Parenting Styles and Outcomes

The parenting styles:


  • This parent is a demonstrates extreme levels of control using strict discipline styles, such as: frequent use of punishment, low levels of warmth/love, unrealistic high expectations of child and non-negotiable (Baumrind, 1991).
  • This form of parenting is associated with child who can display levels of hostility, rebelliousness and antisocial behaviors (Akhter et.

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    al., 2011). Children who experience this form of parenting early in childhood can develop anxiety (Akhter et. al., 2011).


  • The permissive parent acts more like a friend then a parent.

    They have an extreme lax discipline style including minimal rules, expectations or guidance (Baumrind, 1991). Although they seem very uninvolved, they have a loving and nurturing side.

  • Since this style of parenting has very low levels of parental involvement and follow-through a it can lead to children having low levels of self-confidence (Anula & Nurmi, 2005). Another outcome is the lack of control of a child, with minimal parental control and child is more likely to “act-out” (Akhter et.

    al., 2011). These children have a low level of self-control and achievement which lead to poor academic achievement (Akhter et. al., 2011).


  • This parenting combines low levels of warmth/nurturing and low levels of parental control. They have limited communication with child, minimal nurturing to child, leading the child to have an abundance of freedom (Baumrind, 1991).
  • This parent is neither demanding nor involved which can lead the child to become highly dependent on the parent (Anula & Nurmi, 2005). Children who have this type of parent are known to experience: higher levels of rejection which leads to aggressive, delinquent and attention seeking behaviors (Akhter et. al., 2011).


  • This style of parenting is the balance between love/nurturing and parental control. This parent sets expectations with their children, explain rules, engages with their child in a loving and nurturing manner and has open communication with their children (Baumrind, 1991).
  • This from of parenting is associated with a child with greater competence, maturity, and self-control (Anula & Nurmi, 2005). Children raised with this style of parenting also display high levels of moral reasoning, moral conscience, as well as prosocial behaviors (Anula & Nurmi, 2005).

Growing up with ethnic parents, you get a high level of parental control which included strict parenting, rules, and high expectations. Although they were strict, they were extremely caring, loving, nurturing, supportive and all around the best people. Growing up, I was the youngest and my brother the oldest, we were not necessarily raised the same. I was very protected, whereas my brother had more freedom. I had an earlier curfew, higher expectations in school, driving restrictions (when I got my license), was not allowed to date, etc. This was due to cultural expectations; the boy can have more freedom and the girl is to be protected and kept safe. I evoked many parenting behaviors from them. There were times I was untruthful, which led them to be more authoritarian. There was also a time in my late teen years where I stood up to them and told them they had to give me my freedoms, treat me like they had treated my brother, which made them take a step back and be less involved. My parents were very receptive to me as child, they read me. They knew when I needed more love and when I needed better regulations or rules.

I would not be the person I am today without my parents. My parents raised me to be a self-sufficient, independent, caring and hardworking young women. They disciplined me only when I deserved and stepped out of line, but they loved me through the whole process. There was never a time in my childhood or even now that I do not doubt their love for me. The instilled my core values in life: to be truthful and honest, that every lie has a consequence, to be kind and respectful towards other, hard work pays off and that there is a reason for everything. Without their parenting style I may never of gained those values.

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Parenting Styles and Outcomes. (2021, Apr 28). Retrieved from

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