Acquisition of human knowledge and self-improvement is natural. And due to his enthusiastic nature, individual wants to know more about his surroundings. Through educational scaffolding, the power of curiosity he organizes his knowledge. As a result, he increases his intellectual growth and wisdom. It in also true that man strive to seek knowledge from cradle to the grave. The most prominent accomplishment of human nature is he learn, understand thing, implement his learning, and then coordinate, adjust and cope with the change in order to enhance his skills.
Additionally, sensory perception provides him external knowledge and cognitive process enable him to stimulate his knowledge. According to educational philosophies there are approaches to knowing that help individual to perceive knowledge.
Logic: logical thinking helps individual to understand and make better arguments. There are two types of logical reasoning that enables individual to evaluate fact. 1) inductive reasoning, 2) deductive reasoning. 1) Inductive reasoning stars from a specific information and provides reasons to prove the statement.
Conversely deductive reasoning starts with general information and provides accurate evidence about conclusion.
Epistemology: It deals with the truth, knowledge and how we know something is true. Source of knowledge, limit of knowledge, cognitive process, validity of knowledge, are key components of epistemology (Webb, Metha, Jordan).
Metaphysics: The branch of philosophy that helps us to understand the existence and nature of reality. It raises questions about any material that what it is mean to be. This is probably most complicated and broad approach of thinking.
Ethics: This approach deals with the morals such as good and bad.
And it enables us to learn moral values and standard. These moral values unable us to maintain adequate relationship in society. Generally, teachers are considered responsible to instill moral behavior in children. According to Van Dyk, “Teachers are to prepare for knowledgeable and competent, responsible discipleship, the sort of discipleship that equips our students to function as God’s children in all areas of life” (Karhoff, P: 28).
Aesthetics: Aesthetic is a study of beauty. Beauty is important in life because it represent our values. This approach enables individual to think about other objects. Additionally, it develops a sense to judge right to admire beauty.
Intuition: Institution is the ability that enable individual to understand something immediately, without conscious reasoning. Some philosophers believe, that one can come to know to god only through faith and initiation (Webb, Metha, Jordan).
Realism: The believer of the ideology explores the substance that are available to them. Because realist believes that matter is primary and considered as an independent reality (Webb, Metha, Jordan, P:60).
Scientific method: scientific method is a major way of knowing. Scientific knowledge usually consists of four steps collection and examining data, formulating hypotheses to explain the data, making predictions based on the hypotheses, and doing experiments to test hypotheses. Without this method humans are unable to believe what is known and what to believe.
The jargons are the specialized terminology that are used in specific field of study. There are some terminologies that I came across. Such as, theoretical thinking, secular, subjugate, Cosmology, “cogito, ergo sum”, Syllogism, Corollary, Essence precedes existence, subjectivity objective, Phenomenology, Hermeneutics, Reincarnation, Karma, Dharam, Arthan, Samara, Moksha, Nirvana, Do not do unto others what you would not have them do unto you, Wu we, A yin and a yang, Tai chi, Teach each other as an end and never as a mere means.
Furthermore, there are some terminologies that are discussed in analytic philosophy such as, Discipline, doctrine, inclusion, adaption, adjustment, professionalism, reforms, growth, imply (Webb, Metha, Jordan).
Firstly, philosophy of life means an overall vision of someone’s about life. In other words, the purpose of his life that he means. It is true that if a person has no philosophy of life it means he has no directions to follow. My philosophy of life is, I don’t judge people by their appearance. Also, I help people whenever the opportunity arises. I believe when I help others I also get help in the time of my need. Next, the philosophy of education involves a concept called equity principle. The principle simply sates instruction should be developed and given in a way that every student can take advantage of the system to learn better. Additionally, educational theory is based on the believe of the author on the best way to teach. These believes are based on research, observations, and authors point of view about individual’s perception and understanding of knowledge. According to Foundation of education that, the combination of philosophy and theory enable teacher to formulate their own philosophy of education (Webb, Metha, Jordan).
In conclusion, Philosophy of education is equally to important for teacher. Because it gives a teacher a framework to decide what to teach and how to teach. And this strategy enables to generate empowered learners.
Operant conditioning also called instrumental conditioning. It is learning process through which the strength of individuals behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment. According to skinner, “behavior could be shaped by the appropriate use of rewards” (Webb, Ethan, Jordan). So, according to this believe individuals are not able to work autonomously. In fact, teachers know what is important for students to study.
However, Darken is opposed to this approach and he believes this attitude of learning is overwhelming and teacher’s attitude towards student is autocrat. And he asserts that, imposed learners are actually “indoctrinated minds” (Snelgrove, P: 10). He believes this type of students are incurious and impassive to explore new thing. And learning outcomes are executive.
Unlike operant conditioning freedom is like to give autonomy to student behavior to work independently. Furthermore, freedom refers to liberty and absence of restricted behavior in learning it enables students to understand alone, promote independent thoughts. In this situation the role of the teacher is as a facilitator. Every student has a unique modality and the ways of learning. If we offer open plan in learning, then student will learn better. According to Darke’s disciple, “I do not want to mold my students, but help them give meaning and reason to their own learning experiences” (Snelgrove, p: 10) Postmodernist also believe that the ultimate purpose of education is to make students a useful member of the society. Also, students have a right to express their views freely in matter that associated to their wellbeing (Webb, Metha, Jordan).
Karhoff, Kimberly J. (2003). Analysis of Four Current Educational Philosophies and Their Impact on Science Education: Towards a Reformed Christian Philosophy of Science Education, Snelgrove, David. (vol 60). Journal of Philosophy and History of Education,
Webb, Metha, Jordan. (2013). Foundation of American Education. (Seventh Edition).United States of America. Pearson
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