Personality psychology Essay
Karen Aldrich MaidsS514 Year Two Module Three Tutor Name Jacqueline Smith Words 2554 Describe and evaluate Carl Jungs theory concerning personality types and show how they might usefully help a therapist to determine therapeutic goals. Introduction For this essay we were asked to describe and evaluate Carl Jungs theory concerning personality types and how these theories might help a therapist to determine therapeutic goals. I first want to try and understand a little about this man. He was born Carl Gustav Jung on 26th July 1875 in Switzerland. He was the only Son of a church evangelical minister.
According to my research Jung was a strange gloomy child who played his own imaginary games, alone, for the first nine years of his life. Eight of Jungs Uncles were in the clergy as was his maternal grandfather, who held weekly conversations with his deceased wife, while his second wife and Carls mother sat and listened to it all His strange family clearly had a lot to do with Jungs troubled young life and his psychotic break down in his mid life, and his obsession with trying to make sense of it all. Carl was a rather solitary adolescent who didnt care much for school and especially could not take competition.
He went to boarding school in Basel, Switzerland, where he found himself the object of a lot of jealous harassment. He began to use sickness as an excuse, developing an embarrassing tendency to faint under pressure. Although his first career choice was archaeology, he went on to study medicine in the University of Basel. While, working under the famous neurologist Krafft-Ebing, he settled on psychiatry as his career. It is incredible from such a disturbed beginning such a brilliant mind could emerge. Jung was considered to be one of the greatest thinkers ever to have theorised about life and how people relate to it.
Here is an extract from one of Carl Jungs publications called New Paths in Psychology Anyone who wants to know the human psyche will learn next to nothing from experimental psychology. He would be better advised to abandon science, put away his scholars gown bid farewell to his studies, and wander with human heart throughout the world. There in the horrors of prisons, lunatic asylums and hospitals, in drab suburban pubs, in brothels and gambling-hells, in salons of the elegant, the Stock Exchanges, socialist meetings, churches, revivalist gatherings and ecstatic sects.
Through love and hate, through the experience of passion in every form in his own body, he would reap richer stores of knowledge than text-books a foot thick could give him, and he will know how to doctor the sick with a real knowledge of the human soul. Content Jung studied medicine from 1894 to 1900 and towards the end of his studies he specialised in psychiatric medicine. Ultimately, Jungs interests in psychology were very much linked to his study of the humanities. In 1907 Jung met Sigmund Freud in Vienna. Jung had been interested in Freuds ideas
regarding the interpretation of dreams. Likewise, Freud took an interest in Jungs word association task that he used to understand the unconscious processes of patients. Stories say that after they met, Freud, cancelled all his appointment for the day and they talked for 13 hours straight, such was the impact of the meeting of these two great minds. After an argument in 1909 over the validity of psychoanalysis Jung and Freud went their separate ways.
Page One Jungs ideas were based on a theory that individuals will exhibit many different personality types within what could conventionally be deemed a single mind. He developed his notion of complexes and he came to believe that within any personality, a series of complexes can exist and these complexes will manifest themselves in a quick and seemingly automatic manner.
Carl Jung had a profound effect on modern psychology and many of his theories still influence the way we think about psychology and psychoanalysis. Jung felt the spiritual side of his life and personality were important and advocated that the internal worlds was equally as important to individuals as the external world.
He saw himself, and all people, as having two sides to their personalities one analytical and one intuitive (or one light and one side dark) and he believed that the blending and understanding of these two sides was the only way we can truly understand ourselves and how we feel about the internal world and our external world. (Extracted from Simply Psychology website) Jung considered that when a person dreams, the unconscious mind keys into the deepest levels of unconscious and genetic memories shared by all human beings, and presented in the form of archetypes original forms which human societies all seemed to recognise.
The sort of things that Jung was referring to were things like water to 1 / 4 symbolise birth and re-birth or images like the earth other or the all powerful father. Because this seemed to be very common in European and classical literature, Jung argued that they probably represented a very basic aspect of the human psyche, which was contacted in an individuals dreams. Other researchers have questioned these ideas.
For one thing, if the role of dreaming is to play out unconscious wish-fulfilments, and engage in elaborate symbolism, that makes it difficult to explain why infants and animals spend so much time in dreaming sleep(we cannot know for certain if animals dream, they all have the physiological signs of it, including muscle twitching). (Taken from an Introduction to Psychology – Nicky Hayes and Sue Orrell) Jung had a capacity for very lucid dreaming and occasional visions. In 1913 he had a vision of a monstrous flood engulfing most of Europe and lapping at the mountains of his native Switzerland. He saw thousands of people drowning and civilisation crumbling. Then, the waters turned into blood.
This vision was followed, in the next few weeks, by dreams of eternal winters and rivers of blood. He was afraid that he was becoming psychotic. Jung carefully recorded his dreams, fantasies, and visions, he drew and painted and sculptured them as well. Jung dreamt a great deal about the dead, the land of the dead and the rising of the dead. These represented the unconscious itself. Critics have claimed that Jung was very simply ill when all this happened. But Jung felt that, if you want to understand the jungle, you cannot be content just to sail back and forth near the shore.
You have got to get into it not matter how strange and frightening it may seem. Jung believed that a person is basically an introvert or an extrovert. He believed that extroverts and introverts will see things in a very different way and this can cause confusion and misunderstanding. Two people looking at the same situation will see quite different things. Jung believed that extroversion and introversion are both present in each person. One is conscious and dominant whilst the other is unconscious and inferior. For example, if the ego is predominantly extroverted, the personal unconscious will be introverted.
There is also some research to suggest that there maybe a connection towards personality type and psychological disorders. For example, introverts may be more inclined to confused types of schizophrenia and extroverts towards bi polar disorders. Page Two For Carl Jung there were four functions that, when combined with one of his attitudes, formed the eight different personality types. The four functions were Feeling – is the method by which a person understands the value of conscious activity. Thinking Allows a person to understand the meanings of things. This process relies on logic and careful mental activity.
Sensation This refers to the means by which a person knows something exists. Intuition – Is knowing about something without the conscious understanding of where that knowledge came from. It is imaginative and speculative. The eight personality types identified by Carl Jung- Extroverted thinking – Jung theorised that people understanding the world through a mix of concrete ideas and abstract ones, but the abstract concepts are ones passed down from other people. Extroverted thinkers are often found working in the research sciences and mathematics. Are organisers and planners. Introverted thinking –
These individuals interpret stimuli in the environment through a subjective and creative way. The interpretations are informed by internal knowledge and understanding. Philosophers and theoretical scientists are often introverted thinking-oriented people. Extroverted Feeling – these people judge the value of things based on objective facts. Comfortable in social situations, they form their own opinions based on socially accepted values and majority beliefs. They are often found working in business and politics. They seek personal success and are sentimental. Introverted Feeling –
These people make judgements based on subjective ideas and on internally established beliefs. They often ignore prevailing attitudes and defy social normalities. Introverted feeling people thrive in careers as art critics. They seek inter intensity. Extroverted Sensing – These people perceive the world as it really exists. Their perceptions are not coloured by any pre-existing beliefs. Jobs that require objective reviews, like wine tasters and proof readers, are best filled by extroverted sensing people.
They are practical and pleasure seeking. Introverted Sensing – These individuals interpret the world through the lens of the subjective attitudes and rarely see something for only what it is. They make sense of the environment by giving it meaning based on internal reflection. Introverted 2 / 4 sensing people often turn to various arts, including portrait painting and classical music.
They are often intense, obsessive and detached. Extroverted Intuitive – These people prefer to understand the meanings of things through subliminally perceived objective facts that than incoming sensory information. They rely on hunches and often disregard what they perceive directly from their senses.
Inventors that come upon their invention via a stroke of insight and religious reforms are characterised by the extraverted intuitive types. These people seek change and are adventurous. Page Three Introverted Intuitive – these individuals, Jung thought, are profoundly influenced by their internal motivations even though they do not completely understand them. They find meaning through unconscious, subjective ideas about the world. Introverted intuitive people comprise a significant portion of mystics, surrealistic artists and religious fanatics. They are aloof and mystical. (Taken from Understanding Psychology, Redding.
It seems that Jungs personality model provided an informing framework which allowed us to identify features and characteristics in a persons personality. The original purposes of Jungs theories were to understand and improve his own understanding of mental illnesses and ultimately other peoples understanding. He provided us with the original framework and others have since built upon this. Quite a few people found that Jung had a great deal with say to them. They included writers, artists, musicians, film makers, theologians, clergy of all denominations, students of mythology, and of course, and some psychologists.
Anyone interested in creativity, spiritually, psychic phenomena, the universal, and so on will find Jung a kindred spirit. However, scientists, including most psychologists, have a lot of trouble with Jung. Not only does he fully support the teleological view (as do must personality theorists) but he goes a step further and talks about the mystical interconnectedness of historical events. Not only does he postulate an unconscious, where things are not easily available to observation alone, but he postulates a collective unconscious that never has been and never will be conscious.
Jung takes the approach which is essentially just simplifying an idea. He begins with the highest levels even spiritualism and derives the lower levels of psychology and physiology from them Like Freud, Carl Jung tries to bring everything into this systems. He has little room for chance, accident or circumstance. Personality and life in general seems over-explained in Jungs theory. But Jung has pointed out that adults search more for integration, and exceed beyond belief. Adults will search for the connections between things, how things fit together, how they interact, how they contribute to the whole.
We want to make sense of it, find the meaning of it, the purpose of it all. Children unravel the world adults try to knit it back together. Jungs theories of personalities may benefit a therapist in a therapy session. However, a persons attitude and perceived personality type are not always constant you may change over a period of time and in specific situations. The theories are a good base line for therapy sessions and to allow the client room for growth opportunities in their lives. Jungs theories people have said sometimes attracts clients who have difficulty in dealing with reality when their social world becomes difficult.
Some people retreat into fantasy or some become couch potatoes. But, then others turn to complex beliefs that pretend to explain everything. As a therapist, we will see adults inhibit their feelings and deny themselves the sensation of reality. We see evidence of peoples unconscious mind reverting from unconscious to conscious when they are under the influence of alcohol or stress. Conclusion I have looked at other theory types such as demonstrated by Hans Jurgen Eysenck and Claudius Galen. Eysencks theories of personalities were to measure personality using two scales introversion and extraversion stability and instability.
Eysencks ideas have been developed and supported using studies and surveys by many thousands of people. He was one of the most prolific researchers and writers on the subject of personality and its measurement. He continued to strive for improved understanding well into the 1990s. Page Four By contrast, Claudius Galen was a Greek physician who put great emphasis on clinical observation examining a patient very thoroughly and observing their symptoms. Galen thought that disease was the result of an imbalance blood, mucus apathy, and liquid secreted from the liver. Galen believed
in the use of opposites if a man appeared to have a fever, he treated it with something cold, if a man appeared to have a cold, and he would be treated with heat. People who were weak were 3 / 4 given hard physical exercises to build up their muscles. People who had breathing problems due to a weak chest would be given singing exercises. Galen studied how the body worked, concentrating on the movement of blood and the nervous system. (Taken from the History Learning Site) I have found Jungs theories fascinating I do believe that people should follow their own path and how very important it is to understand yourself.
Listening to your unconscious mind can help recognise our strengths and weaknesses. I do agree that the unconscious and conscious are self balancing. Personality theories are very helpful in achieving a greater self-awareness and helps others develop their full potential. However, no theory is completely accurate or reliable but we do need these theories to move forward to understand ourselves and others. It would seem that everyone has lots of theories regarding personality types. They all make very interesting reading. I think when you see a client it is good to have all this knowledge and good to pick the best bits out of the theories.
Subject: Sigmund Freud,
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 31 October 2016
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