Political Science Essay
Non-governmental organizations and Inter-governmental organization are defined as actors in the international level which operate and they carry out their activities without any state control. Non-governmental organizations are formed voluntarily by citizens, with the aim of charitable participation within the organization. They are independent within the laws of society and are managed by those elected or the appointed board. Its legal status is based on freedom of association, one of the most basic human rights.
This paper will focus on various aspects of these two kinds of organizations and their effects on the international relations of a state. NGOs are not established with the purpose of making profit rather they are engaged in revenue-generating activities. The revenue obtained is used in pursuit of the organization’s mission. Employees get the proper reward for relevant work done. Nevertheless, boards are not paid for the work they do but are reimbursed for any expense they incur in executing board duties.
In addition, NGOs aims at improving the circumstances and prospects of people and to act on issues detrimental to the well being of the society as a whole (Ahmed & Potter, 2008). There exists great diversification in terms of independence, size of business, source of funding, international reach and operating procedures. These organizations can execute projects, shield or promote specific causes and seek to manipulate policy. NGOs are not subject to international law and include organizations like Amnesty international, the International chamber of Commerce and International Red Cross.
IGOs Intergovernmental organizations, commonly abbreviated as IGOs, comprise of sovereign states that are positioned to carry out projects and plans in common interest. NGOs act in conjunction with IGOs by complimenting IGO- initiated and funded programmes, as operational partners. IGOs include organizations like the European Union and the international financial institutions, World Bank. Most of IGOs work for and are financed by rich corporations and some state governments (Beigbeder, 1991). They are important aspect of public international law and are formed by treaty that acts as a bond creating the group.
IGOs plays a major role by providing means of cooperation and multiple channels of communication between and among states in fields which cooperation and communication provides advantages for almost all nations. With the major roles of IGOs as rule making, data collection and agenda setting, they decrease uncertainty between states and explore cooperative solution for international problems. IGOs may manipulate norms of international relations and preferences of nation-states; for instance, the United Nations Environment Program which played key role in the conception of regimes such as the protection of the Mediterranean Sea.
A well known case is the International Atomic Energy Agency which evidenced that IGOs play a significant role in monitoring principles, norms and rules of international institutions and international regimes. Infrastructure has developed within states as IGOs are greatly concerned with technical issues like telecommunication, postal services, transportation and environmental management. Economic development has been witnessed with IMF and the World Bank being successful in money flowing, debt management and financing debt issues between rich and poor states.
States are able to obtain information about the international society and politics. Decisions made by IGOs are as a result of negotiations among the governmental agents assigned to them. Activities of IGOs such as the UN and the IMF are seen to be more influential for most diminutive countries as compared with countries with very big powers as they are not constrained too much by their principles. NGOs exists in many kinds such as transnational, governmental organized, governmental regulated and initiated, business and industry, transnational social movements and anti-governmental.
For the recent decade their effectiveness for transnational politics has become pertinent and their number increased. NGOs mobilize universal networks by creating transnational organizations, gathering data on local conditions through associates around the world, creating immediate response and drum up pressure from the outside states. NGOs work hand in hand with IGOs by participating in their conferences and engaging in social appointments, building communal coalitions, raising new agendas and addressing IGOs meetings (Beigbeder, 1991).
They also maintain inter-state collaboration by preparing backing papers, reports and refining delegates of states to narrow technical gap, intensifying policy options and bringing delegates together. They carry out activities within states such as linking to local partners and transnational movements, providing humanitarian aid protecting persons in danger. NGOs promote public participation within states by bringing awareness to the government delegates that they are being watched.
This is achieved through the endless effort in increasing transparency and honesty of international negotiations and public institutions and aggravating public protest. They do mobilization of international community to fight against oppression, afflict, group and personal rights. Effects of NGOs and NGOs on international relations of a state Non-state actors have caused great transformation in international relations as they have become the major determinants of foreign policies of nation states as they have remained active in playing their major roles in more than one state.
They are involved in both domestic and international settings. Through their personal connection with their employees, they help nation states to solve problems such as climatological changes, shortage of food, poverty, and insufficient natural resources. In many cases of political conflicts like the cold war which resulted to tribalism and other cultural cleavages, many non-state actors have been involved to solve them and shape national, regional and international policies and thus their role has been widely accepted by many political scientists.
However, these scientists only differed on the level of relevance and effectiveness of non-state actors. Intergovernmental organizations and Non-governmental organizations are included in the part of world system and are source of effectiveness in international politics. In today’s world, it has become quite difficult to evaluate international politics and pattern without attaching the great influence of non-state actors which are gaining position. Moreover, non-state actors have shown concern with the rural poor and have managed to maintain field presence in distant locations where it quite difficult to keep government staff in station.
They have identified the needs of the rural poor in terms of agricultural developments. They have also implemented new systems for testing new technology such as soya production in Bangladesh (Ahmed & Potter, 2008). In other cases, non-state actors have assisted to organize landless labourers to get and operate water pumping technology and irrigation schemes. Concisely, they have sustained joint efforts in soil and water conservation whether is on private land or on micro-watershed areas.
Conclusion In conclusion, increased transactions, awareness and common concern on regional and global problems require collaboration between states and non-state actors so as to maintain their welfare. These organizations will also require further cooperation and communication among themselves to strengthen their effectiveness as actors in the implementation of sustainable achievement. Nation-states including the most powerful one, the United States, have to attach great significance to non-state actors in order to improve and achieve their main interests.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 24 September 2016
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