1. A self-reports are completed by the subjects themselves. Proxy reports are completed for someone who is unable to self-report accurately. A recall is a survey asking to ‘recall’ what they did at a certain time in the past (their activities). 2. A recall is answering questions asking about past events where as a diary is updated daily on an overview of many things and is on more than the recall. 3. The sources of error: Poor respondent memory and/or motivation Susceptibility to socially desirable responses Under-estimation of incidental activities Low sensitivity to change.
Individual variation in intensity within the same activities 4. Questionnaires are given to the participant before physical activity, to get the basic information about the participant including name, age, recent injuries, what they know about the physical activity, recent sporting activity they have been involved in etc. Pg 327 1. A setting is typically a geographical area or insinuation containing a large, ‘captive’ audience where health messages can be delivered efficiently. 2. Settings approach can be used for health promotion to get people more active.
Within the setting based approach, the choice to be physically active can be made convenient, easier, safer and enjoyable by creating an environment to help the participation in physical activity. This will result in getting more people active. This statistic can then be used in advertising campaigns to promote health. 3. List possible settings in which intervention strategies could be applied. home school community workplace 4. List the possible settings the World Health Organisation has identified. schools workplaces cities clinical Pg 334 1.
Characteristics of a school setting for suitable setting physical activity. A major role in providing a physical and social environment so that children can enjoy an active life. A school setting has the can reach all children, providing an opportunity to reach even inactive children. 2. The difficulties experienced of applying the experienced in applying intervention strategies in a school setting are that if there is no pressure is placed on students and teachers, a big decline in participation could occur. 3.
The World Health Organisation suggests that policy-makers in education should: strengthening national policies related to physical education providing sufficient playgrounds and sport facilities on school premises increasing physical activity in cultural and leisure programs and events 4. A workplace setting makes an ideal location for delivering physical activity strategies. Many Australian adults spend a number of hours at work and travelling to and from work. In the workplace, adults are grouped together in the one location, which makes it promoting a strategy easy, influencing many adults at once. Student activities Pg 319 1.
The adult did not meet the National Physical Activity Guidelines 2. The individual averaged 3 hours of physical activity a week 3. The individual was only active on 2 days each week 4. The individual got most of their physical activity from work (Occupational) 5. 480 minutes per day was the average sedentary behaviour 6. For a 15 year old the individual did not meet the National Physical Activity Guidelines 7. The young person was only slightly under recommended minute for screen time, on screens an average of one and a half hours a day 8. The individual most common physical activity is soccer playing four times a week for two hours 9.
The young person was much more active on week days participating in sport classes and soccer, whereas on weekend spent most of their time on screens. 10. Did not participate in any “other” physical activities Pg 326 1. BHCS does meet the mandate with all ages groups with the amount of hours given to physical activity 2. The mandate from the department of education and early can be inforced by monitoring schools by sending a worker to schools to check the physical activity routine 3. Primary school could open up lunchtimes to dedicated sports involving children in them and give teaches training in physical education for a broader knowledge.
Chapter Review Questions Pg 338 1. a) Describe three reasons physical activity is assessed at the population level? Determine the amount of physical activity required to influence specific health area. Identify biological, psychological and environmental factors that influence physical activity. Study the relationship between physical activity and health conditions. For example, cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors, mental health, and obesity. b) The difference between a recall and a survey is a recall (remember) is what they did either yesterday, last week, last month or last year depending on the measurement of time used.
Usual a survey is how much physical activity you do in a typical week. c) A physical activity log is the personal record of the individual’s physical activity. This is different to a recall survey because a recall is to recollect what they did either yesterday, last week, last month etc. d) A proxy reports are sometimes used for someone who is unable to self-report in a reliable way. They may be completed for a child by a parent. 2. a) A error of a recall survey could be that the participant answers sounds more socially accepted. They could also forget physical activity they have done, more often forgetting incidental physical activity.
b) To get better quality data, you make it clear that if there is anything that the participant don’t understand. You can also explain to the individual what incidental physical activity is. c) Both GPAQ and MARCA surveys have the potential to measure physical activity over all domains d) There are three different measures to tell you if you have done 150mins a week. Two only calculate the 150 minute guideline. The third measure calculates both 150 minutes and 5 sessions, (the guidelines for physical activity). 3. a) The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire is a recall instrument its purpose is to assess physical activity patterns.
b) Sedentary behaviour is assessed by using a 16 item GPAQ questionnaire. 4. The Active Australia Survey can measure: physical activity based on a log recording a week walking for transport moderate physical activity and vigorous physical activity gardening and yard work physical activity differently from the National Health Survey 5. a) The most commonly used measurements in Australia to assess children’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour is the MARCA and CLASS surveys b) No the CLASS survey is not the same as a recall survey, a recall measures the amount of physical activity during a previous day/week/month.
The CLASS survey measures the amount of physical activity on a typical day or weekend. c) You would assess physical activity before and after an intervention program to see what the change in physical activity behaviour is. 6. a) A setting is typically a geographical area or insinuation containing a large, ‘captive’ audience where health messages can be delivered efficiently. b) Three physical environment approaches are: Develop well-equipped playgrounds with playground equipment, line markings on courts, walls, grassed areas and goalposts.
Establish walking/cycling paths around the school perimeter for use by students, families and the community. Ensure speed humps, signage, roundabouts in streets around schools to increase safety for pedestrians and cyclists. 7. Describe what the notion ‘walk-ability’ refers to and how it is measured. Walkability is the measure of the overall walking conditions of an area. Factors that are commonly assessed in walkability are; crossings, lighting, shade, access to footpaths, driver behaviour, traffic calming, safety and crime. 8. a) Schools should be providing:
Prep to Year 3: 20-30 minutes of physical education a day Years 4-6: 3 hours a week of physical education and sport with a minimum provision of 50 per cent for physical education Years 7-10: 100 minutes per week each for physical education and sport Schools are recommended in providing 2-3 hours of physical activity b) List 5 factors that could be potential barriers to classroom teachers delivering physical education classes in primary schools: Little amounts funds put towards physical education, limiting what equipment school has No spare classes for physical education.
Computer devices being promoted in the schools, children are becoming less interested in physical education A lack of equipment or space Not enough training for teachers c) Three strategies that could be implemented to assist primary schools in meeting this mandate and overcoming some of the barriers: lack of equipment, you could get some of the children sporting equtment Lack of space, play games inside the classroom Lack of training, organise a training for the teachers.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 15 October 2016
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