Question 2. The Baermann technique is similar to the fecal flotation method, but takes a lot longer. This device is done by the use of a funnel, tube that is connected to the neck part of the funnel, clamp/hemostat, sample vial or cup, warm water, iodine/dye stain, microscope slide, cover slip, and fecal sample. To perform the Baermann technique clamp the tube with hemostats, wrap the fecal sample in a gauze and place the sample mid-way in the funnel, pour warm water into the funnel about 1 to 3 inches making sure that the fecal sample is submerged, let set for several hours.
According to the Charles M. Hendrix and Ed Robinson they stated that “The use warm water stimulates nematodes and larvae, once the larvae is relaxed, they sink” (Charles M. Hendrix and Ed Robinson, Diagnostic Parasitology for Veterinary Technicians Fifth Edition, Chpt. 17, page 322, Par. 1). This will allow the nematodes and larvae to separate from the feces and sink to the bottom of the tube.
Once there, collect the sample into a vile by unhinging the hemostat from the tube. The nematodes sink to the bottom of the tube of the funnel and is collected by pouring into a vile or white top tube and centrifuged for 10 minutes. Once the sample is spun, it is then drawn at the bottom by a syringe, and few drops are placed onto the center of a microscopic slide with the frosted side up. The sample is mixed by applying a drop of iodine stain and covered with a coverslip.
In comparison with the fecal flotation method that detects round worms, the Baermann technique recovers the round worms and detects more parasites such as lung worm (angiostrongyliasis vasorum).
Question 4. Measly beef is contacted by human consumption of raw/uncooked beef from the bovine. The zoonotic and proglottid intermediate host parasite (beef tape worm/taeniasis saginata) contaminates the grain that the bovine ingests. From there, the egg and larvae from the tape worm sets into the intestinal wall of the host absorbing through the muscle fibers of the host animal creating cysts. According to Charles M. Hendrix and Ed Robinson they stated that “Gravids of the parasite passes through feces quite motile, migrating from host animal to human.” (Charles M. Hendrix and Ed Robinson, Diagnostic Parasitology for Veterinary Technicians Fifth Edition, Chpt. 12, page 283, par. 2). The pathological of measly beef is produced by the different stages of infection. There are few types of infections to measly beef ranging from taenia saginata (beef tape worm) and taenia solium (pork tape worm. Both are the exclusive definitive host (human). The stages of this tape worm or any tape worm is the egg stage, larvae stage, and adult stage. The effects seen with this kind of infection is nausea, intestinal upset and diarrhea.
Question 6. Babesia is a parasitic protozoan that causes hemolysis in the blood coming from the intermediate host (deer tick/ixodus scapularis). Stages are similar to all ticks which is egg larvae, nymph, and adult stage. Babesia/babesiosis is an apicomplexan parasite, zoonotic with two hosts ruminant/mouse and human. This tick feeds off the blood of the host (animal) where it introduces sporocites into the host where it undergoes an asexual reproduction faze. From there the parasite differentiates from male to female transmitting the infection to the host. To determine the stage of infection the diagnosis is done by blood smear examination and serological tests including agglutination and immunofluorescence tests. Young cattle usually do not show signs or symptoms to babesia, but the usual symptoms are parasitemia, high fever, and neurologic signs like mania.
Question 7. Ctenophalides Felis (cat flea) similar to that of ctenophalides canis (dog flea), like any other fleas they are a reservoir vectors that spread a wide range of diseases. They are zoonotic and transmit from both animal and human. According to Charles M. Hendrix and Ed Robinson they stated “Fleas are important in veterinary medicine due to the popularity and is commonly found in both dogs and cats.” (Charles M. Hendrix and Ed Robinson, Diagnostic Parasitology for Veterinary Technicians Fifth Edition, Chpt. 13, page 226, par. 1 and 3).
Fleas have four life cycle and stages which consists of egg, larvae, pupae, and adult. Egg sheds hatching into larvae, the larvae feed on organic debris and host animal, turning into the pupae stage which feed on hosts blood, cocoons into an adult flea and repeats they cycle and stages over and over. Any season is flea season and the best way to treat the spread of fleas is by proper landscaping and spraying insecticide around the house and vacuuming any rugs or beds, and continuous treatment of oral / topical flea medications for pets (cats and dogs) which will prevent any further spread. Flea medication vary from oral (Bravecto, etc.), topical (Advantix, Sentry pro shampoo, etc.).
Question 8. There are various types of ticks soft ticks and hard ticks. The life cycle and stages of ticks are egg, larvae, nymph, and adult stages. According to Charles M. Hendrix and Ed Robinson they stated that “Ticks are identified by the shape, color, and the markings on their scutum.” (Charles M. Hendrix and Ed Robinson, Diagnostic Parasitology for Veterinary Technicians Fifth Edition, Chpt. 13, page 254, par. 1). Structures of hard tick are beak like parasites with their mouthparts contained in the front while the structures of soft tick’s mouthpart are on the underside of their bodies, both are acarids both ranging from 3 to 5 mm long.
Hard tick’s adult males and females have different coloration, females are somewhat larger than males, and male have a plate on their back called a scutum. Soft ticks have wrinkled bodies and lack a scutum. Their mouthparts are typically on the underside of their bodies. Female soft ticks feed and lay eggs several times during their life. These ticks feed from host, detach, and return. Life span of soft ticks can range up to 16 years. Most hard ticks are 1-3 host tick after their egg stages hatch, one of each larvae, nymph, and adult stage follows along. Hard ticks feed off host, drop to lay large masses, and die. Depending on the type of tick and the environmental condition, longevity ranges from 2 months to 3 years. Hard ticks carry variety of diseases such as Lyme, rocky mountain spotted fever, and plasmosis. While soft ticks carry tick-borne relapse fever.
Question 9. Protozoans are placed in various groups based on the basis of how they move. They are characterized are unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms that have the ability to move independently. Protozoans are vary based substantially by their size and shape and are small as fungal cells. Most live by sexual and asexual reproduction. They are zoonotic and are located in most moist habitats. According to Charles Hendrix and Ed Robinson “protozoans are categorized and described as metazoans while the rest are made up of unicellular organisms belonging to kingdom: Protista in the linean classifications” (Charles M. Hendrix and Ed Robinson, Diagnostic Parasitology for Veterinary Technicians Fifth Edition. Chpt. 12, page 13, par. 5).
The four categories of protozoans are flagellates/flagella’s parasite example is giardia. Which may be a solitary, colonial, free-living, or parasitic living in the intestine or bloodstream of the host animal causing disease such as trypanosome. Flagellates are a uninucleate organism possessing at sometime of its life. Presenting in a hair-like structure capable of whip-like lashing movement (whip worm). Amoebae/ameba parasite (pseudopodia / entamoeba hystolica) which is diverse and defined by a disease-causing parasite in both animal and human. Amoebae contains a microscopic unicellular protozoan and had the ability to form into cytoplasmic extensions (pseudopodia) a false footed jelly like cytoplasm. Ciliophoran/ciliate parasite (Balantidium Coli) parasite from pigs, a phylum genus alveolate that has short hair-like cilia moving in an undulating pattern. Cilia is a single celled organism with short hair-like organelle used for locomotion and feeding. Flexible pellicles/contractile vacuoles with a thread-like structure. They range from 1 micronuclei to several macronuclei which controls their metabolic and developmental functions. Last category is the apicomplexans/sporozoan parasite (toxoplasma gandii / plasmodium Spp.) a significant opportunistic pathogen that is immunocompromised pathogen by both chicken and cattle and a tick-borne parasite. Apicomplexans are spore producing phylum’s lacking contractile vacuoles and locomotor processes living within the body cavities in all animals causing malaria. Their sexual and asexual reproductive alternate and precede spore formation.
Question 11. Both visceral and cutaneous larval migrans come from intermediate hosts (roundworm and hook worm / toxocara canis and toxocara cati) in the infected host animal (cat and dog). The visceral larval migran is caused by the migration of larvae parasite the roundworm (toxocara). This parasite is transmitted by ingesting of the eggs and larvae. The eggs hatch into the intestinal walls host eliciting a profound reaction of eosinophilic inflammatory response. This zoonotic parasite is transmittable to both human and animal. According to Charles M. Hendrix and Ed Robinson they stated “VLM is a disease caused by certain migrating parasites/larvae in organs and tissue.” (Charles M. Hendrix and Ed Robinson, Diagnostic Parasitology for Veterinary Technicians Fifth Edition, Chpt. 16, page 289, par. 3). In order to prevent this type of infection it is important to wash your hands thoroughly after touching soil or pets. Also have pets dewormed and prevent them from defecating in public areas. Children are susceptible to infected with these kinds of parasites from playing in sandboxes at public playgrounds due to infected wild life and their feces.
Cutaneous larval migrans are caused by ancylostoma (hook worms) which are inhibited in the intestines of dogs and cats. The eggs are developed into larvae when left in warm/moist sand. Usually the site of infection starts at the feet, legs or back and appears in a shape of a thread like reddish brown rash. This kind of parasite resides on beaches or parks during or post-rainy seasons. According to Charles M. Hendrix and Ed Robinson they stated “CLM is a condition caused by the migrating hookworm (ancylostoma duodenale) parasite in the skin.” (Charles M. Hendrix and Ed Robinson, Diagnostic Parasitology for Veterinary Technicians Fifth Edition, Chpt. 16, page 2, par. 6). To prevent transition of this parasite refrain from walking barefooted onto wet soil or sand that may or may not be contaminated and pets should be deworm thoroughly to prevent infection.
Question 12. There are different types of myasis, the terms that are used to describe them affect different parts of the body such as dermal, cutaneous, subdermal, etc. and maybe obligate or facultative. Myasis (facultative and obligate) is the invasion of a living or nonliving animal by the fly and its larvae. The parasite of the facultative myasis is the fly/organism resorting to parasitic activity and is a member of armillaria genus. The facultative myasis dipteran stays within the host and is attracted by the moist wounds and lesions where it lays eggs and infects the damage tissue. Several types of fly include capillaria, lucilia, and sarcophagi which cause myasis and other infectious diseases like mycobacterium, tuberculosis, and skin conditions like fly strike/strike. According to Charles M. Hendrix and Ed Robinson, they stated “The dipteran larvae are capable of producing myasis in the skin and is attracted to hosts moist wounds and lesions” (Charles M. Hendrix and Ed Robinson Diagnostic Parasitology for Veterinary Technicians Fifth Edition Chpt. 13, page 220, Par. 1 and 2). The facultative parasite is an opportunistic organism resorting to parasitic activity that does not rely on the host for the completion of its life cycle. Like any other parasitic mutation, facultative myasis can produce more larval infestation creating more infections while the other does not.
As for the obligate myasis the obligatory myasis dipteran will die without its host, therefore it needs the host animal to survive. This parasite known as screw worm is not an opportunistic organism but it lays its eggs in the hosts lesions and wounds infecting live tissue and feeds off living tissue. The effects or disease that it carries is taenia solium and anglyostoma duodenale. Myasis of this stage feed of both the hosts live and dead tissues. Making it almost equal to both facultative myasis as well as obligate. The conditions or disease that it can cause is taenia solium and ancyostoma duodenale.
Question 13. The three nematodes that migrate through the skin tissues of the horse are the habronema microstoma, habronema muscae, and draschia megastoma. Skin parasites know as stomach worms, a gastrointestinal nematode that deposits fly larva onto the skin or lesions, causing numerous conditions such as summer sores, cutaneous habronemiasis, and cutaneous draschiasis. Each nematode varies in size and uneven surfaces of soft covers of firmer granulation(s). Diagnostic confirmation of these parasitic nematodes is commonly done by skin biopsy which would mostly reveal cross-sections of these kinds of larval infections.
The parasites will spontaneously dwell in the winter and respond to treatment in the summer. Causing inflammation of the large nodule in the horse’s stomach. The intermediate host of this parasite is the fly. Stages of these are passed through the feces, ingested by the flies, the host animal will ingest the fly via the horse’s stomach. Heavy infection starts to cause gastric, colic, and diarrhea. The flies (intermediate host) can also deposit the eggs/larvae onto the horse’s lips, nostrils, and open sores.
Question 14. Both insecta and acarina are part of the phylum Arthropoda of the lynean characteristics. Both transmit diseases to humans, animals, and crops. Insecta (insects) serves casual agents where some produce varieties of toxins, venoms, and serve as intermediate hosts protozoans and helmenths. They have segmented bodies divide into three sections (head, thorax, and abdomen). Stages of the insecta are the egg, nymphel stage, and the adult stage. As for acarina, which are ticks and mites that have 2 body structure and 4 to 6 legs. The head and abdomen (either soft-bodied or hard-bodies). Acarinas (arthropods or Arachnida) includes mites and ticks with 50,000 different species ranging from parasitic to free living. Within the insecta, the females can alternate from sexual to asexual and give birth with or without having the eggs fertile by the male insects. Most insect eggs are resistant inside the chorion and have 2 embryotic tissues (amnion and serosa). Insects are vectors that can transmit disease to host animal and human such as malaria, yellow fever and death.
Acarina or acari which are families of the arachnids (mites and ticks). Have segmented bodies/tagmata (thorax, prosoma) opisthosoma (abdomen) fused with flexible cuticle that separate the pedipalps from the rest of their body. Most adults have 4 pairs of legs while some only have 3 pairs. Similar mites such as gall mites (phylllocoptes varibilis) mouth parts of acarine may be adapted for biting, stinging, sawing and sucking. The order of acari are ixodida (mites) vector that transmit diseases to host human and animal. Ranging in shape from minute, soft bodied, elongated, or circular segments. Females usually lay eggs which hatch into immature adults.
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