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People, Organizations and Society Essay

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Most people are individually different from one another it varies from behavior, character, attitude, lifestyles and importantly the social status. We sometimes ask ourselves why are there many people who have bad traits and good traits and sometimes having diverse mood swings and frame of mind. Different theories coming from different psychiatrist and psychologist are the concrete foundation of behavioral factors. In order for us to understand the behavior of every human being, it is better to describe the two types of conditioning which involves learning process and behavior, the classical conditioning and operant conditioning.

We will discuss the similarities and dissimilarities of these two types of conditioning and further relates these two to many dimensional examples of an individual’s behavior and also that of an animal pattern of behavior. Defining Classical and Operant Conditioning In order to explore the clarity of classical and operant conditioning, it is healthier to examine and define the subject from which they are strongly associated and originated which is learning.

Classical and operant conditioning has several similarities on learning such as the process of extinction, unprompted recovery, stimulus conclusion, biasness and superior directive condition or secondary reinforcement. Also, it is similar because they both generate basic occurrence and phenomena which is acquisition which result in the inheritance of a behavior (SocialPC). Classical and operant conditioning are similar in some ways but they do varies in a few ways and are equally dependable method to explain and educate a person or an animal in a specific situation.

Learning is any comparatively lasting transformation in behavior and manners generated by an experience (MegaEssays, 2007). These two conditioning are the two types of several theories on learning. Classical conditioning is an important type of learning which was uncovered by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist who emphasized this observable fact through his experiments on the digestive patterns in dogs (Heffner, 2004). It is a connection of one occurrence or happening with another that results in a pattern of behavior (MegaEssays, 2007).

A classic example of this phenomenon is the research done by Pavlov on his dog in which he discovered a dog’s drive to produce saliva while responding to a certain stimuli, in which a reaction or spontaneous effect that was unconscious and unintentional. When he rang a bell and was offered a food to the dog, the dog recognized it and associated the food with the bell. In this case, the bell is the conditioned stimulus while food was an unconditioned stimulus. In addition, classical conditioning often linked with muscles and reflexes and instincts.

It is a very important component of a training program in which we can comprehend and figure out conditioned and unconditioned stimulus or reinforcement, species exact behaviors, inducing dislike stimuli, and feelings (2007). It is significant in understanding in dealing with problems relating to fear. Another finding confirmed the thought that we build up reactions to certain stimuli that are not naturally occurring, for example when we touch a hot stove, our response is to remove our hands back from the hot stove but now some people who already experienced after getting burned tend to pull their hands back even when the stove is turned off.

This lead to Pavlov’s conclusion that people tend to relate or connect one particular experience which caused a person to simplify their reaction to one stimuli into an impartial stimuli in which it is matched with. In short, a stove burner is often associated with an expression in pain like ouch and then stove is equal to burner hence, a stove is also equal to an expression like ouch (Heffner, 2004). A lot of people’s behavior these days is formed by the combination of stimuli according to Heffner.

Some observations and experience like the smell of a perfume or a particular scent, a certain song and things has been paired with a specific person or group like families, friends, ex-lover, loved ones, or a particular event or happening. These connections controls and influence us to a certain extent and in fact we have been conditioned classically (Heffner, 2004). On the other hand, operant conditioning is a type of learning experience which involves on how an organism functions or operates in a particular environment, learning here takes place as a consequence of behavior.

This was termed used by Skinner in explaining the results of the consequences of a particular behavior on the future incidents or happenings of that behavior (MaricopaCenter, 1999). There are four types of operant conditioning: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction. In order to explain it further, an example could better explore its meaning; a cat was placed inside a box which has a single exit and entrance. The box has only one button to be pressed to open the door, the cat strived to get out from the box since freedom here is reinforced.

In its effort to escape, the area of the box was set off and the door opens which leads the cat to be released from the enclosed box. But this does not end the story, the experience of the cat once placed again in the box, the cat will immediately escape since the cat will immediately recall the experience last time and will once locate again the button to push. Learning from experience is the concept from the example, the cat learned from the experience through natural results and how to achieve or acquire the reinforcing freedom (Heffner, 2004).

Let’s pick a broader and relevant experience in the past, several times the Philippines were colonized by different conquerors and explorers and this colonization was strongly connected with harassment, violence, sexual abuse of women, forced labor, poverty and many more. The initial reaction is to obey and follow because freedom here is not welcome. Food and water is scarce and people would rely on the given ration, in order to get that food, one must steal more food to accumulate one’s hunger. Once again, freedom is reinforced here.

The people of this nation once weakened but tried to learn from their experience not to be placed in a box where freedom is impartial. They have to press a button like the cat to open the door for freedom and find the answer from that experience. It’s like every individual who naturally encountered past mistakes presumably that individual will recall that mistake when things similar to that situation happens again. Same situation for positive outcome is true where effects from that outcome you did last time will likely do that same again.

Four types of operant conditioning (Heffner, 2004): Positive reinforcement: this happening is often associated to anything stimulus which strengthens the probability of a specific response which are expressed in praise or rewards. A good example is when a parent appreciated a child’s good work after they have done something positive like cleaning their own room. This will increase the possibility that the same reaction will be repeated. Negative reinforcement: this constitute on the elimination of a particular negative stimulus which is reinforcing in order to increase a response.

An example of this is a nagging mother who always scolded her daughter or son to clean their house every week. After telling and complaining to their friends about the distressing words it counters and lastly performs the chore and eventually stopped the nagging. Punishment: this refers to adding together something induced dislike in order to lessen a behavior. Disciplining by way of spanking is the most common example of a specific misconduct. Punishment is disliked and will surely avoid it by behaving in a good manner.

Extinction: When something is removed so as to lessen a behavior is called extinction. Example is when a child owns and addicted to a teddy bear which irritates a child’s asthma will likely to react initially but for the parents it is positive that the teddy bear be removed to decrease levels of negative outcome like grasping for air when sniffed a fabric or cotton from the teddy bear. Relevance and application to business sector: In the business sector these two types of learning method has a significant advantage and guarantee positive outcome in the future.

Less emphasis on classical conditioning, the operant conditioning is more likely to apply in designing a training course or let’s say changing an employee from a specific behavior in the workplace. Since operant conditioning involves on how it operates in a certain environment and learning takes place as a result of the behavior, we will be more focused on the positive reinforcement which is a very good tool for improving an employee on its negative behavior in the workplace.

However, there are times that positive reinforcement would not work so other method can be used such as negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction. Let’s take a common example of a negative manner seen in an employee like tardiness, sleeping, delayed reports, absenteeism, abuse of policies and many other unnecessary manners. In order to alleviate and ease the tension in the way it is practiced, the management can formulate a positive reinforcement like giving importance to the people who always come on time and are constantly prompt in coming to the office.

This can be done through rewards and additional compensation and acknowledgement. While those employees who are intensively late all the time despite of warnings from the management should be more reprimanded and disciplined by giving them penalty. The concept of punishment is generated here to reduce tardiness and eventually employees will dislike the penalty or punishment and surely avoid the misconduct by coming on time and perform their duties in a timely manner.

Negative reinforcement may or may not work as a method to prevent misconduct in a workplace since it dismays or disappoints an employee because it’s sometimes involves verbal reinforcement to decrease negative stimulus, this is more applicable to a parent-child relationship but for employees, it’s not lasting and holistic and possibly produce a unprincipled outcome.

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