Pop Art Exam 2

Lucian Freud
-explicit paintings, promiscuous lifestyle, naked humans; animal like, rarely talked about influences, refused label, figurative paintings

Larry Rivers
-portraits, figurative works, works commemoration significant periods in his life, broke all acceptable rules for avant-garde art of his time, innovative approach to traditional historical subjects, influenced by french masters, interpreted old master works, passion for show business, incorporates Hollywood performers and images in his work, studied under Hoffman

Rauschenberg
-known for his combines, silkscreen paintings, performance and prints, built on the legacies of Duchamp, Schwitters, and Cornell, many mediums, pushed American away from abstract expressionism, male psychiatric nurse in the Navy, attended Black Mountain College, artist of free association, strong sense of creative community

Jasper Johns
-known for making an object of the subject, nature is how we describe it, representations of things as well as the things in themselves, many different techniques (print making was his ideal medium), seeing evoked thinking with evoked feeling, posed a series of philosophical dilemmas concerning the language of art and the perception of reality, incorporates real objects and digest their meanings, relied on repetition, variations, changes colors and texture

Wayne Thiebaud
-knows for bright paintings of pastries and cakes, figurative works, hard working, non-gimmicky; more classical tradition of painting, rich painterly style derives from Bay Area abstract expressionists

Joseph Beuys
-star-maker, social sculptures, thinking and spoken forms, radical, experimental artist, art as freedom, wants to awaken consciousness in the viewer, offer solutions for the future, thought there was crisis in humanity, shamanistic concepts (animal fat and felt incorporated into many of his works, had profound meaning for him), influence by happenings, Green Party in Germany, part of the Fluxus movement

Red Grooms
-“multi-media”, unique visions brought to life in nearly every medium, NYC was a source of inspiration for many of his works, taught by Hans Hoffman, experimented with performance (Happenings, The Burning Building), did several short films (Ruckus), his work conveys a sense of humor and appreciation of human nature that is universally understood

Marisol
-“self portrait looking at the last supper”, contemporary sculptural assemblage, represents herself scrutinizing her handiwork, art is about looking, evaluation, and reinventing what one sees, attended Hans Hoffman school, use of popular culture imagery

Claes Oldenburg
-autobiographical work, power of his imagination to alter the shape and meaning of real things, swedish, privileged life, began with “Happenings”, soft sculpture; food was an emphasis, everyday items, visual free association, wide variety of underlying meanings in certain forms, “Clothespin” in Philadelphia, architectural scale

Peter Blake
-made album covers (Beatles Sgt. Peppers), “too cheerful”, “godfather of pop art”, lively works, very cheerful

Roy Lichtenstein
-intrigued by brushstroke he saw in comic book (symbol of painting), monumental brushstroke sculptures (Paris, Barcelona, Tokyo), linked to advertising comics, “found” pop images as subject matter, general idea to a specific image, opposite of abstract expressionism, single brushstroke, “Blam”, cartoon/ comic-like, Benday-dots

Andy Warhol
-from Pittsburgh, Czech, commercial artist, themes included: Marilyn Monroe, Elizabeth Taylor, Jackie Kennedy, Coke Bottle, Campbell’s soup cans, named his studio The Factory, avant-garde film production, shot was never quite the same afterward, epitomized the popular consumer culture, cool detachment from the world at large, silk-screen, referred to himself as a machine

John Chamberlin
-used automotive metal to make junk sculptures, worked with broad range of materials, said car parts were practical, chaotic riff on Duchamp’s readymades, minimalism

Robert Arneson
-influenced by Dada and Surrealism, sculptor and ceramicist renowned for whimsical self portraits and works on political themes, leading figure in Funk Art Movement, produced ceramic sculptures influenced by Pop Art of objects like beer bottles and urinals, humorous self portraits (trademark), used whimsical style to address political issues

Tom Wesselmann
-known for modernizing the classic female nude into a flat, enigmatic billboard-friendly silhouette, sleek, hard-edge, mostly pink silhouettes of reclining female torsos or big cutout lips, aggressive images

silkscreen
printing process; non-printing areas blocked out; color squeezed through a screen

encaustic
pigment mixed with wax and applied to surface while hot

trompe l’oeil
fool the eye illusionism (appears 3D)

oeuvre
an artists body of work

lithography
drawing on stone, image drawn with a waxy crayon onto stone; ink adheres to drawn lines (planographic process)

junk sculpture
refers to a specialized type of assemblage that involves the welding of discarded metal into sculpture, both uses and evokes the environment of the city streets where debris is ever present, used found material

assemblage
the technique of creating a sculpture by joining together individual pieces or segments, sometimes ‘found’ objects that originally served another purpose

happening
an event performed by artists, usually spontaneous and unrehearsed, that may include music, dance, mime, art, reading, or any combination of these

Pop-Art
rising to prominence in 1960s, a style of figurative art whose form and content derive from the imagery of the mass media and products of consumer society (Oldenburg, Lichtenstein, Warhol)

photomontage
a composite photographic picture made up of different photographic images

performance art
any work of art constituted by the observable activity of the artist

figurative art
-mixed expressionism and classical elements, includes Lucian Freud, Larry Rivers, Pearlstein, and Thiebaud

Philip Pearlstein
-Warhol’s college roomate, concentrates on the figure in his works, helped lead revival in realist art, Modernist Realism nudes

Schwitters
-Dada artists, influence on Pop artists and Happenings, constructions, collages, environments, leads into happenings, worked in several genres and mediums, well knows for the Merzbau and his collages (Kate)

George Segal
-collection in Cleveland, life-size sculptures of people in plaster casts and the tableaux they inhibited, happenings, pop art bridge

tableaux
arrangement of props almost like in a theater, also called environments, usually owned by museums

combine
-used to identify works by Rauschenberg, uses a variety of things to make his works, puts them together

Yves Kline
-monochrome blue, called himself a “living brush”, happenings and performance (bodies smeared in blue paint), Duchampian influence, non-political, body art using blood

Hockney
looks at gesture painting, more realistic, achieved fame at a young age, idolizes Picasso and Matisse, openly gay, impacted by the work of Bacon, portrature, very still/frozen, British Pop, becomes well known, “joiners”

joiners
style used by Hockney, grouped together many smaller canvases

R. Hamilton
-Tomorrow Exception, collage, Schwitter as in influence, looks to the streets, turning away form traditional art, British Pop Art

Independent group
British group; lasted 3 years, looked at American magazines, the parallel of life and art

Rosenquist
-made massive works, started with painting billboards, flamingo capsule, meticulous painter, protagonist in Pop Art movement

Maquette
a study in clay for a sculpture

Funk Art Movement
took place in Los Angelos, a reaction against the non-objectivity of abstract expressionism

Louise Nevelson
-Dawn’s Wedding Chapel, reliefs,American sculptor known for her monumental, monochromatic, wooden wall pieces and outdoor sculptures

relief
resembles a standing collage,To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane.[1] What is actually performed when a relief is cut in from a flat surface of stone or wood is a lowering of the field, leaving the unsculpted parts seemingly raised

Tinguely
-junk sculpture, kinetic sculpture (motorized),He is best known for his sculptural machines or kinetic art, in the Dada tradition; known officially as metamechanics

meta-matics
Tinguely,they are machines which automatically create infinite sequences of drawings

Ben-day Dots
-utilized by Lichtenstein, equal size and distribution of dots in a specific area, used silk screening

Fluxus
-Beuys was a member of this movement, a group dissatisfied with long tradition of “heroic” or object oriented painting and sculpture, founded in Germany by John Cage

John Cage
founded the Fluxus movement, leading figure in post-war avant garde,was an American composer, music theorist, writer, and artist. A pioneer of indeterminacy in music, electroacoustic music, and non-standard use of musical instruments, studied Zen Buddhism

M. Cunningham
-dancer/choreographer; worked with Cage, created systems together, any movement could be constituted as dance, wanted to engage the viewer’s senses, choreographic ideas were complex and stress the discipline of technique, visited Black Mountain College

Kaprow
passed beyond gesture to pure action painting, sutdied with Hofmann, “happenings” segal’s farm in NJ

Paolozzi
-independent group, british pop art, collages using images of consumer goods, technology, and pop culture from books and mass-market magazines, science fiction influence

Kienholz
-visible figure on LA scene, Ferus Gallery, funk aesthetic, full-scale; walk-in tableaux, “the wait” (constructed mainly with desiccated animal bones

action painting
the artist concerned him or herself with a creative act of self-discovery, whose result was above all an artifact of the experience

“living brush” paintings
-Kline’s idea to use humans as paintbrushes

anthropometries
-Kline, thought of using the human figure as a medium in art

Estate by Rauschenberg
Estate by Rauschenberg

Merzbau by Schwitters
Merzbau by Schwitters

For Kate by Schwitters
For Kate by Schwitters

The Studio by Larry Rivers
The Studio by Larry Rivers

Two Female Models with Drawing Table by Pearlstein
Two Female Models with Drawing Table by Pearlstein

Five Hot Dogs by Thiebaud
Five Hot Dogs by Thiebaud

Odalisk by Rauschenberg
Odalisk by Rauschenberg

In Advance of the Broken Arm by Duchamp
In Advance of the Broken Arm by Duchamp

Bed by Rauschenberg
Bed by Rauschenberg

Canyon by Rauschenberg
Canyon by Rauschenberg

Skyway by Rauschenberg
Skyway by Rauschenberg

H.A.W.K. by Chamberlain
H.A.W.K. by Chamberlain

Dawn’s Wedding Chapel II by Nevelson
Dawn's Wedding Chapel II by Nevelson

Chicken by Kaprow
Chicken by Kaprow

The Street by Oldenburg
The Street by Oldenburg

One Way by Grooms
One Way by Grooms

The Family by Marisol
The Family by Marisol

Five Feet of Colorful Tools by Dine
Five Feet of Colorful Tools by Dine

Pie a la Mode by Oldenburg
Pie a la Mode by Oldenburg

Floor Cake by Oldenburg
Floor Cake by Oldenburg

Clothespin by Oldenburg
Clothespin by Oldenburg

Target with Plaster Casts by Johns
Target with Plaster Casts by Johns

Three Flags by Johns
Three Flags by Johns

False Start by Johns
False Start by Johns

Painted Bronze by Johns
Painted Bronze by Johns

Untitled Blue Monochrome by Klein
Untitled Blue Monochrome by Klein

Performance: Anthropometries de lepoque bleue by Klein
Performance: Anthropometries de lepoque bleue by Klein

Baluba III by Tinguely
Baluba III by Tinguely

Homage to New York by Tinguely
Homage to New York by Tinguely

Fat Chair by Beuys
Fat Chair by Beuys

How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare by Beuys
How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare by Beuys

The Pack by Beuys
The Pack by Beuys

Real Gold by Paolozzi
Real Gold by Paolozzi

Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band by Blake
Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band by Blake

Just what is it that makes today’s homes so different, so appealing? by Hamilton
Just what is it that makes today's homes so different, so appealing? by Hamilton

A diver, Paper Pool by Hockney
A diver, Paper Pool by Hockney

Nichol’s Canyon by Hockney
Nichol's Canyon by Hockney

Still Life #12 by Wesselmann
Still Life #12 by Wesselmann

Great American Nude #57 by Wesselmann
Great American Nude #57 by Wesselmann

Dick Tracy by Warhol
Dick Tracy by Warhol

32 Campbell’s Soup Cans by Warhol
32 Campbell's Soup Cans by Warhol

Gold Marilyn Monroe by Warhol
Gold Marilyn Monroe by Warhol

Blam by Lichtenstein
Blam by Lichtenstein

Drowning Girl by Lichtenstein
Drowning Girl by Lichtenstein

Nomad by Rosenquist
Nomad by Rosenquist

F-111 by Rosenquist
F-111 by Rosenquist

Paper clip by Rosenquist
Paper clip by Rosenquist

Through the Eye of the Needle to the Anvil by Rosenquist
Through the Eye of the Needle to the Anvil by Rosenquist

The Wait by Keinholz
The Wait by Keinholz

Typewriter by Arneson
Typewriter by Arneson

Holy War Head by Arneson
Holy War Head by Arneson