Poultry Farms in Bangladesh Essay
Poultry Farms in Bangladesh
Commercial poultry farming has now turned into a profitable business in Bangladesh. Although commercial poultry started 1980 but still now meat deficiency is 89.5 and only 14% meat comes from commercial poultry farming system. Presently, major portion of total poultry meat comes from traditional farming system. In Bangladesh indigenous poultry have been kept by rural communities for many generations. This custom is likely to continue and remain popular in rural areas. The rural poultry system relies on minimal input of resources. Although secondary to other agricultural activities, rural poultry rearing plays an important role in providing the rural population with a substantial income and high quality protein.
The government of Bangladesh (GOB) made poverty alleviation (increase of income) and improvement of nutritional level the key objective in the 5th Five Year Plan (1996 – 2000) following the 4th Five Year Plan (1990 – 1995). GOB has set the development of the stockbreeding, especially poultry husbandry, as the major subject to achieve the above mentioned objectives. So that poultry husbandry was expected to produce animal protein and to bring small scale farmers cash income with small investment over a short period of time.
Poultry meat is the fastest growing component of global meat production, consumption, and trade, with developing and transition economies playing a leading role in its expansion. In addition to providing opportunities to increased poultry exports, rising poultry production spurs growth in global import demand for feeds and other inputs and in investment opportunities in these sectors. Bangladesh now has a large and rapidly expanding poultry sector.
Expansion of poultry industry in Bangladesh is being driven by rising incomes of the consumers and a shift in industry structure towards integrated ownership and coordination of the input, production, and marketing operations involved in poultry production (vertical integration). These factors, in addition to government policies affecting feed supply levels, will help shape future growth in the poultry industry in Bangladesh, as well as in emerging trade and investment opportunities.
The poultry sub-sector is crucial in the context of agricultural growth and improvement of diet for the people in Bangladesh. This sub-sector is particularly important in the sense that it is a significant source of supply of protein and nutrition in a household’s nutritional intake. It is an attractive economic activity as well, especially to women and the poorer sections.
Poultry farms in Bangladesh are growing fast in recent times. With a high population and income growth, urbanisation and high-income elasticity of demand, the demand for poultry products is expected to increase appreciably in the future. Hence, the number of poultry farms is also expected to expand over time.
Poultry rearing can play a vital role in a country like Bangladesh where most of the people are landless, disadvantaged and devoid of formal education or skill to participate in income generating activities. Poultry can be an important tool to fight poverty not only for this group of people but also for the distressed women as poultry requires minimum land, short capital and skill. In Bangladesh, the poultry sector is also an integral part of the farming system. The number of poultry grew at an annual rate of 6.7 percent over the period 1990-97. The share of poultry in the animal protein of the human diet in Bangladesh increased from 14 percent in 1977 to 23 percent in 1987 (Alam, 1997).
The broad objective of this paper is to analyse the development poultry industry in Bangladesh. This paper has been divided into nine chapter. Chapter one deals with the introductory part of the study which includes motivation and objectives of the study. Chapter two covers the overview of the poultry sector in the Bangladesh purspective.
Chapter three covers the importance of poultry sector in economic developmnet of Bangladesh. Chapter four analyse the communication role in the poultry developmnet. Chapter five highlited the financial and risk involve in poultry sector. Chapter six reviews the stalkholders in the poultry sector in our country. Chapter seven shows the overall product in pultry industry. Chapter eight deals with the recommendation for the development of poultry sector in Bangladesh with concluding remarks. And chapter nine include the refrences
1.2 Research problem
In the last two decades the poultry industry has grown from a handful of medium sized operations to a large industry. Poultry farms having sizes ranging from a few hundred birds to several hundred thousand birds are mushrooming throughout the country. This phenomenal growth has resulted from the decline in the supply of the other two protein sources, namely, fish and beef. The decline of the fishing industry has been the result of filling up of ponds and the general insecurity of investments in rural areas. Even though fish farms have substituted much of the lost supply, the availability of fish has declined significantly. The high price of most species of fish is the clearest evidence of that. The supply of cattle was always fairly low, and it is the import from neighboring India that has held up the supply. The most readily available and affordable protein is poultry.
Poultry is a substantial contributor to food supply of Bangladesh. Many small and medium farmers are rearing poultry birds in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is considered as one of the most appropriate countries in the world for poultry rearing. Development of poultry has generated considerable employment through the production and the marketing of poultry and poultry related products.
Small improvements in this industry will, in productive and economic terms, give substantial increases to the benefits of the household may obtain from poultry, measured as a relative increase of output. The revolution in poultry industry has achieved more than 200 percent growth last 5 years though they are facing scarcity of efficient or skilled workforce, mainly because of new technology, using locally available feed ingredients, breeding, hatching and other inputs.
And actually in recent years, many small to medium sized farms are losing their interest to invest on poultry business and many have even dropped out. Having such potentiality for a long time, Bangladesh could not be able to prepare her human resources for this industry. If Bangladesh will be able to do so, the human resources can contribute much more than what they are performing now. This paper aims to show the picture of the growth of poultry industry, find out the possible problems faced by the small to medium size poultry farms, its economic and some recommendations regarding its policy matter.
1.3 Objective ob the study
• To know the present situation of overall poultry sector in Bangladesh.
• Find out the possible problems faced by the small to medium size poultry farms.
• To analyze the economic implication on poultry sector.
• To identify the different poultry product in Bangladesh.
1.4 Methodology of the study
This research has been done on the basis of primary and secondary data sources. The secondary data were collected from the extensive literature survey and primary data were collected from direct questionnaire and interview as well as experience. Primary data were collected from Ramgarh under Khagrachari district that located in Chittagong division. A sample size of 50 middlemen and 50 farmers was chosen for the study. To select this sample random sampling is used. Selected farmers were asked to fill up the questionnaires prior to direct interviews. Data collected from the farmers were arranged in appropriate tabular forms and data analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel version XP software.
POULTRY BUSINESS –A PROFILE
2.1 Overview of the Poultry Industry
In Bangladesh, around 89 percent of rural households rear poultry through traditional production systems like “low input-low output”. Local chicken dominates poultry production. Most birds are kept in small flocks under a scavenging system with feed generally available from household waste, homestead pickings, and crop residues. Productivity of the local hens is low and losses due to diseases and predators are high. The constraints to productivity however, are not only related to disease but also to management systems, lack of supplementary feeding, predators, and inappropriate breeds (Saleque, 2001).
It is extremely difficult to get reliable estimates of poultry farms in Bangladesh. Figures as high as 50,000 have been quoted by some. The best estimates of the number of birds in commercial poultry farms for the year 2000 are due to Islam (2003). In Islam’s very detailed study on the grain requirements for poultry feed, the author has presented an estimate of poultry in Bangladesh. Table 1 shows the data for the year 2000 as provided in Islam’s paper (Islam, 2003). The projected figures calculated by Islam (2003) for the year 2005 appear too low considering the very rapid growth experienced by the sector in recent years. To arrive at more realistic 2005 figures, 6% growth rates for both layers and broilers have been used. Industry analysts are the sources for these growth rates.
It is worth pointing out that the figures shown in Table 1 denote the number of birds alive at any given time, and is the figure relevant for this study because the waste on a 365 days basis is produced from this number of birds. It should not be confused with the total number of birds consumed in Bangladesh in a given year. The number of broilers that will be consumed in the year 2005 is over 100 million. This figure differs from that in Table 1 because broilers have a life cycle of only 30-40 days.
The number of layers that will eventually get consumed at the end of their egg-laying cycle in 2005 is less than the 46 million shown in Table 1 because the life cycle of a layer is nearly one and a half years. It is believe that this figure will increase if the development in this sector is enhanced. Table 2 shows a gradual increase in the production of parent stock and commercial stock in the country. The poultry industry, as a fundamental part of animal production, is committed to supplying the nation with a cheap source of good quality notorious animal protein in terms of meat and eggs. Approximately 20% of the protein consumed in Bangladesh originates from poultry sect
Figure 2. National Poultry numbers
2.4. Geographical distribution of poultry flocks
The Agricultural Sample Survey of Bangladesh, which was conducted in May 2005, contains information about the distribution of poultry in the country. The report on the survey, dated June 2006, makes a distinction between subsistence and commercial poultry, but not between ducks and chicken.
The total duck and chicken population at the time of the survey was 188 million in rounded figures. Two divisions out of six, namely Dhaka and Rajshahi, accounted for more than 50% of the total flock. 25,7% were found in Dhaka division and 28,8% in Rajshahi division.
The production systems were very different in these two divisions. Only 9,4% of the birds in Rajshahi were commercial birds against, 53,3% in Dhaka division because of the demand for poultry meat and eggs in the capital Dhaka. The presence of urban consumers is a precondition for the development of commercial poultry production. 72, 9% of the total commercial chicken production in Bangladesh is located in the divisions of the country’s two largest cities Chittagong and Dhaka.
While the statistics presented by the Agricultural Sample Survey do not distinguish between ducks and chicken it is safe to assume that all the commercial poultry is predominantly chicken as the ducks in Bangladesh are still kept in traditional scavenging system(s), although the Department of Livestock Services lists 2226 registered commercial duck farms by December 2007.
The district of Gazipur stands out as the commercial poultry production is almost two times (198%) that of the backyard population. The presence of commercial poultry is also very strong in Narsingdi and Dhaka districts at 94% and 72%. In Chittagong, the presence of commercial poultry is much lower with a ratio of 0.14:1. In Chittagong district, it is 0.43:1.
Unpublished, recent estimates of the duck population in the country vary from 8% of the chicken population (reported by FAOSTAT) to 20% (reported by the DLS) (as shown above) in both cases for 2006. Such variation can be explained by the fact that ducks are largely found in the traditional system where the number of ducks is strongly influenced by season. The timing of the census is not known.
The Agricultural Sample Survey from 2005 shows that ducks: chicken ratio is 1:5. It also gives information on duck population distribution. The proportion of ducks within the poultry population is high in the divisions of Barisal (1:3), which is located in the southwest of the country and Sylhet (0.69:1) located in the east of the country. In both divisions there is a large number of ponds and water bodies suitable for duck production. In comparison there are relatively few ducks in the divisions of Dhaka (0.13:1) and Khulna (0.15:1), while the figures are intermediate for the divisions of Rajshahi (0.22:1) and Chittagong (0.26:1).
There are also pockets of high duck: chicken ratios within each division like Char Fasson on the Island of Bhola in Barisal division, the sub-districts of Burichang in Chittagong division; Tarail and Netrakona in Dhaka division and Kalia in Khulna division. The highest ducks: chicken ratios are in Sylhet division with 12 of the division’s 35 sub-districts having ratios over 1:1. The highest ratio is in Habiganj sub-district.
Figure 3 illustrates that the production of chicken meat remained constant at around 40,000 MT up to the mid-eighties. Subsequently, government as well non-governmental organizations initiated different programme to promote the poultry industry with the view to alleviating poverty. From mid-eighties to late-nineties, there had been a sharp increase in the production of chicken meat due to the boom in the poultry sector. From late-nineties, however, there has been stagnancy in the chicken meat production.
Figure 3: Trend in Chicken Meat Production in Bangladesh (000 MT)
Figure 4 provides consolidated estimates for the production of eggs from both the backyard and commercial sectors. According to recent figures provided by the Bangladesh Poultry Industries Association, there has been a steady and linear increase in egg production from 3 430 350 000 in 2001 to 6 626 813 000 in 2006, linked to the expansion in commercial production.
We will now estimate egg production from both the commercial and backyard production systems. A precise estimate is difficult to make, but may be attempted under the following set of assumptions: Rahman7, in his survey of backyard, rural producers, found that the number of eggs produced per farm per year for landless, marginal, small, medium and large farmers were 205, 200, 250, 292, 216 respectively. About 20% of households do not keep poultry (Dolberg, 2003). The average production of a rural household may therefore not be more than 200 eggs per year. Bangladesh rural population is estimated at 108 million people. Assuming an average of 5 people per household, it can be estimated that there are 22 million rural households in which an average of 200 eggs are produced per household per year or 4 400 000 000 eggs.
If this number of eggs produced by the backyard system is compared to the total number of 6 626 813 000 egg produced in Bangladesh in 2006 according to the data provided by the Bangladesh Poultry Industries Association, it can be estimated that about 33% of the eggs in Bangladesh come from the commercial system and 67% from the backyard system. Production estimates for chicken meat vary according to source. Consolidated estimates from FAOSTAT are provided in figure 4. Estimates of broiler meat production provided by the Bangladesh Poultry Industries Association are provided in figure 6. Village chicken production and spent layers should be added to get the total national poultry meat production, but figures are not available.
Comparison of meat production by species comes from another source (figure 7). According to figures provided by the DLS, beef was the largest single source of meat in 1992 as well as 2007. In 1992 the supply of goat meat was more than poultry meat. Between 1992 and 2007 the goat meat production has stagnated, while beef production has increased by a factor of 2.5. Poultry meat production has had the largest expansion by a factor of four from 105 000 tons in 1992 to 420 000 tons in 2007. Due to discrepancies in numbers, information provided here above indicates trends rather than quantities.
While there was a declining trend in the share of poultry in the country’s total meat production in the seventies, share of poultry in the country’s total meat production had shown a continuous growth over the eighties and nineties (Figure 8). However, from the end of the nineties, it has remained almost stagnant.
Figure 8: Share of Poultry in the Country’s Total Meat Production 2.6 Price
2.6.1 Price of Chicken Meat and Egg
Over the past two and half decades, price of meat and egg have increased four times. However, huge supply of poultry meat and egg helped keep the price at a relatively low level. During 1999-2000 and 2005-06, the price of broiler chicken had been stable at around Tk100 per kg, while the price of beef and mutton increased steadily which resulted in low relative price of chicken.
2.7.1 Meat and Egg Consumption
Table 6 shows that per capita consumption of meat has been doubled over the past two decades, while per capita egg consumption has increased by five times over the same time period. The annual per capita consumption of meat was 4.8 kg in 1985-86, which increased to 8.5 kg in 2004-05. On the other hand, in 1985-86, the per capita consumption was 12 eggs annually, while this increased to 59 eggs annually in 2004-05. This mammoth increase in the meat and egg consumption was possible only for the exploration of poultry sector in Bangladesh.
The import or export of chicken meat and eggs is very limited. Companies, such as Kazi Farms had begun exporting hatching eggs and day old chicks to India and Nepal before the HPAI outbreak. GOB was applying a cash incentive of 15% to export hatching eggs and day old chicks (Ahmed, 2008).
Bangladesh shares most of its border with India and there is considerable trade with India. Smuggled imports from India to Bangladesh are estimated to be 30% of the value of total imports in 2002/03 and the main items imported are sugar and cattle (World Bank, 2006, p. 64). The same report notes that Bangladesh protects its agriculture, which includes livestock:
There are quantitative restrictions on the import of some items. According to the GOB Import Policy Order for 2006-20099 import of all kinds of eggs is banned. The same applies to chicks, except day old chicks of Parent Stock and Grand Parent Stock (GOB, n.d.). It is however legal to import poultry feed. Prices for poultry meat and eggs tend to be lower in India. In June 2008, the price of broilers in India is reported to be US$ 1.35 per kg in Mumbai against US$ 1.82 in Bangladesh. For eggs the price in India is US$ 4.7 per 100 against US$ 7.3 per 100 in Bangladesh. Presently India is constructing a 4 000 km long barbed wire fence 3 meter high around Bangladesh, which over some stretches may be electrified to prevent smuggling, illegal migration and terrorists.
There is a very clear trend in increase in local production of parent stock day-old chicks from 2003 to 2006. Imports fall from 2003 to 2005. Globally, there is an increase in the total number of parent stock day-old chicks from 2 745 134 in 2005 to 3 898 719 in 2006 or 42%. In 2006 there were five grand parent farms producing 62% of the parent broiler day-old chicks (Saleque, 2007).
It has not been possible to compile information on poultry feed imports from official statistics, especially with regard to maize. Almost all broiler feed and only 18% of layer feed come from feed mills. 50% of the raw materials in poultry feed are imported (Saleque, 2007).
Bangladesh has been relying on imports for soybeans. Soybeans were first introduced to the area, which is now Bangladesh in 1942 (Yamazaki, 2003) and the NGO Mennonite Central Committee has during the 1970s, 1980s and 1980s researched on the crop, but it is only recently that Bangladesh has started to produce soybeans in quantities that enter the National Statistics.
Over the years 2000-01 to 2003-04 the area covered by soybeans was reported to be only 5 to 10 acres, but this increased to 725 acres in 2004-05 (Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics of Bangladesh for 2005, p. 71). However, the production jumped to 44 705 ha in 2005-2006 and has drifted around that level since resulting in a production of some 70 thousand tons (Soybean Project of the Department of Agriculture Extension). To compensate for the lack of domestic production there were substantial imports of soybeans as shown in figure 11.
Compilation of data on maize imports was not possible. Maize domestic production hovered around 2 to 3 thousand tons per year since the formation of Bangladesh in 1971 till 1991. It then began to increase from 2001-02 till the present time. This increase has been dramatic from 64.3 thousand tonnes in 2001-02 to 1.2 million tonnes in 2007. A substantial research effort by the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) with support from CIMMYT seems to be behind these results.
ROLE OF POULTRY SECTOR IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Bangladesh is a country of serious malnutrition where nearly half of its population of 135 million still lives below the poverty line (The World Bank in Bangladesh 2003). Protein deficiency has been taken as the major contributory factor in malnutrition. The per capita consumption of animal protein in Bangladesh is only 11.8 g per day (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics 2001) whereas the standard requirement of 36 g is recommended by UNO (Ahmed and Islam 1985). The poultry sub-sector is considered as an important avenue to reduce poverty and malnutrition as well as unemployment problems of Bangladesh. Small commercial poultry farming is expanding in the country in the peri- urban areas as layer and broiler farming and cockerel raising. The small scale commercial poultry farms are being developed by the cooperation of institutional credit, NGOs and public sector technical support.
From a survey conducted in 1991, it was found that about 96 per cent of eggs and 98 per cent of meat of chicken were produced by small to medium poultry farms in Bangladesh (Huque and Stem 1993). It is estimated that there are approximately 140 millions of poultry in the country. More than 130 hatcheries are producing 3.4 millions of day-old-chicks per week. Thirty thousands commercial broiler and layer farms supplying 0.26 millions metric tons of poultry meat and 5210 millions table eggs per year (M. Rahman 2003). These farms play a vital role in economic development of the country by reducing malnutrition, poverty and unemployment. However, in the recent years, many small to medium sized farms are losing their interest in poultry business and many have even dropped out.
As an important sub-sector of livestock production, the poultry industry in Bangladesh plays a crucial role in economic growth and simultaneously creates numerous employment opportunities. The poultry industry, as a fundamental part of animal production, is committed to supplying the nation with a cheap source of good quality nutritious animal protein in terms of meat and eggs. Two main systems of poultry production are common in Bangladesh nowadays: commercial poultry production – where birds are kept in total confinement, and traditional scavenging or semi-scavenging poultry production. Approximately 20% of the protein consumed in Bangladesh originates from poultry. With the exception the dip in production due to the recent Avian Influenza outbreak, the growth of this industry in terms of standards of commercialization, is very rapid.
A gap still exists between the requirement and supply of poultry meat and eggs within the recent frame-work of the informal marketing system that is currently used. Among poultry species, the chicken population is dominant over others, at almost 90%, followed by ducks (8%) and a small number of quail, pigeons and geese. Free range ‘backyard’ and scavenging poultry, that are traditionally reared by rural women and children, still play an important role in generating family income, in addition to improving the family’s diet with eggs and meat.
Productive and reproductive performance of indigenous birds is relatively very low (35-40 eggs and 1-1.5 kg meat per bird per year), but genetic improvements by selective breeding, along with adequate nutrition and proper management, looks promising and quite possible. Commercial poultry production in Bangladesh, is conducted on an industrial scale and is growing tremendously in spite of recent difficulties but is expected to make a significant contribution to the economic development of the country.
3.2. Contribution of Poultry to GDP
The Livestock Production Index shows that Bangladesh has been able to register growth in livestock since 1990. In recent years, the rate of growth seems to be little down as reflected in the flatter slope of the LPI since 2002 (Figure 12). However, the importance of livestock can be understood by observing its contribution to GDP over the years (Table 7). Livestock sector’s contribution to GDP was 2.80 percent in 1990-91, which increased to 2.92 percent in 2005-06. However, the livestock sub-sector grew at a rate higher than the annual growth rate of the overall agricultural sector.
The poultry sector happens to be one of the prime components of the total livestock population. Poultry constitutes 14 percent of the total value of livestock output. During 1983 and 1996, the chicken population increased substantially with an annual growth rate of 3.6 percent (Alam, 2002). According to the South Asia Enterprise Development Facility (SEDF), the current market size of the poultry industry is $1 billion and is supporting nearly 5 million people directly or indirectly through 0.15 million poultry farms. Poultry constitutes 1.6 percent of Bangladesh GDP currently (The Poultry Site.com).
Table 8. Trade in Livestock Products (Value in million US$ Current)
The current state of poultry sector with respect to its contribution to the country’s external trade is difficult to measure due to the unavailability of data. Therefore, the assessment of poultry sector’s contribution to trade should consider the indirect effects. Poultry sector is a sub-sector of the livestock sector and the export and import figures of livestock sector in Table 8 helps us draw conclusions that Bangladesh is an almost self-sufficient with respect to trade in livestock products. If import figures are considered, it is found that these figures are mainly for the cattle imports from India, especially during the occasion of Eid-ul-Azha. In case of the poultry sector though, Bangladesh can’t export egg and meat, the production is sufficient to meet the domestic demand.
3.3 Poverty Implications of the Poultry Sector in Bangladesh.
There is a clear correlation between level of income and consumption of livestock products in urban as well as rural areas. Many reports have established this, but also provided evidence that an increase in livestock production based on smallholder systems not only increase cash income but also household consumption of livestock products (LID, 1999; Kurup, 2001). It is also documented that the increased rural income impact on the local purchasing power and general economic activity (Milk Vita, 2001).
The poultry sector in Bangladesh is very important for the reduction of poverty and creation of employment opportunities. The livelihoods of a substantial section depend directly on this industry. Creation of employment, poverty alleviation and improved nutrition are all potential benefits which should be considered for continued support and encouragement to poultry development in Bangladesh. During the mid-eighties, considering the condition of the landless, especially of distressed women and their socio-economic condition, the Bangladesh government initiated activities with the aim of improving the livelihoods of the poor sections by involving them in livestock and poultry rearing.
The smallholder livestock development programme involving this group of people began in Bangladesh in 1984-85. To this end, the World Food Programme (WFP) played a vital role by providing assistance in the form of food aid, training and other logistical support. Still the government is trying to protect the poultry sector from any hazards and is also promoting this sector through the motivation of village people and youth, training of rural women and landless farmers, small credit, and input supply etc with the aim of poverty reduction.
Moreover, the development of family poultry production has become an important element in the social and economic development strategies. It is particularly used in the struggle against poverty and food shortage and in policies that aim at empowering rural women. A large number of micro-finance institutions (MFI) like ASA, BRAC, Grameen Bank are directly participating in the development of this sector through their micro-finance programmes. Specially, ASA’s micro-finance programme in this industry is remarkable.
In 2007, this industry faced losses following the outbreak of the Avian Flu. This turned out to be a huge disaster for a poor country like Bangladesh. The government has tried to provide some succour through bank loans but often the amount was not enough. However, the MFIs came forward with their micro-finance programme to aid the sufferers.
3.4 The role of the Poultry sector in reducing poverty
Poultry rearing is an age-old occupation of the poor and has the potential of making a strong contribution to poverty reduction. The poverty reduction effects of Poultry operate through a number of channels. The rearing of domestic animals is a major source of food, cash income and storage of savings; with small land requirements and potentially high returns, poor farmers can diversify income sources, enhance incomes, create asset bases and meet emergencies. The small animals that are generally reared in rural households require less capital to buy and maintain, simplify distress sales and reduce risks of loss, grow and breed fast and can thrive on harsher conditions.
An important aspect of the role of the Poultry sector in reducing poverty is its impact on poor women. In addition to farming activities, traditionally poor and destitute women take responsibility for, and have some access to income from poultry (chicken and ducks) and eggs. This has had beneficial impacts on nutritional levels of women and children and the additional cash income has contributed to meeting needs such as children’s schooling that would otherwise not have been met. The potential of poverty reduction impact of livestock development could, therefore, be wide not only in terms of reducing income poverty but also through positive effects on human poverty and demographic transition.
As an important sub-sector of Poultry production, the poultry industry in Bangladesh plays a crucial role in economic growth and simultaneously creates numerous employment opportunities. A section of people in Bangladesh, particularly the younger generation who had little or no change to receive a university education, are now becoming increasingly involved Small commercial farming to maintain their livelihood. Currently, more then 5 million people are engaged directly or indirectly in poultry sector most of which can enjoy the benefits of purchasing poultry meat and eggs at a subsidized rate from their respective farms, which ultimate work on poverty reduction.
3.5 Development Projects in the Poultry Industry in Bangladesh
Like many developing countries, poultry is a common enterprise in rural Bangladesh. Poultry is sometimes used as the first investment for a livestock ladder (in the sense that one can move from poultry to goat/sheep to cattle etc.) to increase income and get out of poverty. Therefore, government, as well as the NGO sector in Bangladesh has pursued poultry production as a tool for poverty alleviation. Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), the leading NGO has played the important role in the development and execution of the model in Bangladesh with support from various donors including IFAD, FAO, DANIDA, Asian Development Bank (ADB).
Between 1978 and 1982, BRAC poultry programme did not have any model or design; it was being implemented on an ad hoc basis. Later a pilot project was carried out in Manikgonj. Based on the experiences of the Manikgonj project, BRAC and DLS together replicated the model during 1985-87 on a pilot scale in 32 thanas mainly in the northwestern part of the country through 54 area offices of BRAC with assistance from FAO/UNDP. The outcome of the extended pilot project appeared to be positive. Based on these experiences, the model was further modified and replicated through three large projects during 1992-2003 with the assistance of DANIDA, IFAD, ADB and the Government of Bangladesh (Table 9).
Table 9: Targeted Thanas and Beneficiaries in Various Smallholder Livestock Development Projects in Bangladesh
According to Alam (1997), the aforementioned projects generated substantial positive impacts on poultry production, employment and income generation in rural areas. The beneficiaries of the project had been the poor women. The generation of income and employment opportunities through these projects enhanced the status of those women in their families and societies. Also, as the income of beneficiary households increased,
3.6 The Scope of Poultry Development
1. About 70% of the rural, landless women are directly or indirectly involved in poultry rearing activities. Traditionally these women have some experience in poultry rearing, which therefore represent skills known to them. 2. BRAC has proved that homestead poultry rearing is economically viable. If the landless women are properly trained, supported with credit and other necessary inputs and made to operate under supervision of extension workers of both Government and BRAC and the Government machinery are activated to provide for the delivery of services, the poultry sector could be one of the most productive sectors.
3. Poultry rearing is suitable for widespread implementation as it is of low cost, requires little skills, is highly productive and can be incorporated into the household work. 4. There are few or no job opportunities for the landless, disadvantaged women. Poultry is the only activity in which a large number of landless women can participate. 5. In the small scale poultry units which support the landless, production per bird may be low, but distribution of benefits will be more equal and have great human development impact. 6. Poultry rearing is culturally acceptable, technically and economically viable. Moreover, the ownership of poultry is entirely in the hands of women. This is an asset over which the poor women actually have control. This activity can therefore play an important role in poverty alleviation.
STAKEHOLDERS IN POULTRY INDUSTRY
A Person, group, or organization that has direct or indirect stake in an organization because it can affect or be affected by the organization’s actions, objectives, and policies. Key stakeholders in a business organization include creditors, customers, directors, employees, government (and its agencies), owners (shareholders), suppliers, unions, and the community from which the business draws its resources. Although stake-holding is usually self-legitimizing (those who judge themselves to be stakeholders are de facto so), all stakeholders are not equal and different stakeholders are entitled to different considerations. The following Stakeholders are involved in poultry industry directly.
The Poultry industry is one of the largest contributors to GDP and employment of Bangladesh. Over the eighties and early nineties this industry flourished tremendously and saw a phenomenal growth. Towards the last decade however, the industry went through high variations in prices and very low margins most often leading to losses especially for commercial broiler and layer farmers. In addition, the industry is facing problems associated with technology changes and proper health care measures, etc. Based on the above it was considered appropriate that a direction for future intervention be outlined to ensure steady growth of the industry. With this in view United States Agency for International Development (USAID) took the initiative along with Agrobased Industries and Technology Development Project Phase II (ATDP) to develop an intervention strategy for the sector.
In the introduction of the National Livestock Development Policy document (GOB, 2007) it is pointed out that growth in the livestock sector is high in Bangladesh and in 2004-05 the growth rate in GDP for livestock was the highest of any sub-sector at 7.2% compared to 0.2% for crops and 3.7% for the fisheries sub-sector. As shown by Alam (2008, p. 185) chicken among all livestock is the most equally distributed species. In the traditional, semi-scavenging and small commercial systems, women, control the production. Poultry production is a tool for both poverty alleviation and better gender equity.
Grand Parent Farms
• Lack of Technical know-how: The farms have inadequate technology and trained human resources to handle the technology. Example, the technology is changing fast and the transfer of technology is primarily done at the first level (i.e. suppliers to GP management). However, the GP farms do not have the internal capacity to further train the members of the stake holders. Both technology as well as trained human resources to handle the technology has been identified as constraint. • Policies on Bio-security: Physical environment. Example Existence of neighboring poultry farms or other industries is a threat to the bio security of such farms.
• Lack of experience: knowledge base in handling crises. Example, the management does not have adequate experience in handling crises such as floods or disease outbreaks. • Lack of research in genetic engineering. Example, The private sector were of the opinion that they are entirely dependent on the suppliers regarding genetic engineering related to producing breeds based on local environment. At the same time Bangladesh does not have adequate facility or training to develop local breeds. • Lack of adequate Lab Facilities: The country does not have adequate laboratory facilities for ensuring quality of the chicks and also disease control.
• Bio-security: Overcrowding of various industries in one geographic location. Same explanation as in the earlier section. • Lack of adequate Lab Facilities: same explanation as in the earlier section. • Lack of disaster management experience – no updating is done to train the management personnel as well as the service providers in updating them on new disease or other disaster preparedness activities. • Inconsistent quality – feed, vaccine, and medicine. Example: Adulteration of feed/feed ingredients, ii) low efficacy of vaccine and lack of proper cool chain enforcement, iii) sub-standard quality medicine iv) Chicks under high stress due to transportation, etc.
• Lack of waste management. Example: Waste emanating out of the farm is not disposed of properly due to limited understanding of the waste management system and inadequate facilities available with Municipal Corporation. • Inadequate management and technical expertise: same interpretation as in earlier section • Potential for exports of hatching eggs – No specific government policy regarding export benefits pertaining to poultry sector is available. • Management of farm: Example: Management capability is not satisfactory resulting in situations such as inefficiency of handling transport, checking infertility, ensuring high productivity, etc.
• Lack of diagnostic and testing facilities: explanation addressed in earlier sections • Over all management. Example: Absence of proper waste (solid & liquid) management. ii) No proper grading of DOC. iii) Lack of routine hatch analysis. iv) Bio security issues not addressed, etc. • Code of conduct – Example: Inter purchases of hatching eggs between breeder farms. As a result, Day Old Chicks (DOC) maternal derived anti-body (MDA) level differs. • Weak association of hatcheries: Small farms. Example: Hatcheries which are not integrated with Breeders face problems as part of the association since they are weak and small.
• Size of hatchery not economically viable: This is only true for those who are smaller in size. • Lack of media promotion. Negative media publicity. Example: Absence of positive promotional campaigns in media geared towards growth. However, negative information is hastily publicized creating panic in the market. • Excess supply. Example: lack of contractual agreement, absence of controlled production, lack of information, no intra-industry coordination, etc. • Database with reference to market information. Example: Lack of a systematic or reliable information within the poultry industry on market conditions, demand and supply is considered a constraint.
• Lack of price information. Example: Non existence of Market Information and System (MIS) results in lack of market information and thus increased inefficiency. • Low ethical code of conduct. Example: Lack of trust amongst competitors resulting in blaming each other for unethical practices. • Licensing for drugs sales. Example: A large number of agents/traders are doing business without a proper drug license. • Lack of medical support. Example: Trained avian pathologist, nutritionist, and poultry specialist are not easily available.
• Lack of transparency and commitment. Example: There is lack of commitment between the hatcheries, farmers and agents/traders. This causes the weaker group to suffer price inconsistencies and loss. • Lack of capacity for disseminating technical advice. Example: Agents lack capacity in giving sound technical advice to farmers with regards to the products that are being sold to them. • Consistency of feed quality and DOC. Example: There is adulteration in feed and feed ingredients. Also there is mixing of different grades of DOC. example Grade A DOC is bundled together with Grade B / C DOC and sold as Grade A.
Commercial Broiler Farms
• Lack of grading. Example: Availability of consistent quality and disease free Grade A chicks • High variation in cost of rearing. Example: Variable DOC price, high feed/feed ingredient price, high medicine / vaccine, management cost results in costs variation • Lack of availability of quality feed ingredients. Example: Majority of feed ingredients is imported and most are of different grade than the optimal variety also locally made feed ingredients are adulterated. • Lack of Access to Working capital. Example: Cost of borrowing is high and also financial institutions consider this industry as high risk. • Bio security: Lack of awareness and training. Example: Most Small farmers don’t have the right concept and training on Biosecurity causing very low productivity.
• Ineffective vaccine: Due to quality and storage. Example: Lack of maintenance of cool chain renders a substantial percentage of vaccines ineffective. • Lack of technical/business knowledge. Example: Stakeholders enter the business without proper knowledge of the industry, market forces. This results in abuse of antibiotics/medicine, low productivity, etc. • Inadequate technical support. Example: Small commercial broiler farmers cannot afford the • technical support and also are not extended enough support from other members of the value chain required for optimal productivity. • Unavailability of appropriate diagnostic facilities. Example: No effective diagnostic facilities are available which can provide results on chicks and feed in a timely and effective manner.
• No database on prices. Example: Farmers are buying their products without proper knowledge of the market prices; in turn the same is happening when they are selling their stock putting them at aspecial informational disadvantage. • Absence/inability of marketing efforts. Example: Marketing efforts and price is controlled by middlemen. Furthermore, lack of understanding of marketing techniques further puts them in a disadvantageous position.
Commercial Layer Farms
• Egg producers association very weak. Example: Egg producers do not have a stronger lobby for controlling the price of their products resulting in them getting poor price. • Egg producers are dependent on Arotdars/Middleman. Example: Producers are dependent on the middlemen who control the market price and conditions. The producers are the price takers and have to accept what middlemen impose on them. • High variation in cost of rearing. Example: High variation in Day Old Chick price, feed/feed ingredient price, and also high medicine, vaccine, increases management cost. • Ineffective vaccine. Example: Lack of maintenance of cool chain renders a substantial percentage of vaccines ineffective. • Unskilled Labor. Example: Most labors used are untrained and causes low productivity
• Bio security. Example: Very little concept, knowledge and implementation of bio-security measures causing high mortality and low productivity • Illegal import of eggs. Example: Whenever the price exceeds a certain level, eggs from India infiltrate the market via illegal sources. • Working capital requirement. Example: Cost of borrowing is high and also financial institutions consider this industry as high risk. • No monitoring of egg quality. Example: grading, safety seal, etc are not present resulting in difficulty of tracing the final produce to source which makes monitoring very difficult. • Lack of overall management expertise. Example: Farms are poorly managed and thus incur high costs of production. • Lack of quality DOC. Example: Chicks with different Maternal Derivative Antibody are sold together as well as high stress during transport.
Processors: Formal & Informal
• Growth of inefficient, unhygienic, and untrained informal processors. Example: Unhygienic way in which Chickens are processed in local market leading to unsafe and contaminated food. • No policy guideline for monitoring: Example: Lack of an effective and efficient code of conduct or BSTI standard for poultry products is considered a serious setback. • Full range of technology at the formal processors level not available. Example: Range of Processed chicken products limited to skinned chicken and chicken nuggets, that too in a very limited quantity. • Lack of trained human resources at the formal processor level. Example: Not too many people are aware of the variety in processed poultry products available and therefore trained human resources are even scarcer.
• Lack of storage facility to increase shelf-life. Example: Processed chicken because of its limited shelf life need to be refrigerated and such facilities are scarce in the country • Lack of Consumer trust. Example: Culturally the majority of consumers have still not accepted processed chicken as safe and hygienic to consume. • Lack of consumer awareness in regards to processed chicken. Example: most processed chicken items are not known to the general consumers because of lack of availability as well as promotion.
• Availability of quality feed ingredients or substitute. Example: Adulteration or poor quality of feed which results in poor production. • Price of ingredients. Example: 70% of feed ingredients are still imported causing increased cost in freight as well as exchange rates. • Least cost feed formulation not an industry wide practice. Example: Lack of awareness in using software for formulating feed with the same nutritional worth however cheaper ingredients. . • Very small margins for feed producers: Example: Fierce competition as well as inconsistency of feed ingredient supply causes very low margins for feed producers. . • No monitoring of feed quality: Example: Diagnostic facilities are limited causing unreliable results as well as unrealistic delays in getting result. Medical services
• Unavailability of quality vaccine. Example: Vaccine for many of the common diseases is not effective. • Lack of diagnostic services. Example: it is impossible to test quality of vaccine because of unavailability of laboratory. • Cool Chain not maintained. Example: Many vaccine and medicine require maintaining its efficacy. Unavailability of cool chain causes damaged products • Veterinary service not always available to small farmers. Example: Small farmers find it extremely difficult to avail medical facilities because of high overhead costs associated with Veterinarians. • Misuse of Vaccine and medication. Example: Lack of quality veterinary expertise. Companies and agents aggressive stance in order to increase their sales and in addition, farmers’ lack of technical knowledge contributes to misuse. • Existence of spurious companies. Example: Presence of sub-standard animal health product which is detrimental to the poultry industry.
Packaging & Transportation
• Lack of proper transportation services causing damaged medicine, vaccine, feed supplement, etc. Example: Cool chain is not maintained causing damage to mane of the medicine, vaccine and feed supplements. • Improper transportation methods for broiler causing stress and mortality. Example: Broiler which are transported from remote areas to Dhaka goes through extreme forms of stress causing very high levels of stress and mortality. • Improper packaging and transportation method for eggs causing wastage. Example: Eggs are transported in crates however the vehicle used causes high numbers of breakage.
• DOCs are sometimes improperly transported for long hours: High stress finally results in low growth, low egg production, or even mortality. Example: Broiler DOCs are very sensitive animals. A little change in their environments significantly affects their growth, and chances for survival. High stress during transportation of DOCs causes significantly reduced productivity for farmers. • Poor packaging of egg for end users causing damage as well as bacterial infestation: Example: Eggs are sold at retail level in paper bags which are then stored in refrigerators at consumer’s home. This process causes damaged eggs. Also, unclean eggs cause bacterial infestation when they come in contact with other food products in the refrigerator. Storage
• Lack of refrigerated storage facilities for processed poultry products. Example: Cool storage facilities is a requirement for processed poultry, medicine, eggs as well as other poultry products, however, they are not available in most cases causing huge variability in product quality and productivity. • Lack of Storage facilities for feed ingredients causing variable quality and prices. Example: Because of the limited storage facilities and relatively short shelf life of feed ingredients, products cannot be stored over long period causing high prices during shortage and low prices during excess supply. If storage facilities were available then ingredients could be stored during times of excess supply and sold later at high prices.
Training & Development
• Lack of trained manpower: Management – commercial farm management as well as disaster management. Example: exceptionally high levels of mortality and wastage all through the industry. • Lack of effective vocational training facilities. Example: Very few training facilities exist in the whole country for developing human resource in poultry. • Lack of trained medical practitioners, pathologists and nutritionists. Example: the whole industry suffers from Lack of professionals in the medical component of the poultry industry.
• Hard to get financed: Lack of industry knowledge, Risky investment. Example: Banks and financial institutions are not comfortable in lending to the industry due lack of knowledge about the industry in general, complicacies and high volatility. • Hard to monitor farms. Example: Because of the relatively small size of small commercial farms it is hard for financial institutions to monitor each individual client. • High interest rates. Example: Cost of finance is still prohibitively high in the country and special agribusiness interest rates still widely unavailable for small farmers. • Absence of insurance services. Example: The poultry industry is considered to be a high risk industry; therefore banks tend to stay away. If insurance was available Banks would feel more comfortable in investing in this sector.
8.3 Major Intervention Strategy
The intervention strategy is described based on the sixteen broad issues identified during the extensive three phase research. The implementation strategy was designed based on the outcome of the secondary research, and the two plenary sessions and has been discussed using a comprehensive approach.
1. Poultry Policy Guideline: This intervention strategy is directed towards strengthening the national poultry policy. The study clearly showed that policy is the backbone for long term success of the industry. One policy regarding the poultry sector has already been drafted which will require close assessment to ensure that issues that are specific to a certain member in the value chain and are considered extremely important is addressed. These issues may include elements related to bio-security measures across the value chain, setting standards for distribution chain for maintaining efficacy of drugs and vaccines, standards for setting quality of manufacturing practices of both medicine and feed, policy related to code of conduct of traders, issues regarding setting some standards on the academic syllabus of the veterinary education, etc.
A group of donors, stakeholders may be formed to approach the government about policy to address issues outlined above. The donors may help in reassessment of the policy with participation of the major stakeholders, followed by discussion and modification of the policy. It maybe assumed that the follow up of the policy issues can be completed within 1-2 years. It was also presumed that donor group intervention is considered essential to ensure that the policy is comprehensive.
2. Symbiotic and Integrated Association: The association requires strengthening and at the same time integration of the various associations across the value chain as well as across geographical region is considered essential to ensure that the strategies can be implemented successfully. In this regard, the national poultry body (BPIA) will have to take the pivotal role and develop a working guideline to ensure a symbiotic relationship amongst the various smaller associations. The national body is capable of undertaking the venture with some consulting support from any one donor agency.
The national body should also be equipped to tackle disaster management and communicate with the media and CAB to ensure that both consumer as well as sellers rights are protected. Since USAID has been the prime mover of this project, they may take the initiative to select the donor partner and initiate the project. The time parameter can be set as immediate and can the initial guideline can be completed within six months. Once the guideline is completed, the members of various associations will be associated with the program to ensure integration in the sector.
3. Technological Efficiency: The technology issue at the grand parent and parent level was not considered lucrative for intervention since these firms have access to technology through their collaborative partners. However, the importance of technology was found seriously lacking at the layer and broiler farm levels. The study indicated both lack of technology as well as ignorance of the owners regarding benefit of technology. It is therefore recommended that an awareness building program on new technology may be launched with the help of donors and major drug producing companies using association of broiler and layer farms as the client.
The program may be launched either through training modules or through distributing news items etc. This program initially will require subsidy from the donors or larger NGO such as BRAC. The program will be designed on a cost sharing basis and will show how the farms can assure financial benefit from the technology. Once the program has been launched, the association can continue to provide inputs to the industry through regular upgrading of knowledge bank. This intervention strategy can be initiated immediately after due discussion with association representatives. This will be an ongoing activity.
4. Bio-Security: Bio-security needs were found to be varying across the value chain. However, the issue of bio-security was considered critical since this is directly associated with the quality of food to be ultimately presented for human consumption. Thus bio-security should be dealt with separately. The first level of implementation has been discussed through inclusion of bio-security measures as part of the policy paper. At the institutional level, since the type of bio-security varies across the value chain, different bio-security modules will have to be developed. However, the module needs to follow a standard generic model which should be developed in unison with other stakeholders so that some sort of standardization is maintained. For example, for grand parent farms location requirement, for layer farms internal management, for egg distributors cleaning of eggs, for processors hygiene, etc will be the basis.
This program can be conducted with the help of the media agencies such as radio and television with sponsorship support from donor agencies, suppliers of bio-security goods and services such as large drug manufacturers, pesticide manufacturers, Parent farms, etc. The donor agencies can ask interested NGOs or other organizations to work as production houses for publicity of bio-security. These programs can gradually be transformed into commercially viable projects. Interested donor agencies can initiate discussion with probable sponsors, media, and production houses for looking at the viability of the project. The project can be initiated immediately and will be short to medium term in nature depending on how fast the solution is disseminated and implemented.
5. Technical and Managerial Training: Management and technological capability of small firms across the board has been identified as another major hurdle impeding growth. This will require practical training programs which should involve both theoretical as well as experimental or case study based training programs designed for various level and subject matters. As a starting point lessons can be gathered from WINROCK-CARE model since they have started to develop some training modules. However, one must bear in mind that a pure theoretical approach will not be effective and thus real Bangladesh or regional case based learning will help improve the situation. Donor agencies may initiate the program by inviting interested training institutions (management, health, technology, etc) as partners.
Initial support for curriculum design, case building, training pedagogy, training of trainers, and promotion may be required from donor agencies. Trainers to conduct training of trainers may be obtained from large corporations or academic institutions if required. The trainees will be asked to share costs and once the acceptability has been achieved, market based pricing will automatically be implemented by the training institutions. The program can be initiated immediately specially with regard to selection of training houses. The program can be implemented within six months to a year and will vary based on the type of training to be designed. The project will be ongoing in nature.
6. Management Information System: BPIA has already started work on developing a comprehensive and integrated information system for the sector. Further lessons may be collected from BGMEA especially in terms of transmission of information. Since the basic level of management of poultry sector is different from that of the garments sector, one must be careful in designing the transmission module. For example in the garments sector all firms are equipped with internet facility while it is the reverse in case of poultry. It is therefore assumed that the medium of transmission of information will be different. The likely candidates could be cell phone operators, internet providers using voice and wireless network, media etc. The MIS will contain information regarding all cost factors, pricing of various outputs, sourcing of materials, announcement on programs, etc.
The MIS thus will be housed centrally at BPIA and connected directly with regional and sub-sectoral associations. These on the other hand can be linked with respective members. The operational cost can be generated through membership fees. Initial technical support can be provided by donor agencies and the media operators to facilitate development of the system and the network. Participation of the media operators can be made more competitive through allocation of regions. The initial discussion with members of BPIA and media operators can be initiated immediately, while the overall implementation may take from six months to a year.
7. Laboratory Testing Facility: Laboratory testing facility for distributors, layer farmers, broiler farmers, and traders is envisioned as the basis for quality control measures. The initial support can be obtained from BLRI. BLRI can be helped to develop regional offices both in terms of infrastructure as well as technology and human resources. At the same time Large NGO such as BRAC can be asked to strengthen their present testing facilities and make it available for all. However, to make these laboratories commercially viable strict adherence to compliance set by national poultry policy will be a pre-requisite. These testing facilities may also in the long run be involved in promotional effort as part of their commercial operations. Furthermore, the private sector involvement in this sector can be expected once the policy guideline is implemented.
8. Protection of Consumer Rights: Consumer Association of Bangladesh (CAB) will have to be strengthened to ensure that proper quality measures are being considered to protect the rights of the consumers. At present CAB is almost inoperative due to lack of both human as well as material resources. Since CAB is directly representing the consumers and not the sellers at large, it is difficult for them to sustain in a country like Bangladesh at least during the initial stages. Thus, it is a must that first of all initiative be taken to develop the basic human resource structure for CAB. Donor agencies can help CAB in taking the first step by following models of successful countries.
Once this has been developed, CAB can take up programs that will work as a bridge between the consumers and the sellers. In addition consumer awareness building to a large extent will help maintenance of all types of standards. Donor agencies will be required to directly work with CAB in this program. Once CAB initiates the awareness building campaign it is expected that the public relations wing of socially responsible corporate bodies will come forward to support CAB. To make his effort successful participation of the media will be essential. In the short term perspective this project is expected to be donor driven with support from social and environmental activists and UN bodies.
9. Financing for Small Farmers: Financing for the smaller firms was identified as the major hurdle. This is partially because small firms stand alone are not a lucrative or safe venture. Financing can be obtained using group approach. This can once again be done by forming cooperatives or clusters of individual farmers, where the cluster becomes big enough to market their own products as well as approach appropriate donors for assistance in terms of arranging working capital.
Donors can be collaterals: Donors can ensure success of farms through technical services and training thus making it easier for financial institutions to fund such projects. The market can learn from the models of Doyel Agro, Patgram Lalmonir hat and Agro based Cooperative, Pabna. However, both the financial institutions as well as the poultry producers can be made aware of the existing success stories through leaflets or seminar conducted by BPIA with support from donor agencies. Once the financial institutions are convinced that the model is feasible, they will themselves take initiative to promote the idea to the farmers. This program can be initiated immediately and will be short term in nature.
10. Efficient Distribution System: Strengthening of distribution system will primarily involve the channel members i.e. distributors and traders. Since the distribution system plans to strengthen storage, transportation, packaging and branding aspects, one can assume that all these at present to a large extent are controlled by the distributors and traders. Furthermore, and efficiency building in these four areas will directly contribute towards profitability enhancement of the channel members. The storage and transportation issues are highly technical including minimizing of waste and maintenance of cool chain. This program can be conducted with the help of premium engineering university of the country (BUET).
This may help in developing economical means to address the problem. The packaging and branding issues are more marketing issues requiring inclusion of safety, sorting, grading, and source tracking. Thus both a qualitative as well as image building issue can be addressed to motivate channel members to participate in this program. Management experts may be involved to implement this activity. Since the channel members are difficult to persuade, it is advisable that the donor agencies organize a forum to initiate idea exchange. Once this is achieved, individual associations can be involved in the program. This can be considered as medium to long term intervention strategy.
Poultry is an emerging and important sector that has been contributing progressively to our economy for the past decade. Poultry is one of the fastest growing and most promising industries with the brightest of futures for our country. Poultry sector are playing a very vital role in the reduction of poverty, malnutrition and unemployment problems of our country. But now a day this sector has passed very critical moment due to proper guidelines, management and strategy. So for overcoming this problem government should taken initiative stage for long time success.
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University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 28 September 2016
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