P olitical science refers to the social science in relation with political institutions and with the principles and conduct of government. This means that political science is about studying the norms of the society and the government. In political science, you need to know what the society needs, how the government id functioning, how the government execute laws, how they render authority to the people, how the government is built, and many more.
It is also the study of the state wherein you ought to know the condition and the capacity of the people and the nation that you authorize. It also includes the study of politics wherein you are required to observe how the people vote for their leaders, how the election is done, or has to be done, how the politicians campaign, and how they do politics in such way that they will be elected. Political science is a study of human and political behavior, all aspects of politics that contributed to the society. It analyzes the political systems that the government is carrying out.
Political science converges with other fields like: * Economics, the science of production, distribution and the consumption of mankind and/or services, * Sociology, the study of development, origin, organizations and the functioning of human society, * Law, the regulations that needs to established in a society by the authority or the elected government officials, * Anthropology, the science of human and how they work, it deals with the physical and cultural development, characteristics and beliefs of the society, * Public administration, the fulfillment of public policies, * National politics, * International relations, dealing with the other nations, * Comparative politics.
* Political organizations, * Political theories that have been observed throughout the exercises that the government have made and many more. There are three sub disciplines which together establish the field of political science: political philosophy, international relations, and comparative politics. Political philosophy is the study of such topics as politics, liberty, justice rights, laws, and enforcement of rules by the authority.
It also observes the facts on how the government is made to be legitimate, the makings of the constitution, the rights and freedom of the humankind, how they should be all protected, the duties of the citizens and the rulers. International relations deal with the connection between nations. It studies the roles of the state, the inter-governmental organizations, international nongovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations and multinational corporations. It also analyzes and formulates foreign policies on particular states or countries.
Comparative politics is the study of comparison and teaching different types of the constitution. It is actually the method that applies to study politics. Political science is all about the government. All the things that has to happen and will be happening in the future is the study of political science. It uses methods and techniques to compare and study the different inquiries like the primary sources of an historical documents and records. But what is government? Government is a ruler body of a nation, state, or community.
It is consist of rulers like the law-makers or legislators, and administrations. It refers to the larger system by which any state is organized. There are also different types of government, depending on each state or attributes, like the following: a. Government with Aristarchic attributes are ruled by the best people in the society might be elite, or some educated citizen. The following are different terms of government with aristarchic attributes: * Aristocracy – a form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the principal persons of the state.
Comes from the word “aristocrat”, means the ruler of this government is an elite person. The ruler may be from different lines of descendant, not just only one. * Geniocracy – is a form of government which was first proposed by Rael (leader of International Raelian Movement) which advises to use intelligence as criteria for regional governance. * Kratocracy – is a form of government ruled by a strong person who seized power among its society. * Meritocracy – is a form of government wherein the effectuation of the progress is based upon the intellectual talent of a group.
* Technocracy – is a form of government where in professionals or experts in technology are appointed to rule and would be in control of decision making for the society. b. Governments with Autocratic attributes are ruled by dictators. The following are the forms of government with Autocratic attributes: * Authoritarian – is a form of government wherein it is characterized by submission to authority as well as its admission. * Autocracy – is a system of government in which the ruling of the society is in the hands of one person.
His decisions may be subjected to neither external legal restraint nor regularized mechanisms of popular control. This is a government where in one ruler has unlimited power. * Despotism – is a form of government wherein the supremacy is through threats of punishments and violence. It doesn’t require for a single leader, it may be ruled by a group, not like autocracy. * Fascism – is a form of government focuses on nationalism. The rulers may do things illegal which doesn’t relate to patriotism. It recognizes the presence of class conflict and proposes a resolution to end the divisions of classes within the nation.
* Totalitarian – is a form of government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control. The state under totalitarianism regulates every realm of life. c. Governments with democratic attributes are ruled by the person who has been voted by the society thinking he is fit for governing the state. The following are the form of government with democratic attributes: * Democracy – is a form of government which uses the power of the people to vote for their leaders. It is a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens, might be elite or servants, who can elect people to represent them.
* Direct democracy – is a form of government in which people represent themselves and selecting new laws directly. * Representative democracy – is a form of government in which people elects representatives to propose new rules and regulations, or new laws that is needed to be implemented in the society. It is also known as a republic. It is an element of parliamentary and presidential system in the government. Usually, the head of the state is a president. * Social democracy – is a form of government wherein it focuses on the citizens’ social rights.
It speaks of the public services like education, medical care, workers’ rights, employees’ compensations, child and elderly care, and many more. It considers itself to be form of reformist democratic socialism. d. Governments with monarchic attributes are ruled by a king or a queen who have inherited their position from their ancestors. The following are the forms of government with monarchic attributes: * Absolute monarchy – is a form of government wherein the monarch utilizes supreme governing authority as the head of the government. It uses total power over the land and its citizens.
* Constitutional monarchy – is a form of government wherein the ruler is the monarch (a nation’s ruler by hereditary right), but his powers are limited because the government has constitution to follow. * Elective monarchy – is a form of government in which the monarchy is elected, not the traditional way in which the ruler is from a hereditary monarchy. * Emirate – is the domain controlled by an emir. Emir is an independent ruler of the Muslim state * Monarchy – is a form of government in which a monarch, who inherited the authority from their family, embodies the sovereignty. e.Governments with oligarchic attributes are ruled by a very influential person. *
Bureaucracy – is a form of government with non-elective government officials. It is consists of many bureaus and administrators. The government administrators are the ones who decide on the legislature or the democratically-elected representation of the state. * Ergatocracy – is a form of government in which the ruler is a proletariat. Proletariat is a social class comprising those who do manual labor and wages. Most of them are rebel and activists that controls the society and create an alternative economy for the people.
* Kritarchy – is a form of government wherein the ruler is the judge. * Netocracy – is a form of government ruled by social connections. * Oligarchy – is a form of government ruled by a few people. These groups of people have the same interest. They can be identified by their royalty, financial conditions, professions, family ties, corporate or military control. * Plutocracy – is a form of government ruled by the wealthy people. Any form of governments that are listed here can be in a form of plutocracy if the rulers are all rich.
* Stratocracy – is a form of government in which people with military service can govern the state or the society. * Timocracy – is a form of government ruled by honorable citizens of the society. * Theocracy – is a form of government or a political unit governed by a deity or by officials thought to be divinely guided. f. Governments with pejorative attributes are ruled by groups or forms of other governments. The following are the forms of government with pejorative attribute: * Bankocracy – is a form of government wherein the system of the governance is influenced by banks on public policy-making.
* Corporatocracy – is a form of government wherein it is ruled by the corporation and the economics and political system is controlled by businessmen or business firms. * Nepotocracy – is a system of governance in which the power is given to a family member, mostly to the nephew. * Kakistocracy – is a form of government wherein the least qualified citizens are the rulers of the society. This type of government resulted in a uniformly stupid society barren of intellectual governance.
* Kleptocracy (mafia state) – is a form of government wherein the system of governance are ruled by thieves and corrupts. * Ochlocracy – is a form of government ruled by the public. g. Governments with speculative attributes are as follows: * Magocracy – is a form of government wherein the highest and main authority might be a magician or wizard, sorcerer, or witch. * Uniocracy – is a form of government wherein the government is ruled by the singularity or the uniqueness of all human minds. h. Governments with socio-economic attributes are political systems experiencing movements in power.
The following are the forms of the government with socio-economic attributes: * Capitalism – capitalists economy are the people who owns their own business privately * Communism – communist societies wherein people own corporate businesses like farms. * Feudalism – is a system of land ownerships, reforms, and duties. * Socialism – these are government who provides education, welfare, and medical support * Welfare state – is a system of governance wherein they focus on giving the citizens of the society the education, medical services, and the protection of their social well-being that they need.
As these different forms of government shows, political science is the study of government states and other political systems. It includes the studies of political ideology, economy, philosophy, the norms of politics, and analysis. Political science is very broad; it has so many subfields and subsidiaries. The government in the study of political science depends on the culture and the constitution of every society. http://en. m. wikipedia. org/wiki/Political_science http://en. m. wikipedia. org/wiki/Government https://www. apsanet. orgLcontent_9181. cfm http://www. bartleby. com/60/192. html.
Subject: Political philosophy,
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 30 November 2016
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