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Philippine culture

Paper type: Essay
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Academic Scientific Psychology or Akademiko-siyentipikal na Sikolohiya: Western Tradition: This follows the tradition of Wilhelm Wundt in 1876 and is essentially the American-oriented Western psychology being studied in the Philippines. Academic Philosophic Psychology or Akademiko-pilosopiya na Sikolohiya: Western Tradition: This was started by priest-professors at the University of Santo Tomas. This tradition is mainly focused on what is called ‘Rational psychology’. Ethnic Psychology or Taal na Sikolohiya: This is the tradition on which Philippine psychology is primarily based.

This refers to the indigenous concepts that are studied using indigenous psychological orientation and methodologies.

Psycho-medical Religious Psychology or Sikolohiyang Siko-medikal: The tradition that fuses native healing techniques and explains it in an indigenous religious context. By Noeco C. Marquino,BS. Psychology UNO-R. Core value or Kapwa Kapwa, meaning ‘togetherness’, is the core construct of Filipino Psychology. Kapwa refers to community; not doing things alone. Kapwa has two categories, Ibang Tao (other people) and Hindi Ibang Tao (not other people).

Ibang Tao (“outsider”) There are five domains in this construct: Pakikitungo: civility Pakikisalamuha: act of mixing Pakikilahok: act of joining Pakikibagay: conformity Pakikisama: being united with the group.

Hindi Ibang Tao (“one-of-us”) There are three domains in this construct: Pakikipagpalagayang-loob: act of mutual trust Pakikisangkot: act of joining others Pakikipagkaisa: being one with others Pivotal interpersonal value Pakiramdam: Shared inner perceptions. Filipinos use damdam, or the inner perception of others’ emotions, as a basic tool to guide his dealings with other people. Linking socio-personal value Kagandahang-Loob: Shared humanity.

This refers to being able to help other people in dire need due to a perception of being together as a part of one Filipino humanity. Accommodative surface values Hiya: Loosely translated as ‘shame’ by most Western psychologists, Hiya is actually ‘sense of propriety’. Utang na Loob: Norm of reciprocity. Filipinos are expected by their neighbors to return favors-—whether these were asked for or not—-when it is needed or wanted. Pakikisama and Pakikipagkapwa: Smooth Interpersonal Relationship, or SIR, as coined by Lynch (1961 and 1973). This attitude is primarily guided by conformity with the majority.

Confrontative surface values Bahala Na: This attitude, loosely translated into English as ‘fatalistic passiveness’, actually describes the Filipino way of life, in which, he is determined to do his best, hence the term bahala na, which actually came from the phrase bathalan na, meaning ‘I will do all my best, let God take care of the rest’. Lakas ng Loob: This attitude is characterized by being courageous in the midst of problems and uncertainties. Pakikibaka: Literally in English, it means concurrent clashes. It refers to the ability of the Filipino to undertake revolutions and uprisings against a common enemy.

Societal values Karangalan: Loosely translated to dignity, this actually refers to what other people see in a person and how they use that information to make a stand or judge about his/her worth. Puri: the external aspect of dignity. May refer to how other people judge a person of his/her worth. Dangal: the internal aspect of dignity. May refer to how a person judges his own worth. Katarungan: Loosely translated to justice, this actually refers to equity in giving rewards to a person. Kalayaan: Freedom and mobility. Ironically, this may clash with the less important value of pakikisama or pakikibagay (conformity).

Approaches and methods Approaches, or lapit, and methods, or pamamaraan, in Filipino Psychology are different from that of Western Psychology. In Filipino Psychology, the subjects, or participants, called kalahok, are considered as equal in status to the researcher. The participants are included in the research as a group, and not as individuals – hence, an umpukan, or natural cluster, is required to serve as the participants, per se. The researcher is introduced to a natural cluster by a tulay (bridge), who is a part of the umpukan and is a well-respected man in the community.

Some of the many approaches and methods used in Filipino Psychology are: Pakikipagkuwentuhan: In this method, the researcher engages in a story-telling with an umpukan. The researcher merely serves as the facilitator, while the kalahok or participants are the one who are to talk. The term kwento, from the Spanish word cuento, literally means ‘to tell a story’. Panunuluyan: In this method, the researcher stays in the home of his kalahok or participant while he conducts the research with consent by the host family, whose head serves as the tulay to an umpukan.

The term tuloy, which is the root word of the term panunuluyan, literally means ‘to go in’. Pagdadalaw-dalaw: In this method, the researcher occasionally visits the house of his host or tulay, as opposed to staying in the house. The term dalaw literally means ‘visit’. Pagtatanung-tanong: In this method, the researcher undergoes a kind of questioning session with his kalahok or participants. In this method, however, ‘lead questions’ (those questions which directly refer to the topic being studied) are not supposed to be asked, instead the questions to be asked are supposed to have been derived from the kalahok’s answers themselves.

The word tanong literally means ‘question’. Pakikiramdam: In this approach, the researcher uses entirely his/her own feelings or emotions to justify if his participants or kalahok are ready to be part of his research or not. The term damdam literally means ‘inner perception of emotions’. Pakapa-kapa: In this approach, the researcher uses ‘groping’, or a mixture of feelings as well as circumstances, to justify his intrusion into the life of his/her participants or kalahok. The term kapa literally means ‘to grope in the dark’. Psychopathology.

Filipino psychopathology, or sikopatolohiya in Filipino, from Spanish psicopatologia, is the study of abnormal psychology in the Filipino context. Several ‘mental’ disorders have been identified that can be found only in the Philippines or in other nations with which Filipinos share racial connections. Examples of such are: Amok: Malayan mood disorder, more aptly called ‘Austronesian Mood Disorder’, in which a person suddenly loses control of himself and goes into a killing frenzy, after which he/she hallucinates and falls into a trance.

After he/she wakes up, he has absolutely no memory of the event. Bangungot: A relatively common occurrence in which a person suddenly loses control of his respiration and digestion, and falls into a coma and ultimately to death. The person is believed to dream of falling into a deep abyss at the onset of his death. This syndrome has been repeatedly linked to Thailand’s Brugada syndrome and to the ingestion of rice. However, no such medical ties have been proven. Filipino psychopathology also refers to the different manifestations of mental disorders in Filipino people.

One example of such is the manifestation of depression and schizophrenia in Filipinos, which are for the most part, less violent. Psycho-medicine See also: Philippine Mythology Filipino psychomedicine, or sikomedikal na sikolohiya in Filipino, is the application of basic psychology to native healing practices loosely considered as ‘medicine’. These practices are closely tied to the faith healers, as well as to the native pagan priestesses like the babaylan or katalonan, who were suppressed by the Spaniards during their colonization of the Philippines. Examples of such practices include:

Hilot: The use of massage to aid a pregnant mother in the delivery of her child. Kulam: Hex or bewitchment. Lihi: An intense craving for something or someone during pregnancy. Faith healers or manghihilot testify that if the craving is not satisfied, abnormality of the child may result. Pasma: A concept that explains how init (heat) and lamig (cold) together can result in illness, especially rheumatism. Susto: Soul-flight. Derived from Latin American traditions. Pagtatawas: A method of diagnosing illness wherein alum (called tawas) is ritualistically used by the albularyo or medicine man for diagnosis of a variety of health conditions.

The tawas is used to ‘cross’ (sign of the cross) the forehead and other suspicious or ailing parts of the body as prayers are being whispered (bulong or oracion). It is then placed on glowing embers, removed when it starts to crack, then transferred to a small receptacle of water. As it cools, its softened form spreads on the water surface and assumes a shape that may suggest the cause of the illness, often one of several indigenous forces: dwarfs, devils or other evil spirits (na-nuno, na-kulam, na-demonyo).

The water in the vehicle is then used to anoint the ailing part or parts of the body to counteract the evil forces or illness. The tawas is then discarded and thrown westward, preferably into the setting sun. Usog: A concept that explains how a baby who has been greeted by a stranger acquires a mysterious illness. Apparently derived from the Spanish tradition of Mal de Ojo. Gaba or gabaa: The Cebuano concept of negative Karma. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Filipino_psychology History of Sikolohiyang Pilipino, or the “Psychology of, about, and for the Filipinos”.

Psychology as an academic discipline in the Philippines started in the early 1900s when the U. S. colonized the country. Scientifically, it was generally viewed as a continuation of the development of psychology in the West. In the early 1970s, however, there came a turning point in the lives of Filipinos. It was a period marked by a high degree of nationalism, brought about by the declaration of the Martial Law. It was ironic that the father of Philippine Psychology was, at that time, a recent Ph. D. graduate of Northwestern University in the U. S. More on this topic.

Filipino Values – Indigenous Concepts in Filipino Psychology Cultural, Societal Traditions Remain Integral Part of Philippines Skin Whitening and Dark Beauty in the Philippines It was precisely his Western education that made Sikolohiyang Pilipino founder Virgilio Enriquez realize the need to have a psychology based on the experience, ideas, and orientation of the Filipinos. Together with three other colleagues—Prospero Covar (anthropologist), and Zeus Salazar (historian), and Alfredo Lagmay (psychologist)—they helped establish the foundation for a psychology of and for the Filipinos.

Enriquez had been a professor of Psychology in the University of the Philippines in Diliman in 1963, but left in 1966 for the U. S. to pursue a Ph. D. in Social Psychology. From there, he watched the disenchantment of young student activists in the Philippines over the deteriorating political and social conditions of the country. When Enriquez returned to the Philippines in 1971, he embarked on a research study with Lagmay into the historical and cultural roots of Philippine Psychology, which included identifying indigenous concepts and approaches. Four years later, he chaired the first national conference on Filipino Psychology.

In this conference, the ideas, concepts, and formulations of Sikolohiyang Pilipino were formally articulated. Sikolohiyang Pilipino in the University of the Philippines When Enriquez returned from the States, he and a few other colleagues translated foreign articles to Filipino. The students were also strongly encouraged to write their papers in this language instead of in English, which had been (and still is) the medium of instruction in the University. Gradually, more and more members of the faculty were convinced to use the Filipino language in teaching Introductory Psychology.

The main problems they encountered in the use of Filipino in teaching psychology, especially in its initial years, included the lack of materials written in Filipino and the lack of a technical vocabulary. These challenges were solved by translations, compilations of local materials, and choosing the appropriate words from the local dialect. There were times when the technical term was retained when there was no equivalent in Filipino. This did not work out because Enriquez realized that the translation failed to express a truly Filipino psychology.

Other factors were the difficulty of expressing or explaining some Western concepts and theories in Filipino, the negative reactions of students who sometimes felt that their skill in speaking and writing in Filipino was inadequate, and the students’ lack of fluency in the language. However, there were observable benefits as well brought about by the use of Filipino in teaching psychology. Among other things: It created better rapport between teacher and students There was a more relaxed atmosphere in the classroom The students’ confidence grew in expressing their opinions, thoughts, and actual experiences.

A different perspective, which was more Filipino, was introduced into the course Indigenous concepts were discovered; and The scope of topics discussed became broader with the addition of information from local materials and experiences. Class discussions also became more concrete in relation to Philippine reality. Psychology became related intimately and significantly to the everyday life of the people. Most importantly, with the birth of Sikolohiyang Pilipino, a psychology with a Filipino orientation was developed. The Status of Sikolohiyang Pilipino Now.

Sikolohiyang Pilipino continues to thrive, despite the death of Enriquez in the early 90s. Its proponents continue to advocate for a psychology that is truly responsive and reflective to the needs and the unique situation of the Filipino people. http://www. stumbleupon. com/su/2DjFxC/www. suite101. com/content/sikolohiyang-pilipino–the-history-of-philippine-psychology-a316940/ Filipino Psychology or Sikolohiyang Pilipino has basic concepts based on indigenous Filipino values, including hiya, bahala na, and utang na loob. According to founder Virgilio Enriquez,Sikolohiyang Pilipino or Filipino.

Psychology is psychology in the Philippines, for and about the Filipinos. It has a number of concepts uniquely based on Filipino values. Filipino Values in Focus One of the major focus of Sikolohiyang Pilipino are the values and concepts interpreted by foreign social scientists. Bahala na had been compared to the American “fatalism. ” In Thomas Andres’s Dictionary of Filipino Culture and Values, it is defined as “the attitude that makes him accept sufferings and problems leaving everything to God…this is a fatalistic resignation or withdrawal from an engagement or crisis or a shirking from personal responsibility.

” For Filipino psychologists, however, bahala na is not “fatalism” but determination and risk-taking. Filipinos do not leave their fate to God when they say bahala na; rather they are telling themselves that they are ready to face the difficult situation before them and will do their best to achieve their objectives. It is a way of pumping courage into their system before a difficult task. Ads by Google Expat & Local Counselling International team of therapists for kids, teens, adults, & couples www. thecounsellingplace. com Meditation – Free MP3s Above the clouds, The sun is always shining.

www. ramatalks. com Hiya and Other Misinterpreted Filipino Values Hiya is another concept indigenous to the Filipinos, and it is literally translated as “shame. ” This interpretation of hiya is inadequate because it does not consider the other meanings of the word in different circumstances and form. Armando Bonifacio said that nakakahiya (embarrassing) is different from napahiya (placed in an awkward position) and ikinahihiya (be embarrassed with someone). Zeus Salazar also said that there are internal and external aspects of hiya. Foreign scholars have captured only the external aspect.

The more appropriate translation of hiya is not “shame,” but “sense of propriety. ” More on this topic Sikolohiyang Pilipino – The History of Philippine Psychology Food in the Philippines Reflects Different Cultural Influences Cultural, Societal Traditions Remain Integral Part of Philippines For Western psychologist Charles Kaut, utang na loob is “debt of gratitude. ” This definition identified the utang (debt) only, ignoring the other concepts related to loob such as sama ng loob, kusang loob, and lakas ng loob. Utang na loob became convenient in perpetuating the colonial status of the Filipino mind.

For Enriquez, reciprocity maintains the image of colonizer as benefactor. When utang na loob is looked at in the Filipino context, it becomes not “debt of gratitude” but “gratitude / human solidarity. ” It is not a big a burden as “debt” is because in the Filipino culture of interpersonal relations, there is always the opportunity to return a favor. It is not obligatory in the immediate future; it could be fulfilled in the next generation. It binds a person to his/her home community. Pakikisama is another Filipino value that has been misinterpreted by foreign psychologists.

For Frank Lynch (1961), it is maintaining “smooth interpersonal relations by going along with the majority; conformity. ” For Enriquez, though, it is just one of the eight identifiable levels and modes of interaction in the Philippine society, which range from civility to oneness with. It approximately means conformity but it is not slavish conformity. This becomes evident only when one also looks at the different levels of interaction, which shows that all those starting with paki is oriented to “others. ” The term pakikisama was therefore taken out of context. Sikolohiyang Pilipino in Social Research.

The whole range of interaction can be summarized by the term pakikipagkapwa (an orientation/commitment toward one’s fellowman) better than pakikisama. Kapwa (unity of self and others/shared identity) embraces both categories of outsider and insider. Enriquez gave the following scale of relationship between researcher and participant: Ibang Tao Category (Outsider) Pakikitungo (civility with) Pakikisalamuha (interaction with) Pakikilahok (participation with) Pakikibagay (in accord with/level of conforming) Pakikisama (being along with/level of adjusting) Hindi Ibang Tao Category (One-of-Us).

Pakikipagpalagayang-loob (being in rapport/understanding/level of mutual trust) Pakikisangkot (level of active involvement) Pakikiisa (being one with/level of oneness and full trust) Indigenous research methods identified in Sikolohiyang Pilipino as appropriate in Philippine culture are pagmamasid (general looking around), pakikiramdam (feeling through or sensing), pagtatanung-tanong (asking questions), pagsubok (testing the situation), pagdalaw-dalaw (occasional visits), pakikilahok (participation), pakikisangkot (deeper involvement), pakapa-kapa (groping), and pakikialam (concerned interference).

The field of psychology in the Philippines is growing. With the increasing number of Filipino psychologists realizing the need to indigenize the field, as well as the number of research studies being done using Sikolohiyang Pilipino methods, it can only prosper in the future. Reference: Enriquez, V. (Ed. ). (1990). Indigenous psychology: A book of readings. Quezon City: Akademya ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino.

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Philippine culture. (2016, Dec 30). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/philippine-culture-2-essay

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