Post-Compulsory Education and Training Essay
Post-Compulsory Education and Training
* Learning Objectives Justify your choice by reference to the cohort analysis, scheme of work and the assessment schedule.LO1 – To be introduced to the meaning of Autism and Asperger’s syndrome, and compare and contrast the difference between the two conditions.LO2 – After watching a video, all learners will be able to discuss the triad of impairments linked with autism.LO3 – All learners will be introduced to the term ‘Theory of Mind’ and how this develops in children.LO4 – All learners will be able to identify the key components of The Sally Anne study. Most learners will able to summarise its strengths and weaknesses in supporting Theory of Mind.LO5 – Most learners will correctly answer an OCR past paper exam question on Baron-Cohen.LO6 – All learners will consolidate their learning with an interactive plenary on the topic covered in today’s session.The aims and objectives in this lesson were chosen in order to relate to OCR Psychology (3.2 AS Unit G542: Core Studies)
Allowing the students to be aware of this link to the assessment criteria will keep them motivated, and give their learning purpose to aim for a long term goal. The Learning Objectives have been differentiated to allow for learning to take place at all levels, and to allow for inclusion for all, despite the fact that candidates may have difficulties i.e. one learner has Asperger’s syndrome, and another has dyspraxia. These objectives will be achieved using all 3 VAK learning styles.(Honey and Mumford 1992)The learning objectives are differentiated and specific, measureable, achievable, realistic and timely (SMART) to ensure accessibility (Wallace, 2011) * Teaching and Learning Activities Justify your choice of methods and resources to be used by matching them against learning objectives using reasons and evidence from appropriate models of learning. The teaching and learning activities for this session have been designed to introduce a new topic in Psychology, Core Studies.
As this is an introductory lesson to a topic, I have prepared learning activities which are accessible to all the learners, to ensure that nobody is excluded at any time. (Wallace 2005) All activities are varied to accommodate all levels and learning styles (VAK) as pupils are often a combination of visual, audio and kinaesthetic. (Claxton 2002)I will promote inclusiveness during the session by having a list of key words if at any point they are unsure; have specific instruction written down as well as reading them out. Hand-outs will be given out with a choice of colour, and supporting any learners one to one where necessary. I intend to keep learners motivated by making everyone feel comfortable and safe in the classroom environment, ensuring a sense of belonging and to meet all learners self-esteem needs encouraging praise and independence where necessary and promote optimism so that all students are self-actualised (Maslow 1908-1970)
Ensuring the humanistic learning theory is addressed, I will allow drinks of water when necessary, and provide fairness and equality for all learners. (Disability and Equality Act 2010)Room set-up- Arrange the tables into groups. This will encourage all learners to get involved (every learner matters) and to make sure that no learner is seated with their back to me and that I am not sitting behind a desk as this creates a physical barrier between the teacher and learner and encourages eye contact. (Wallace 2007)Questioning- Non directed questions will be asked at the beginning of the session to assess prior knowledge, which will be demonstrated through a thought-shower on the board (visual and auditory). Through-out the session the questions will become directed and scaffolded (Bruner, cited in Jarvis 2004) to assist in gaining knowledge and answers from learners.When asking questions, use learners names your and prior knowledge of their ability and personality (as I have never taught this class before, they have been given name stickers)
This ensures that learners feel valued and supported. (Keeley-Browne 2007)Pre-starter – I have included a pre-starter activity, as with it being a 3pm class, students can often come in lethargic and unmotivated. They often need some immediate stimulation, to wake them up and encourage a productive lesson.Starter – We will create a though shower (visual) on the board to assess prior knowledge of this new topic being covered, and it gives the learners ownership of their own work, as their input is what gets written on the board. Prior learning experiences have the potential to enhance or interfere with new learning’ (Knox, 1997)Main Learning Process – The majority of the lesson is based around PowerPoint slides, videos and group discussion/work. This ensures that all three domains of learning are being addressed – cognitive (thinking in their groups and whilst listening to the presentation), affective (feeling how autistic people may feel after watching the video clips), and psychomotor (applying their knowledge in a hands on task) (Bloom et al, 1971) This adopts VAK learning styles.
Everyone benefits from using a wide variety of styles also known as whole brain learning. (Coffield et al 2004) When learners make an interesting observation/ comment, or get an answer correct, it is vital to give them praise. Many learners in sixth form can have low self-esteem; therefore giving out praise when warranted can enhance their feeling of self-worth and competence by acknowledging their qualities and strengths (Vizard 2007.)Group Work – Group work can be a largely effective way of learning, taking strengths from each individual and combining it for model answers. In this session, learners will be split up into groups for part of the task, ‘As well as being an enjoyable activity in itself, this provides huge opportunities for learning. It requires that learners process the new material and make personal sense of it.’ (Petty 2009) From the cohort analysis, I am aware of who works well and encourages/motivates each other.
The learners are aware of this themselves, and usually sit with the people/person they work well with. If people are distracted then I will take action by changing the group dynamics. In their groups they will discuss one of the triad of impairments from their prior knowledge and information given on a video. This shows that they can apply the knowledge they have gained the thought shower and video into a new situation. (Blooms Taxonomy – application of knowledge.) Once they have completed their group work, they will now share and discuss their ideas with the rest of the class, by sticking their A3 sheet of ideas on the board. (Think, pair, share.)Hand-out- All work sheets are on coloured paper (if possible), which aids any dyslexic learners without them standing out, as the whole class will have the same colours. ‘Everyone who can benefit from further education should be able to participate’ (John Tomlinson 1996) The PowerPoint presentation will be accessible on Moodle for future reference and revision purposes.Assessment for Learning- A past paper question will be asked in order to assess their level of understanding from the lesson.
They will complete the question under exam conditions (no notes or talking, and timed) and peer mark the question. They will be given feedback on which is a model answer, and which isn’t sufficient, and I will collect in and monitor progress. It is imperative feedback is given (Black & William, 1998).Plenary- All learners will participate in an interactive activity to assess and ensure learning has taken place (formative assessment.) Looking at the cohort analysis, and after a couple of lessons observing this group, I have noticed they work well as a whole class and enjoy interactive plenaries. The Deal or No Deal task will allow learners to gain feedback from the teacher, peers and feedback from themselves as they answer questions. It has been suggested that formative feedback has some of the most positive effects on learners.
The greatest effect is on the weakest learners (Black and William, 1998) The group can become a little bit chatty and excitable when completing a group task, therefore I will need to manage the noise levels.Rewarding good behaviour and achievement allows learners to be respected and valued for who they are, how hard they have tried and what they have achieved and build up a mutual and trusting relationship between the teacher and learner, allowing the learner to feel safe and valued in class. This is expressed as ‘unconditional positive regard’ (Rodgers 1983)Try and make students feel good about themselves, even when you are criticising their work/ answer and trying to guide them onto the right path (two stars and a wish)
Articulate the standards you have identified, i.e. elaborate what will actually happen in terms of teaching and learning activities against each standard, Do not just list or re-state the standards you have ticked off.You may group related standards together where they are addressed through one activity.Standard(s): AP 4.1 Use relevant theories of learning to support the development of practice in learning and teaching.Articulation: Use of Maslows Hierarchy of Needs. Proving a safe and comfortable learning environment, using praise to build up self- esteem on order to achieve self-actualisation. Blooms Taxonomy was also used applying the knowledge from the video clips and PowerPoint in the session to the group work on The Triad of Impairments.Standard(s): AP 4.2 Reflect on and demonstrate commitment to improvement of own personal and teaching skills through regular evaluation and use of feedbackArticulation: I write a reflection after every taught session.
I plan to use De Bonos Thinking Hats after this session, using the feedback gained on the scales given to the class at the beginning and the end of the session.Standards(s): AP 6.2 Demonstrate good practice through maintaining a learning environment which conforms to statutory requirements and promotes equality, including appropriate consideration of the needs of children, young people and vulnerable adults.Articulation: This lesson meets the statutory requirements of a teacher required by Cronton Sixth Form College, meets the requirements of the examining body. The lesson filly includes all learners, and the cohort analysis has allowed me to be aware of individual needs and requirements.Standard(s): BP 1.1 Establish a purposeful learning environment where learners feel safe, secure, confident and valued.
Articulation: Again this links to Abraham Maslows ‘hierarchy of needs’, providing a safe classroom environment, allowing for students to pass through all the stages to become self-actualised. Applying Rodgers ‘unconditional positive regard’ throughout the session, rewarding and praising good behaviour will allow for learners to feel valued and respected. Standard(s): BP 2.1 Provide learning activities which meet curriculum requirements and the needs of all learners. Articulation: The aims and objectives in this lesson were chosen in order to relate to OCR
Psychology (3.2 AS Unit G542: Core Studies)The Learning Objectives are all differentiated, which will meet all learners various needs so ensure learning takes place. This links into Every Learner Matters.Standard(s): BP 2.4 Apply flexible and varied delivery methods as appropriate to teaching and learning practice.Articulation: There are many different delivery methods used for learning in this session, allowing for all types of learners to learn and achieve (VAK.) Such methods used are throughout the session are thought showers, questioning, practical hands-on activity, video clips, group work, peer assessment an interactive assessment activity.Standards(s): BP 3.1 Communicate effectively and appropriately using different forms of language and media, including written, oral and non-verbal communication, and new and emerging technologies to enhance learningArticulation: I will use various forms of communication during the session.
Using theory on paralanguage to ensure my body language is open, e.g. no folded arms, eye contact and make sure I circulate the room so everybody feels included. I will have a steady pace, clarity and tone in my discussion and instruction (behaviourist). All meta-language used is listed on a key terms sheet to help with meaning of words, and the PowerPoint is clear and concise. I have implemented video clips on PowerPoint to keep up with emerging technologies, as oppose to me talking all of the time. This breaks up the lesson into chunks (cognitive theory) which makes them gain fulfilment and enjoyment out of the tasks (humanism)Standard(s): BP 3.3 Structure and present information clearly and effectively.Articulation: All information is presented on a PowerPoint, on hand outs and also read out so that it is clear for all students and their learning style. The lesson is all structured, differentiated and timed to allow for learning to take place in all learners.
The presentation (including video clips) will be made available on Moodle for future reference and revision purposes.Standards(s): BP 5.1 Select and develop a range of effective resources, including appropriate use of new and emerging technologies.Articulation: The resources chosen for this session are varied in learning styles (VAK) and include all 3 theories of learning to ensure the lesson appeals to all, and doesn’t get monotonous. There is a PowerPoint presentation, group work, key words hand-out, a booklet to fill in whilst being accompanies by new and emerging ICT technologies. This includes video clips in the PowerPoint and an interactive Deal or No Deal Plenary.Standards(s): CP 1.1 Ensure that knowledge of own specialist area is current and appropriate to the teaching context.Articulation: I have ensured my knowledge of the topic autism is totally up to date and current. Figures and facts change yearly, so it is important to keep up to date.
I have broken down my knowledge of Psychology from my degree to A level standard, so it can be inclusive to all learners, whilst still capable of stretching and challenging the more able learners.Standards(s): DP 1.2 Plan teaching sessions which meet the aims and needs of individual learners and groups, using a variety of resources, including new and emerging technologiesArticulation: This session meets the aims of the curriculum for this module, meets the schemes of work and is differentiated so that it is inclusive to all learners in this cohort (from Aspergers syndrome through to gifted and talented student).
The resources compliment the plan and are varied in learning style and theory, whilst adopting new technology methods, such as interactive games for plenary in formative assessment.Standards(s): EP 1.3 Develop, establish and promote peer and self-assessment tools, including where appropriate, those which exploit new and emerging technologies. Articulation: This lesson will consist of them self-assessing their initial knowledge of autism, whilst continually self-assessing through the lesson. I will reinforce this with praise at correct answers and good feedback, and guide it through direct and non-directed questioning. Peer assessment will take place during the formative assessment (past paper questioning) Standard(s): EP 2.1 Apply appropriate methods of assessment fairly and effectively.Articulation: Directed and non-directed questioning is used; giving learners at all levels the opportunity to participate in the lesson. The Deal or No Deal formative assessment task allows all learners to participate, and makes assessing what they have learnt interactive and fun.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 6 November 2016
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