanguage =EN, 2014) Related Studies Facilitate Enrollment Process through Automation One of the most effective ways to centralize and manage information efficiently is by implementing a web-based electronic document management and workflow system. Electronic document management (EDM) software stores electronic files and makes them accessible to multiple departments and individuals who are authorized to access the information, and helps staff to manage the various documents effectively.
When coupled with automated workflow, an institution can standardize and improve the processes related to these documents, boost employee productivity, and – believe it or not – even increase enrollment. (http://www. docfinity. com/facilitate- your-enrollment-process-through-automation/#sthash. 4oX17H0E. dpuf) Is the Net Enrollment Rate Estimate of the Philippines Accurate? By Dalisay S. Maligalig and Sining Cuevas The net enrollment rate (NER) is one of the most important and cited education indicators. It is the leading education indicator for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the World Declaration on Education for All (EFA), to which the Philippines is committed.
The NER is also used to monitor education policies and programs of the government as well as to identify areas that need intervention. Because of the declining trend of NER since 2001, the Philippines is not expected to attain the common goal of the government, MDGs, and EFA—to achieve universal primary education by 2015. Moreover, the government has to redirect its plans on basic education. (http://www. adb. org/sites/default/files/pub/2010/ADB-Briefs-2010-2-Net-Enrolment-Rate-PHI. pdf, 2014) POWERED BY TCPDF (WWW. TCPDF. ORG).
Subject: Primary school,
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 15 October 2016
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