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Population dynamics which refers to the study of changes in population numbers in specific space and time, and the reasons for the change. Population dynamics establish the changes and make efforts to come up with mechanisms that explain the observations made in population patterns. Population dynamics does not just involve studying births, deaths and migration; it is much more complex than this. The complexity comes in attempting to explain the reasons for the changing patterns.
The world’s population is not as it was thousands of years ago, it has increased tremendously. The small numbers in population was initially attributed to the kind of life people used to lead during the time; the nature of life of that ancient people led which involved moving from one place to another is said to be one of the reasons as to why the rate of population growth was low at the time. Growth in the world’s population is said to have began after people started settling in more permanent communities at around 8000 BC.
This growth is said to have increased throughout the years and peaked in 1970 after which it slowed down due to the impact of HIV/AIDS which took caused the death of millions of young productive people around the world (Chapter Four, 2009). Another reason for the decline in population was decline in fertility. Most patterns in population changes have been attributed to fertility. Increased population growth rate is attributed to high fertility in women while decrease in population growth is mainly attributed to decline in fertility.
The Czech Republic is one of the countries in Europe whose population has been on the decrease since 1990 due to decrease in fertility. Its capital city Prague, which is the largest town and urban centre in the country, has a population of only 1. 2 million people. This is in contrast to other capital cities in the word that are even less than Prague in size. In population dynamics, small changes in people’s behaviour cause significant differences in population.
Introduction of women education and employment fore example in the Czech Republic greatly reduced the countries population growth. This is because as women spend more time in education, they tend to start having children at an older age than it was before (late entry into motherhood). The more educated and employed women also tend to have less children as compared to their less educated and unemployed counterparts.
Women education and employment hence are the major causes of the population decline in Prague and Czech Republic as a whole. As more women are educated and employed, decline in fertility increases. This implies that the population in Prague will continue to decrease with time as long the causes for decline in fertility continue to exist. The country is said to have the lowest total fertility rate (TFR) on the continent art about 1. 5. This implies that any growth in its population can not be attributed to fertility.
Recent reports show that immigration especially by Jews has been high in the country (OECD, 2005). Most immigrants moved to the Prague as it is the capital city. The population of Czech Republic is said to have increased in 2007 by one percent, which is a significant number due to immigration by the Jews in to Prague (Steves, Vihan & Vihan, 2009). It can be concluded that population dynamics of a country involves explaining the reasons for either growth or decline in its population.
The Czech Republic whose capital city registers one of the lowest populations in the world has it all attributed to decline in total fertility rates of the women in the Prague as they are more educated and employed. The increase in the capital’s population between the years 2005 and 2007 is also not attributed to high increased birth rates but to immigration. It can be concluded that if no more immigrants are allowed into the country and everything else remains as it is, then the population of Prague and the Czech Republic as a whole will tremendously decline with time.
Word count: 660. References Chapter Four (2009). Populations Patterns and Trends. Retrieved on May 21st from, <http://www. sociologyonline. net/text/intro/main/c4b543n. htm> OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2005). Trends in International Migration: Annual Report. London, OECD Publishing, 2005. Steves, R. , Vihan, H. & Vihan, J. (2009). Rick Steves’ Prague and The Czech Republic. Emeryville, CA: Avalon Travel Publishing.