Essay, Pages 4 (1000 words)
Phytonutrients present in Murraya koenigii
The leaves of the plant contain various compounds such as Essential Oil, Tannins, Resin, Glucoside Girinimbin, Isomahanimbin, Koenidine, Koenigin, Koenigine, Koenimbine, Koenigicine, Koenine, Koemine, Mahanimbicine, Bi-Cyclomahanimbicine, Phebalosin, Coumarine as Murrayone Imperatoxin, Mahanine, and Scopolin.
Triterpenoid alkaloids such as Cyclomahanimbine, Tetrahydromahanmbine and Murrayastine, Murrayaline, and Pypayafoline alkaloids are the other chemical compounds in the leaves of Murraya koenigii.
The leaves also are rich in Carbazole alkaloids which are suggested to have stimulating effects on the central nervous system (CNS).
Fruits and seeds contain the carbazole alkaloids, Mahanimbine, Murrayazolidine, Girinimbine, Koenimbine, Koenigicine, Mahanine, Iso-mahanine and Murrayanol.
Flowers contain a large number of mono- and sesquiterpenoids, the major ones being ?-Caryophyllene, ?-ocimene and Linalool.
Stem-bark contains Girinimbin, Girinimbine, Murrayanine, Murrayacine and a carbazole carboxylic acid – Mukoeic acid, Curryangine and Curryanine.
Girinimbine, Mahanimbine, Isomahanimbine and Murrayacine have also been isolated from roots.
A new dimeric carbazole alkaloid, Bismurrayafoline E, has been isolated from this plant. Plant also contains Mukonine and Mukonidine
Activity of Murraya koenigii
It is used for several medicinal purposes like- astringent, aromatic, demulcent, depurative, antihelmintic, appetizing, carminative, anodyne, constipation, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, tonic, etc.
The main nutrients found in curry leaves are proteins, carbohydrates, energy, fibers, calcium, phosphorous, iron, magnesium, copper and minerals, carotene, nicotinic acid, oxalic acid, crystalline glycosides, carbazole alkaloids, koenigin, and resin.
It also contains various vitamins like nicotinic acid and vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin E, antioxidants, plant sterols, amino acids, glycosides and flavonoids.
Also, nearly zero fat (0.1 g per 100 g) is found in them.
Fresh leaves are containing yellow-colored volatile oil, and are rich sources of vitamin A and calcium.
Availability of curry leaves
Curry leaves are available in 3 forms. They are:
- Fresh curry Leaves
- Dehydrated curry leaves
- Powdered curry leaves (as spices)
Figure: Different types of curry leaves a. Fresh b. Dehydrated c. Powdered
Table: Comparisons between nutrient content of fresh and dehydrated (dried) curry leaves
- Value of fresh curry Leaves (100gm)
- Value of dehydrated Curry leaves (100gm)
- Protein 6gm 12gm
- Carbohydrate 18.7gm 64.31gm
- Calcium 830 mg 2040mg
- Iron 0.93mg 12mg
- Fat 1gm 5.4gm
The pulp of the fruit contains 64.9 percent moisture (water). The content of total soluble solids of the fruit juice is 16.8 percent.
The pulp contains 9.76 per cent total sugars, 9.58 per cent reducing sugars, 0.17 percent non-reducing sugars and almost a negligible amount of tannins and acidity.
The vitamin C content of the fruit is 13.35 mg per 100 g of the pulp.
The mineral content of the edible portion of the fruit is around 2.162 per cent.
Similarly, 100 g of the edible portion of the fruit contains protein, 1.97 g; phosphorus, 0.082 g, potassium, 0.811 g, calcium, 0.166 g; magnesium, 0.216 g; and iron, 0.007 g.
Health Benefits of Curry Leaves
Most of the people think that curry leaves use only for add flavor to the food and throw leaves while eating their soup or curry. However, they have many important health benefits than people realize.
Murraya koenigii (curry leaves) offers a wide range of health benefits without giving side effects of other medicines.
Carbazole alkaloids present in curry leaves or Murraya Koenigii who have anti-diarrheal properties.
Gives Gastrointestinal Protection
Use of curry leaves is recommended for cure of gastrointestinal problems in Ayurvedic methodology. It is considered to give mild laxative properties. So, mixture of curry leaves and lime juice is to be consumed for indigestion or paste from leaves can be added to buttermilk and taken every morning on an empty stomach.
Contains Antioxidant Properties
Curry leaves or Murraya Koenigii is a good source of antioxidants. The presence of various vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C and vitamin E help in reducing oxidative stress and free radical scavenging activity.
Have Anti-diabetic Properties
Curry leaves is use to control diabetes. The anti-hyperglycemic properties of the leaves are beneficial in controlling blood glucose levels. The curry leaves extracts help in protecting the pancreatic beta cells and improving the functioning of pancreatic islets that are responsible to produce insulin.
Fight against Cancer
The chemical constituents such as phenols (Carbazole alkaloids) are found in curry leaves, are helpful in fighting cancers such as leukemia, prostate cancer and colorectal cancers. It is known to improve cell immunity as well.
Lower Cholesterol Levels
Curry leaves are also known to reduce bad LDL cholesterol level. It helps in preventing obesity.
Good for Hair Growth & Prevents graying of hair
Curry leaves are believed to help in strengthening hair roots. So, Dry curry leaf powder mixed in oil can be applied to hair with a quick massage. The curry leaves paste can also be applied in cases of gray hair. Doing these on a regular basis can improve hair growth as well.
Good for Eyesight
Curry leaves contain high amounts of vitamin A. Vitamin A contains carotenoids which protect the cornea, which is the eye surface. Deficiency of vitamin A may cause night blindness, cloud formations in front of the eye and even the loss of vision loss in some cases.
Have Radio-protective and Chemo-protective activity
Curry leaves have shown positive results in reducing the effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, it also offering protection against chromosomal damage, protection of bone marrow and prevention of free radicals becoming active in the body.
Protect Against Pathogen Attack
Curry leaves are effective against fighting bacterial and fungal infections. The leaf extracts from the plant have been comparable to popular, mainstream antibiotic drugs.
Protect the Liver
Curry tree have tannins and carbazole alkaloids present in the leaves, which exhibited good hepato-protective properties. The leaf extracts is reduce the levels of aspartae, bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase. They are also helpful in protecting the liver from various diseases such as hepatitis and cirrhosis and relieving hepatic complications.
Curry leaves are also helpful in skin care. The juice or paste of leaves can be applied on burns, cuts, bruises, skin irritations and insect bites for quick recovery and clean healing.