People’s Republic of China Essay
People’s Republic of China
Mainland China is rooted in more than 4,000 years of rich Chinese cultures and history. It’s known for their lives, travel, history, business and food, their people and customs. Traditional Kung Fu is as much of the culture of china according to statistics. The Chinese people have shared a common culture longer than any other groups on earth. China is one of the cradles of the human race. For thousands of years the culture of china has attract and moved many people from all over the world, being so unique and one-of-a-kind as well as elegant and inspiring.
The Chinese culture, a culture that has evolved for thousands and thousands of years contains rare beauty and enchanted with history variously as an ancient civilization extending over a large area in East Asia. [pic] In order to effectively examine China we need to first understand what their culture is about. Culture is defined as “society’s shared and socially transmitted its ideas, values, and perceptions, which are used to make sense of experience and which generate behavior that is reflected in that behavior”.
There are five major characteristics of culture, they are that; Culture is shared, “one shared element found in all cultures is an understanding in regard to gender roles, which are the roles a particular culture assigns to men and women”. The second characteristic is “Culture is learned, not biologically inherited. The process whereby culture is passed from one generation to the next. The third is “symbols. Much of human behavior is mediated by symbols—signs, sounds, emblems, and other things that represent meaningful concepts.
” The forth is that “Culture is integrated. The foundation of culture includes three structural elements that work together to keep the culture strong: An infrastructure provides the basic necessities of life, a social structure determines how people interact with one another, and a superstructure, or worldview, provides a belief system that helps people identify themselves, their society, and the world around them. ” Lastly, “Culture is dynamic. Chinese arts and crafts, including painting, calligraphy, operas and silk.
During these four or five thousand years of development, china mainly live on the five common cereals and vegetables and added by a small supply of meat which is radiated to the advance of culinary skills and early civilization of the country. When one element within the system shifts, the entire system shifts to accommodate it. ” East Asian cultures have many similarities in religious beliefs, family social networks, diet and education. Modern China differs greatly in government. They have maintained a communist state and resisted Westernization. This is not the case with the rest of the Far East.
Western culture appears to be a driving force behind most of modern East Asian culture. [pic] China has a very diverse geographical and urban landscape. Within China’s borders lies the tallest peak in the world, Mount Everest, it is just one of many mountains that make up the Himalayan mountain range in the northern region of China. China also boasts the third longest river in the world with South China’s Yangtze River which is approximately 3,400 miles long. China has over 8,700 miles of coastline, and has many plains and valleys throughout its nearly 12,400 square miles of frontier land.
The vast landscape has dwellings that vary anywhere from small villages to large cities and metropolitan areas. China also has one of the largest man-made structures in the world, the Great wall; it is so large that it is visible from outer space. “In terms of climate, China may be divided between the humid eastern region and the dry west. The humid east can be further subdivided between the warm and humid south and southeast and the temperate-to-cool, moderately humid north and northeast. Much of the humid eastern region of China exhibits a monsoonal pattern of temperature and precipitation.
In a monsoon climate, the warm summer months are typically the months of maximum precipitation. ” China’s population exceeds 1 billion, “more than 500 million people live in and around cities in China, according to the 1990 census. There are more urban dwellers in China than are found in either the United States or Russia. Some of the cities are quite large. Shanghai, for example, has more than 7 million people; Beijing has more than 6 million, and Tianjin more than 5 million. Many cities have more than 1 million people each. ”
(Compton’s Living Encyclopedia) China’s cities are expanding rapidly. The government is attempting to regulate urban growth in order to avoid such problems as congestion, overcrowding, slum development, and unemployment. China’s government is a People’s Republic; the main organs of the government are under Communist party control. The head of state in China is the “Premier”. The population of China is and has been a strain on the countries resources; because of this the government has interjected itself into the people’s family planning.
“China’s family planning policy combines government guidance with the wishes of the masses. The basic requirements of family planning are late marriages and late child-bearing, so as to have fewer, but healthier, babies, especially one child per couple. But a flexible family planning policy is adopted for rural people and ethnic minorities; in rural areas, couples may have second baby in exceptional cases, but must wait several years after the birth of the first child. ” Chinese people have the tradition of respecting the old and loving the young.
Though many young couples do not live with their parents, they maintain close contact with them. Grown up children have the duty to support and help their parents. The Chinese people attach great importance to relations between family members and relatives, and cherish their parents, children, brothers and sisters, uncles, aunts and other relatives. Communication among the people of China can be challenging due to the numerous written and spoken languages of the country. “The Han people have their own spoken and written language.
Chinese belongs to the Han-Tibetan language family. It is the most commonly used language in China, and one of the most commonly used languages in the world. All of China’s 55 minority people have their own languages, except the Hui and Manchu, who use Chinese; 23 of these have a written form. ” Economically China has changed considerably since it became a communist state in 1949, since the founding of New China, especially in the 20 years after the start of reform and opening to the outside world in 1978.
China has made great achievements in economic construction and social development. China instituted multiple financial plans that has allowed for outward economic growth and modernization. “ There are three major religious in china; Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism, although Confucianism is a school of philosophy than a religion, some turn to Taoism when they find themselves frustrated and many turn to Buddhism even if they never read the sutures beliefs. Chinese people do not have a strong religious inclination but despite this the three main faiths.
China is proud of the many people, The Hui, Uygur, Kazak, Kirgiz, Tatar, Ozbek, Tajik, Dongxiang, Salar, and Bonan people adhere to Islam; the Tibetan Buddhism, and the Dai, Blang and Deang to Theravada Buddhism. ” Buddhism was first introduced to China from India in the first century A. D. , becoming increasingly popular after the fourth century. Tibetan Buddhism, or Lamaism as it is sometimes called, is found primarily in Tibet and Inner Mongolia. War and the military have been a central role in the shaping of modern Chinese history; armed struggle has played an important part.
“The majority of China’s imperial dynasties rose and fell due to success or defeat upon the battlefield. The 20th century saw the conflict between Nationalist and Communist forces that resulted in today’s divided China: the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and Taiwan. It also witnessed China’s intervention in the Korean War and border clashes with its neighbors India, the Soviet Union, and Vietnam. ” (Worthing) Many factors have led to the perceived military threat known as China.
These factors have figured decisively in the rise and fall of imperial dynasties, the suppression of internal revolts, the emergence of revolutionary movements, and the conduct of China’s foreign relations, the development of political parties, the structure of governments, the rise of nationalism and the drive for modernization, all of which have driven the worlds perception of China emerging as a 21st-century military and economic power. China’s past has aided in shaping much of the countries core values, but economically a western view on commerce and technology has been adapted.
China’s determination to do all outward dealing on their own terms has allowed them to be a major player in the world marketplace. China is self sufficient and goal oriented. They are a country diverse in belief systems yet this does not appear to affect the people’s sense of nationalism. China is a superpower that no country should overlook. The Chinese culture is solely based on the necessities of ancient Chinese culture. Which are: food, clothing, housing, transportation and, education. These elements are the foundations that make up their society, tradition and beliefs.
Their beliefs, not only help shape their economic climate, it also influenced their military. China has the longest period of continuous development of military culture of any civilization in world history. China also had one of the most powerful and advanced military for almost 2000 years until the eighteenth century. One of the greatest influences of military thought was the book “The Art of War” by Sun Tzu’s. Of course a lot has changed since the 18th century. The China’s modern military share some of the same values of U.
S. military. The 3 main beliefs, Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism still play a major role in their decision making process. However, similar to the U. S. politics plays a major role overall. If we were to come in contact with any Chinese forces we must remember what is sacred to them. While most of us place value on religion from a “supernatural force”. The Chinese listen and respect their elders for wisdom and guidance. Here is a chart that shows you the difference between Chinese cultures vs. American culture:
| |Chinese |Americans | |Conception Of the Self |Collectivist: Higher value placed on group|Individualist: Higher value placed on | | |cooperation and individual modesty. |self-reliance. Self-promotion is more | | | |accepted. High value placed on “freedom” | | | |from externally imposed constraints. | |Social Relationships |Formal, hierarchical. People most |Informal, egalitarian. People most | | |comfortable in the presence of a hierarchy|comfortable with their social equals; | | |in which they know their position and the |importance of social rankings minimized.
| | |customs/rules for behavior in the | | | |situation. | | |Friendship |Small numbers of close, lifelong friends |Large collection of “friends” and | | |who feel deeply obligated to give each |acquaintances which changes over time and | | |other whatever help might seem required. |involves only limited mutual obligations. | |Obligation |Relationships with other people involve |People avoid interdependent relationships | | |reciprocal obligations. |and situations that might entail long-term | | | |obligations.
| |Task vs. Relationship |Relationship-oriented: Maintaining a |Task-oriented. Relationships are less | |Orientation |harmonious relationship has priority over |important than getting the work done. | | |accomplishing tasks. | | |Harmony vs. |Avoid direct confrontation, open |Willing to confront directly, criticize, | |”Truth” |criticism, and controversial topics. |discuss controversial topics, and press | | |Concern maintaining harmony and with |personal opinions about what they consider | | |”face.
” |”the truth. Little concern with “face. ” | |Role of laws, rules, and |More faith in personal relationships than |Written rules presumably apply to everyone | |regulations |in written rules and procedures for |and are assumed to produce fair, reasonable| | |structuring interactions. |procedures and decisions. | |Time Consciousness |Relatively more attention to the past and |Less interested in the past; eye on | | |to the longer-term future. |near-term future. | |Ascribed vs.
Achieved |Traditionally, a person’s status in the |People’s status is based mainly on their | |Status |society was based importantly on inherited|own achievements, including education | | |characteristics such as age, gender, and |obtained and level of success realized in | | |family. This is changing. |their line of work. | In order for America to be successful we must consider our differences and find a common ground. Knowing that there is a cultural gap can and will affect unit operations but we can and will be successful if we understand that we do not live in this world alone.
Subject: Han Chinese,
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 1 January 2017
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