Philosophy Index, Introduction to Philosophy – General Outline of Indian and Western Philosophy, Ancient Greece, The Basics of Philosophy – Pre-Socratic C. Temple. Branches of Philosophy. Accessed June 19, 2013. Page 5 http://www. philosophy-index. com/philosophy/branches/ Number(s) V. Chaubey & S. Dube. Introduction to Philosophy – General Outline of Indian and Western Philosophy. Accessed June 19, 2013. http://www. mu. ac. in/myweb_test/SYBA%20Study%20Mater ial/Philosophy-%20III. pdf University Press Inc. Ancient Greece – People.
Accessed June 19, 2013. http://www.ancientgreece. com/s/People/Main_Page/ L.
Mastin (2008). The Basics of Philosophy – Pre-Socratic. Accessed June 19, 2013 Philosophy: definition and meaning ? The word philosophy came from the Greek words, “phileo” meaning “to love or to befriend” and, Sophia meaning “wisdom. ” Thus, philosophy means the love of wisdom. ? Webster’s dictionary defines it as: “the rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics. ” ? It is the root of all knowledge; the mother of all sciences Origin of Philosophy ? According to Aristotle, philosophy arises from wonder ?
Desire for knowledge arises from the rational nature of man ? Philosophers ask questions and these questions try to understand the metaphysical and physical world of man.
Early Philosophers 1. Thales (624-526 BC) ? ? ? ? He lived in the city of Miletus, in Ionia, now western Turkey He was not only a thinker; he was involved in business and politics He gave naturalistic explanations of the world Thales assumed that some single element which contained its own principle of action or change, lay at the foundation of all physical reality and this element is water He thought that the earth is a flat disk surrounded by water ?
2. Anaximander (611-547 BC) ? ? He was a pupil of Thales According to him the origin of things come from a primary substance which a “boundless mass”, indeterminate and boundless, in short, everything came from nothing He thought that the earth is cylindrical in shape he suggested that humanity evolved from creatures of a different kind ? ? 3. Anaximemes (585-528 BC) ? ? ?
? He was the young associate of Anaximander According to him, air is the primary substance from which all things came from He chose air as the first thing because of its mobility, changeability and inner vitality Air is regulated by the opposed principles of the following: o condensation – compression of air in narrow space; it gives rise to water, earth, and stone o rarefaction – expansion of the air in greater space; it assumes the form of fire 4. Heraclitus (535-475 BC) ? ? ?
He shifted attention to a new problem: change The concept of constant change Example: no one can step into the same river twice because the fresh water is constantly flowing and a new surge of water come in on you. Things change and take on many forms but they contain something which continues to be the same Strife (conflict) is the very essence of change He also stressed that war is common; all things happen by strife and necessity He also assumed that nothing is ever lost but only changes its form ? ? ? ? 5. Parmenides (540-515 BC) ?
? ? According to Parmenides, reality is one, eternal and unchangeable Being No change Reality is a spherical, material, motionless, a continuous mass where there is no change, reality is uncreated and is also indestructible and is, therefore, eternal and motionless Change is the confusion of appearance with reality, and, therefore, change is simply an illusion ? Branches of Philosophy 1. Epistemology ? the term came from the Greek word “episteme” meaning knowledge and the suffix “ology” meaning the science of or the study of.
? area of philosophy that is concerned with knowledge; ? the main concerns of epistemology is the definition of knowledge, source of knowledge (innate ideas, experience, etc. ), process of acquiring and limits of knowledge ? knowledge is defined as justified true belief ? Epistemology seeks to answer basic questions about how human beings perceive the world and gain knowledge about it. The more prominent of these include: o Is there an external world? How can we be certain? o How does memory work?
How can we know that our memories are genuine? o What is the nature of perception? To what extent does current knowledge affect future perception 2. Metaphysics ? the area of philosophy which deals with the ultimate nature of reality ? The term “metaphysics” comes from Greek, meaning “after the Physics” 3. Ethics ? the study of values in human behavior or the study of moral problems 1. the rightness and wrongness of actions 2. the kinds of things which are good or desirable 3. whether actions are blameworthy or praiseworthy 4.
Logic ?the systematic process of valid reasoning through inference – deriving conclusions from information that is known to be true 5. Aesthetics ? ? the area of philosophy which covers the concepts of beauty and art two basic standing on the nature of beauty o subjective judgement – suggests that beauty is not the same to everyone; what is pleasing to the observer is beautiful (to the observer) o objective judgement – the observer tries to measure beauty; they suggest that certain properties of an object (or person) create an inherent beauty such as symmetry and balance.