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An Expert System (ES) is a problem-solving computer program that achieves good performance in a specialized problem domain that is considered dif cult and requires specialized knowledge and skill. It is specialized computer developed software that is intended to imitate like a humanexpert. This computer program solves the tough complexproblems by using mathematical equations. Expert system isused in many areas like nance, computer design, agricultureetc. but medicine is the most popular area that assists physiciansto early prevention and cure of vulnerable diseases like lungcancer, heart diseases, kidney problems, skin cancer, diabetesand many more.
On studying several diseases, the root cause forall the diseases comes to the drug addiction. Drugs are eatingthe whole nation. The root cause of every problem comes todrugs. Plenty of research is done on drugs and its ill effectsbut it’s still a major issue in the society today. The motive is todevelop an expert system which can predict whether the personis addicted to drugs or not so as to control and aware every drugabuser as they can test repeatedly to cure themselves withoutany hesitation.
An expert system is developed using decisiontree ID3 algorithm – a psychological test which contains 65000+rules that distinguishes SEVERE, MODERATE and LOW stateof the user according to the test answered by the user in eachstate whether he is addicted to drugs.
Drugs, drugs, drugs, drugs!!!
The foremost social eater inthe society that is trapping from adults to school children intoday’s world. Drug addiction is one of the major problems intoday’s society.
It is one of the chronic mental disorders thatresults in a compulsive behavior to seek and consume drug. Recent statistics show that about 15 percent of the worldpopulation is addicted with some sort of drug. Drugs arethe chemicals that affect the person’s body and even causepermanent disorder. The steep rise in the disability, mentaldisorder, and deaths are due to drug involvement in the body.
The social trends, ego and status have taken high position inthe society. Modern drugs are there to feel high in the society,to work more in the competitive world, and peer pressure theforemost reason to initiate drugs. Youth is at alarming stagethat needs to be controlled. People of all ages suffer theharmful consequences of drug use and addiction.
Teens who use drugs may act out and do poorly in schoolor drop out. Using drugs when the brain is still developingmay cause changes in brain and put the user at increased1Information Technology Dept, Institute of Aeronautical Engineering,Hyderabad, TS, India. 2Associate Professor, Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, IT Dept,Hyderabad, TS, India. risk of dependence.
Adults who use drugs have problems like thinking clearly,remembering, and paying attention. They may develop poorsocial behaviors and their work performance and personal relationships suffer.
Parents drug use mean stresslled homes, as well as childabuse and neglect. Such conditions may harm the well-beingand development of children in the home.
Babies exposed to drugs in the womb may be bornpremature and underweight. This exposure can slow downthe child’s ability to learn and affects the behavior later inlife. According to the world drug report, 2009 there were 2,57,152,582 alcohol users, 82,288,826 alcohol dependents,82,28,883 cannabis users and 20,57,221 opiate users inIndia. During the beginning stage of drug abuse that is ini-tiated for enjoyment, experimentation etc. but the boundariesof its ill effects are not clear and when it becomes addictionand persistence of diseases started that are incurable and arethreating to life. Ongoing research gives shocking results thatfrom adults to school children ages 8-12years are abusingdrugs. Although there are many drug awareness programsbut still it’s most important to take control on drugs. Fig. 1. Findings from 1996-2014
Expert system is developed using ID3 decision tree algo-rithm. Firstly, a questionnaire of 100+ questions is preparedfor each addicted and non-addicted persons. Then question-naire is surveyed from various drug de-addiction centers,college students etc. of a particular area. After that, thedata is analyzed using the WEKA tool and results helpedin selecting the attributes that is majorly affecting. Thequestions need to be somewhat direct and somewhat indirectto get the mind of the person. This is a psychological testthat reads the state of mind of the user. An effort is made tomake a successful and valid expert system to test and protect everyone.
ID3 is a non-incremental decision tree algorithm used togenerate a decision tree from a given data set by employingatop-down, greedy search, to test each attribute at every nodeof the tree. The algorithm procedure is.
function ID3 (I, 0, T)
/* I is the set of input attributes
O is the output attribute
T is a set of training data */
compute the information gain for each attribute in I relative to T;
/* Gain refers to the value applied to the selected node */let X be the attribute with largest Gain(X, T) of the attributes
in I; let x ij
i = 1 ;2 ; ::; m – be the values of X ;
let T ij
i = 1 ;2 ; ::; m – be the subsets of T
P artition the T into arcs labeled x 1;x2; ::; xm;
when T is partitionedaccording the value of X;
return tree with the root node labelledXI f all instances in T are positive;
then result inS E V E RE addiction to drugs and display nimmediate consult the physician “and halt:
I f all instances in T are negative; then result in LOW addiction to drugs and display nyou are in secured hand to stop using drugs and halt.
I f instances in T are both positive and negative; thenresult in MODERATE addiction to drugs anddisplay nyou are in secured hand and need to controlstop using drugs “and halt.
The implementation of Expert System rstly includesaregistration form to register a person and that informationis saved on the database. Once registering, using alreadyregistered option, a user can correct him/her again and againby repeating the test. Information can be stored for futureuse for analyzing the various factors that need to be curedby repeating the test. The information lled by the user canbe real or anonymous. It is just there to distinguish themfrom others. The test can be repeated several times withrespect to date and time. Next, some series of questions comefrom various factors to analyze the person during the test.
Depending on the choices lled in the test, result comes outfrom the decision tree algorithm applied. The records of thepatients are saved with respect to date and time for futureuse of analysis. The full details of the patient are recordedin the database for future corrections.
One of the main problems that the investigators andfamilies face is – to identify whether the person is really anaddict or not; this can be achieved through some observationson the patient’s body or reactions to certain questions or thechange in his/her social behavior; however, all such measuresmay diagnose other diseases, as well, so it is not easy toidentify whether the person is an addict or not which requiresmore effort from the investigators and families in this regard.
Therefore, a focus was to develop an expert system to checkfor everyone whether the person is addicted to drugs or not.
This expert system is required regularly to check for oneselfand make aware and prevent them to be caught into this web of drugs.
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