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Discussion About Multimeter

A systematic error can be more tricky to track down and is often unknown. This error is often called a bias in the measurement. In chemistry a teacher tells the student to read the volume of liquid in a graduated cylinder by looking at the meniscus. A student may make an error by reading the volume by looking at the liquid level near the edge of the glass. Thus this student will always be off by a...

Bromination of trans-cinnamic acid

The reaction was done in the fume hood with proper safety gloves on throughout the entire experiment. 10.0 mmol of trans-cinnamic acid was combined with 6.0 mL of glacial acetic acid with a stirbar in a 50 mL round-bottom flask. The round-bottom flask was placed on a magnetic stirrer with a separatory funnel over the flask with the stopcock closed. 8.2 Ml of 1.25 M solution of bromine in acetic ac...

Calibration of Volumetric Glassware

According to the tables above, when using 10mL pipette, the actual volume delivered is 9.98mL and the standard deviation is 0.012. The lower the standard deviation, the higher the consistency of an instrument based in a physic’s book. Consistent measurements consist of readings that have little or no relative deviation among them. So, when the standard deviation is nearer to zero then this shows...

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Polygon of Forces

It is recommended for this experiment to be more effective in future investigation and for confirmation of theories, that pulleys be situated so that the distance between the cords and the board are closer. This will reduce the errors that will be likely caused by parallax and vibration. A smoother force board can be used to reduce any negative impact that it can have on the experiment. I would al...

Osmosis and Diffusion

Exercise 1 proved that water moves across the selectively permeable membrane of the dialysis tubing much easier than sucrose sugar does. The water moved to reach equilibrium between the solutions. Sucrose must be too large a molecule to pass through the membrane quickly. Exercise 2 showed that the potato samples took in water when immersed in a distilled water solution. Potatoes must contain sucro...

Heat Transfer

(b) Tf =27oC; Tb = 22oC Q.2 Q.3 Q.5 Q.6 Q.7 Q.8 Q.9 Q.10 Q.11 Q.12 4109 W/m2-C will help (increase) the heat transfer. Use series combination T1 = 267oC; T2 = 220oC; q = 454.3 W; 47.6 % q = 1498.93 W; T2 = 873.15oC Qconv = 22.6 W/m; Qrad = 29.1 W/m2 h = 12.7 W/m2-K Ti = 398.6 oC; q = 172.3 W/m2 Q will be lowered more by a small increase of the outside diameter. 2 q ''' 2 T  Tw  ( R  r ) ;...

Wye-Delta Transformations

The delta-wye and wye-delta transformation is a useful technique in circuit analysis in transforming a circuit to reduce it to a simpler circuit but of course the resistances will be constant before transformation. The circuit of delta wye is equivalent to each other but the arrangement of the resistances in the circuit will be of different values but theoretically the current and voltage across d...

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning

In vapour compression cycle liquid is used as refrigerant in place of air as in case of air refrigeration cycle. The liquid refrigerant boil in evaporator which is at low pressure ,by absorbing latent.the vapour form are condenced in condencer which is at high pressure,by rejecting latent heat.thus vapour compession cycle transfer heat in the form of sensible heat as well as latent heat, giving hi...

Rate of Diffusion

The lighter gases diffuse through the small openings of the porous walls more rapidly than the heavier ones (Robinson, 1992). In accordance to this, an experiment was performed to see the relationship between the molecular weight and rate of diffusion of a substance. The glass tube set–up was done by plugging in two cotton balls which are uniform in size at the opposite ends of a glass tube....

Physics of Diffusion Across a Selectively Permeable Membrane

The data shows what molecules can and cannot diffuse across a selectively permeable membrane. The color change that occurred showed that the I2KI molecules were small enough to pass through the pores of the membrane or dialysis tubing. This data also shows that the water and glucose solution moved out of the dialysis bag because water molecules are small enough to pass through the membrane. No mis...

Column and Thin layer Chromatography

The beaker is covered with watch glass so that the atmosphere remains saturated with solvent vapour. Saturation of atmosphere is important because it hinders the evaporation leading to the rising up to the plate. There is a separation of components of siling labuyo at different rates. In Table 2, it shows the amount of distance travelled by each component. Orange component shows that it remains in...

Freezing point depression lab

The molar mass of the first trial was way off from the accepted value, while the molar mass of the second trial was quite close to the accepted value. These results were confirmed when a percent error of 315% in for the first trial and 6.7% in the second trial. Errors that contributed to the percent error could include impurities in the aspirin and t-butanol mixture, mixing the two in the main bea...

Separation of a Mixture of Solids

Both substances were left overnight to dry out and by noon 9/19 both substances were dry. After weighing each solid and adding the total together we noticed our final total was 5.1g and our initial weight of the mixture was 7.2g. I believe in the transferring process some of each of the solid was lost, being stuck to the beaker, spilled on the floor or counter top or stuck to the paper towel and ...

Acceleration Due to Gravity in Physics

A difference of 0.003 s would correspond to a difference of 0.003 ×4×5=0.06 seconds in the measurement of five oscillations. The measurement of time clearly deserves more attention in future experiments. Human reaction time is already a few tenths of a second. Future experimental designs should seek to measure the time more accurately. More oscillations would make this measurement more accurate,...

Experiment on Separation of a Mixture of Solids

How would you explain a sand recovery percentage that is higher than the original sand percentage? The sand remained wet and yielded a false result. The water would make it weigh more, therefor giving you a higher percentage. What were potential sources of error in this experiment? -- That some benzoic acid crystals made it through the filter into the salty water...

Does Temperature of Kernels Affect Popcorn Yield?

The design of an experiment will establish whether the results will be consistent in their quality. If more than one independent variable is present in an experiment, the causes of any variations in measurements will be indeterminable. Results must be able to be measured in a reliable way in order to determine if the independent variable is the cause of the variation in measurement. Having good co...

Identification of Unknown Organic Compound by Experiment

The liquid compound obtained from similar processes had an empirical value C5H10O. The IHD for the compound came 1 which might be 1ring or double bond. Since, the sample had a strong smell, and the spectrum was similar to the hypothesis structure, 2- Pentanone. Experimentally, the boiling point of Pentanone or acetone was 950C. But from reference it was 1010C. The error in boiling point of experim...

Gas Diffusion

Always read and understand the manual properly before attempting to operate the equipment. Always wear proper attire during laboratory session. It is highly recommended that eye protection and gloves are used. Be careful when handling hazardous material. Always refer to the material safety data sheet. Avoid inhaling in great amount any hazardous material. Avoid any spillage onto electrical compone...

Trifilar Suspension

1. Although the accuracy of the stopwatch is to ± 0.01s due to the reaction time under human operation, this accuracy is reduced to roughly ± 0.30s. 2. The torque force applied to the trifilar suspension was not exactly according to the tangential reference line, implying an inconsistent force was applied. 3. The apparatus may not have been completely level due to the individual chain length and...

A Valediction: Forbidden Mourning By John Donnes

This poem is written to comfort a lover. Donne opens with comparative images of the physical and earthly, saying that the sentiment between the two lovers is more than earthly love. He then uses metaphysical conceits, comparisons of unrelated objects--the physical and the spiritual--to further emphasize his point. The two compasses, no matter how far apart they travel will always return to the oth...

Factors affecting the resistance of a wire

To ensure that I conduct a fair test I will ensure that the experiment is done at least twice to have more reliable and accurate results. Wire measurements are kept the same and the equipment is in a good working order. I will also ensure that the thickness of the wire stays constant for each length and current. I shall also ensure that the current passing through the wire will not change until al...

Forced Convection (in a cross flow heat exchanger)

Ta= temperature of air, surrounding temperature. So, in any period of time, dt, then the fall in temperature, dT, will be given as: (2) Where m= mass of copper rod, cp= specific heat of the copper rod, J/kgK Eliminating Q from (1) and (2) then Since Ta is constant, dT=d(T-Ta) Integrating gives: At t = 0, T=To, hence C1 = ln(T-To), hence: Or Therefore a plot of ln((T-Ta)/(Tmax-Ta))) against t shoul...

The atoms or molecules

Nagtapos siya ng Bachelor of Philosophy and Letters sa Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas. Kilala siya bilang Ama ng Sarsuelang Tagalog. Sa kanyang pagsusulat ng mga kuwentong pambata, ginamit niya ang sagisag na Lola Basyang. Sumulat ng imortal na dulang “Walang Sugat Liwayway Arceo Si Liwayway A. Arceo ay ipinanganak sa Manila noong ika 30 ng Enero 1924 mula sa kilalang pamilya ng mga manunulat Genove...

Physics, Collision and Safe Driving

When the belt is worn correctly, it will apply most of the stopping force to the rib cage and the pelvis, which are relatively sturdy parts of the body. Since the belts extend across a wide section of the body, the force isn't concentrated in a small area, so it can't do as much damage. Additionally, the seatbelt webbing is made of more flexible material than the dashboard or windshield. It stretc...

Brief Overview of Alloy for Science Class

Other alloys, such as Nichrome, a nickel based alloy with 12-15% chromium and 25% iron, are very strong at high temperatures. They are used in power-generating plants, jet engines, and gas turbines. Alloys based on tin, cadmium, copper, or silver are used to make bearings which reduce friction between two sliding surfaces. Light weight alloys, like the aluminium, zinc, and magnesium system, are u...

A cylindrical billet

For each of the shape generation methods in question 1, select an appropriate material from the alternatives discussed in question 2, making sure that the process and material are compatible. 4. Which of the combinations do you feel would be the “best” solution to the problem? Why? 5. For your proposed solution, would any additional heat treatment or surface treatment be required? If so, what ...

The hardenability Of Three Type Of Steels

I have investigated the aim of this experiment which was to determine the hardenability of three types of steels, namely En 8, En 16 and En 24. From carrying out the Jominy test it can be concluded that En 24 had the greatest hardenability property En 8 had the poorest hardenability and En 16 was in between the two. This is shown on fig 1.1. En 24 had good hardenability because it had extra alloyi...

Magnetic Field and Average Voltage

4. Why is the second peak voltage smaller than the first one? The second peak of voltage is smaller than the first one due to energy dissipated by the resistor and the energy lost to friction. As the induction wand oscillates back and forth, it continues to loses energy and the subsequent voltage peaks become smaller and smaller with each pass. 5. Why is the voltage nearly zero when the coil is p...

Heat Transfer by Conduction Lab


Temperature inversion

If the spray continues the latent heat keeps the ice temperature at 0 degrees Celsius acting as a protective layer to subfreezing temperatures in the air. 3. Would a strong radiation inversion be more likely to form on a winter night or a summer night? Explain your answer. A strong radiation inversion would form on a winter night. Winter nights offer the best conditions for a radiation inversion d...

Michael Faraday's Contribution to Electrical Engineering Field

Faraday discovered that a suspended magnet would revolve around a current bearing wire, an aspect that made him to propose that magnetism was a circular force. Faraday also discovered electromagnetic induction the principle behind electric generator and electric transformer. After Faraday discovered that electricity could be generated by rotating a magnet inside a coil made of metallic wire, he wa...

Projectile Motion Experiment

In lab 4 we experimented with projectile motion which is the motion of an object that has been launched into movement by a force such as throwing or using a machine. We used the data we gathered from this experiment to predict an average range for an angle we picked and we were not very far off from the real numbers. Air resistance, percent error, and measurements are things to keep in mind when c...

Physics, Gravity and Motion of A Projectile

Any projectile thrown, such as a ball, can be considered to have a vertical and horizontal velocity component. Throughout the path of the projectile, change occurs only in the vertical direction due to the influence of gravity, while the horizontal component of the velocity will not change. The vertical velocity of the projectile gets smaller on the upward path until it reaches the top of the par...

Intermolecular Forces Report for Science Class

Other properties of liquids that can be affected by intermolecular forces are boiling point and critical temperature and pressure. In crystalline solids, the stronger the forces are, the more rigid the crystal is. This is because the stronger intermolecular forces in the solid fix the particles in place. Overall, understanding intermolecular forces is essential to understand gas, liquid, and solid...

Physics Report on Alkanes and Alkenes Reaction Rates

With the use of the Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) the reaction of the samples were compared and determined whether the substance is an alkane or an alkene. It helps saturated fats from unsaturated fats by discharging its colors to the samples. After following the methods of the experiment, we began to research on some facts about the alkanes and alkenes. All of the samples of liquid at the room t...

Millikan Oil Drop Experiment

The experimental charge of electron was found to be at around x 10 ^ -17. This resulted in a very large value of error because the accepted value of the charge of the electron is at 1. 6 ^ -19. Millikan was able to draw his conclusion on the size of the charge of electron that is to be 1. 6 ^-19 when in his repeated experiments, he was able to find that the results of his experiments are explained...

Dark Matter and Dark Energy

These discoveries highlighted the seemingly inversely proportional relationship between dark matter, an attractive force, and dark energy, a repulsive force. When the Universe was young and the galaxies closer together, dark matter’s attractive force was the dominant force at work, but as the galaxies became more distant from each other, dark matter’s influence waned and the repelling force of...

Rationalism and Empiricism

However, although both movements stand in opposition to one another in terms of premises, each has its advantages that contribute to our quest for knowledge. To avoid the critical problems rationalism and empiricism might raise, it is crucial to consider the discipline of inquiry and real-world application of knowledge when deciding on the appropriate approach. In most cases, we should be able to ...

William James

Now, if you are determinists you believe one of these universes to have been from eternity impossible: you believe it to have been impossible because of the intrinsic irrationality or accidentality somewhere involved in it. But looking outwardly at these universes, can you say which is the impossible and accidental one, and which the rational and necessary one? I doubt if the most ironclad determi...

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