Interviews at poor settlements were conducted in a random manner, taking minimum 10 households and 30 stakeholders. These interviews were conducted with the help of a questionnaire designed to get as much information as possible. A sample questionnaire is provided in Annexure 11. The onset of the discussions was always in an informal manner, moving to scope and then thematic discussions. The option was always given to the respondent to highlight other matters which he/she felt important. Most interviews were organized in the premises of the interviewee i.
e., in the slum areas.
Average time taken from an interview is 45 minutes, with some extending beyond and others lasted only 10 minutes. This dissertation uses direct quotes, opinions and stories from interviewees through a narrative style with quantitative facts. Analysis of interviews was done by noting and then transcribing them within 24hrs of conducting the interview. Then the information is condensed resulting in interpretation and narrative citations.
Use of Maps & Contours development using Ryno, Maya
The basic slum layout was procured from the planning department of the ULB and base maps were obtained from APUSP.
These maps were later updated during site visits. These raster images were vectorized using Autocad software.
Satellite imagery from Google Earth is taken for the town as a whole and for individual sites at different time frames. They were then exported to Photoshop software and changed to monochromes so as to identify different building development patterns, which allowed the understanding of the topographic features of the whole town.
After studying the contours on the base map together with topographic features in different timelines, tins and tones were marked on the satellite image depicting various levels at different places. This image is then exported to Ryno software using which topography sculpting was done to see the terrain of the whole area in 3d and to determine the low lying areas / water detention areas.
After getting the monochrome 3D of topographic feature it is exported to Maya software where this monochrome 3d image is masked with a present day satellite image which gives us clear views of terrain modeling of the whole town as seen in the Figure 3.1 below.
Figure 3.1: 3D Terrain Model of Machilipatnam and its surroundings in 2 different time periods
Data from Secondary sources
A large number of reports and documents were studied to arrive at an understanding of the development practices and approaches to formal planning in response to environmental issues. Access to these documents was made in most cases through special permissions. Most of these documents have been acknowledged where being cited from. Many documents were also studied from public and institutional libraries in the city.
This chapter discussed the details of the different methodologies adopted for the collection and organization of data for the settlements studied. Next chapter describes the case in hand after applying all the methodologies studied in this chapter.
CASE STUDY AND EVIDENCE
INTRODUCING MACHILIPATNAM MUNICIPALITY
Machilipatnam Municipality is selected after studying slums in 42 class-I towns as mentioned in chapter-II. Reasons for selection are:
- Alleviation of slum conditions in this town seemed to be negligible when compared to any other towns,
- Slums formation is at a higher rate than most of the towns and
- It is found out that 50% of the population is living in slums even after funding and implementation of infrastructure development schemes from various sources as shown in Table 4.5.
Overview of the Municipality
Machilipatnam, a seacoast town, was constituted in 1866 making it one of the oldest towns in Southern India and it got its special grade municipality status in 1980. This town sprawls 26.67 Sq.Km. with a population of 1,83,370 as per Census 2011. This town is situated on 160.10.50″ North Latitude and 810.10.50″ East Latitude. It is located 65k.m from Vijayawada making it very easily accessible to commercial hub, and 6.4k.m from Bay of Bengal and is headquarter of Krishna district (APUSP, 2006). The base map of Machilipatnam with it demographic details is given in Map 4.1.
Map 4.1: Base Map of Machilipatnam Town
Culture and Heritage
It is a very ancient town with heritage significant monuments like Majjid in Bandar Kota area which was constructed in 1425 A.D and the oldest Church in the same locality constructed in 1670 A.D. This place was ruled by the British, Dutch and French in small fragments which finally became a British territory before the dawn of Independence. There are a number of temples situated in this town among which Panduranga Swamy temple in Chilakalapudi is the most prominent one in the country next to Pandaripuram (APUSP, 2006).
One of the oldest newspapers, “Krishna Patrika” started by Sri M.Krishna Rao in 1902 was from this town. Another newspaper “Janmabhoomi” was also started from this town by Dr.Pattabhi Seeta Ramaiah in 1919. This was the place famous for international shipping. The commercial institutions like Andhra Bank, Andhra Insurance Co., and Insurance companies were established here after independence. This town can be said as a symbol of great unity in diversity and has great culture and heritage values to study and inspire future generations (APUSP, 2006).
Municipality at a Glance
This Municipality comprises of thirty-six election wards and thirty-two revenue wards. It is an educational center having oldest National, Hindu, Engineering and Polytechnic Colleges. It has a total of 62 slums out of which only 55 are notified. The slum population comprises of a little over 30% of the total population of the municipality (APUSP, 2006). All other public facilities are summarized in Table 4.1 below.
Table 4.1: Machilipatnam Municipality at a glance (APUSP, 2006)
Sl.No. Item Quantity
- Area 26.67 Sq.Kms.
- Population 170008
- No. of Households 39,553
- Distance to State Capital 348 Kms.
- No. of Municipal Wards 36
- No. of Slums 62
- No. of Notified slums 55
- No. of UN-notified slums 07
- Slum Population 51,196
- BPL Population 42,707
- Yearly Income (incl. Grants) 1198.06lakhs
- Yearly Expenditure 1140.91lakhs
- No. of Government Hospitals 1
- No. of Govt. Schools 3
- No. of Junior Colleges 2
- No. of Degree Colleges 4
- No. of Municipal High Schools 6
- No. of Municipal Upper Primary Schools 2
- No. of Municipal Primary Schools 33
- No. of Burial Grounds 23
- Vegetable Market 4
- Mutton & Fish Market 1
The Municipality is surrounded by agriculturally developed villages. It is famous for gold covering and Kalamkari cottage industries leading to a very high floating population of the town from surrounding villages.
Table 4.2: Population Growth as per Census 2011
Sl.No Years Population Percentage Growth / Decade
- 1901 39507 —–
- 1911 42423 6.62
- 1921 43940 4.31
- 1931 56928 29.55
- 1941 59146 3.89
- 1951 77953 31.80
- 1961 101417 30.10
- 1971 112612 11.03
- 1981 138530 23.01
- 1991 159110 14.86
- 2001 179353 11.29
- 2011 170008 -5.49
There was 25.24% of the increase in population from 1921 to 1931 due to the success of a protected water supply scheme established in 1919, which lead to the development of this town. Again, this town saw 27.91% of population growth from 1941 to 1951 as INDIA got its independence from British rule (APUSP, 2005). But this growth started to take a negative direction i.e. -5.49% from 2001 to 2011 owing to increase in slum conditions in this town. There is no reprieve from these conditions in the last decade. Population growth from 1901 to 2011 is given in Table 4.2.
Details of Infrastructure Facilities
The ground water is saline and not potable; as such the municipality is having a protected water supply scheme since 1919. Presently the ULB is supplying 30 lakh gallons of protected water per year to public. The main source of water is the Krishna River supplied through Bandar canal. There are areas not covered by the protected water supply which are being served with 7 water tanks (APUSP, Technical Screening Report, 2005). Details of protected water supply system are provided in Table 4.3.
Cite this essay
Poor Settlements ,Slum Dwellers. (2019, Dec 09). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/planner-head-of-the-poor-settlements-slum-dwellers-ngo-s-example-essay