Origins, End of Times, Influences in Modern America Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 20 March 2017

Origins, End of Times, Influences in Modern America

INTRODUCTION: General Thoughts on the Anti-Christ Culture

Whatever one believes about Satan, his story makes gripping entertainment.  From biblical authors, through Dante Alighieri, John Milton, and into the present, stories of the Devil have attracted authors and readers alike.  Over the last generation, in American popular culture, stories of Satan generally focus on his heir, the “Anti-Christ.” The Anti-Christ is usually portrayed as the arch-enemy of Jesus Christ, the Biblical saviour, just as Satan is usually portrayed as the arch-enemy of God.

This Master’s Project will analyze the Anti-Christ in historical terms, comparing traditional views of what was a purely religious figure with contemporary accounts of a popular culture character in films and literature.  Having made that contextual comparison, this paper argues that the religious roots of the modern American Anti-Christ figure are often overlooked.  But while hidden from popular understanding, the American Anti-Christ in fact serves as a cultural marker for an important religious approach, Anti-Christianity. Logically, the Anti-Christ’s position in American popular culture tells us something about the position in the culture of his enemy, Jesus Christ.

For millennia, Satan has materialized as a cultural character.  We find the Devil within works of music, literature, and film. Every now and then, especially in modern times, the orientation of the Devil is indirect in texts. The anti-Christ characters which are so popular in modern American culture demonstrate characteristics of Satan, and imply Satan, sometimes directly, and sometimes ambiguously.

In Christian convention, the form of the anti-Christ exemplifies evil. The anti-Christ is most often found in apocalyptic works.  Such works are eschatological, and the most famous such text is, of course, the Book of Revelations.  Revelations has generated abundant interpretation and excitement since its appearance.  This continues. By the mid-20th century, the anti-Christ turns out most often as a figure of speech to people within Western civilizations. The term is not always directly used in biblical context. On the other hand, the anti-Christ still functions as a character in culture, as an ultimate symbol of malevolence. Popular curiosity about the anti-Christ increased in the final stages of the 20th century, which marked a millennial change.

Millennial changes bring about popular concerns over the future, and the Anti-Christ always shows up in such times. Even in the early 21st Century, the anti-Christ remains a common character in popular culture. Any American growing up during the last fifty years will have encountered stories about the Anti-Christ, in films such as Rosemary’s Baby or The Omen, and in popular books such as Hal Lindsey’s The Late, Great, Planet Earth.  Indeed, one need not be religious to know that there is a character called the Anti-Christ who might be lurking in today’s world, doing the work of the Devil.  Of course, if one is religiously inclined in the Judeo-Christian tradition, then the notion of Satan and his role in the End Times is supplemented in church or synagogue.

In Christianity, the anti-Christ signifies a person, the form of an individual or other being who is a personification of evil. Anti-Christ is interpreted from the amalgamation of 2 primordial Greek words “anti” (opposite) and “khristos” (anointed) – opposite of Christ. The anti-Christ can be countered to Christ. Just as the holy Christ brings the divine and the human together, so the ruthless Anti-Christ brings the infernal and human together.  It is a binary approach to the question of “theodicy,” or the theological problem of evil.

The question of how evil exists in a world made by a holy God offers many answers. Satan and his Anti-Christ figure largely in many of these answers, in a Christian context.  Jesus works for human salvation on God’s behalf. The Anti-Christ works for human damnation on behalf of Satan.[1] Satan emerges as a character very slowly in the Old Testament. His role in Genesis is reflected by the serpent.  In Job, he serves as a sort of angelic prosecutor.  He becomes more rounded in later books.  Daniel and Isaiah to some extent offer apocalyptic visions which open up the role of Anti-Christ.  It is in the New Testament where the Anti-Christ really emerges most clearly.

The term emerges five times in John 1 and 2 of the New Testament[2]; on one occasion in plural structure and four times in singular.  The figure is prevalently correlated with the challenging and temptation of Jesus, and is supposed to be evil incarnate, opposed to Jesus.  The term anti-Christ is also frequently applied to predictions on the subject of the “Little Horn Power” in Daniel 7 and is employed in combination with countless teachings about “End Times.”

Christian denominations deviate on what will come about in the “end times,”, and the function the Antichrist will play. There are those who deem that the anti-Christ described by John inscribed is a rather solitary individual, and who anticipate this single individual to ascend in the future. Others see the Anti-Christ as part of a demonic army, with many helpers.

            There is broad agreement in Christianity agreement that, in the times before the anticipated return of Jesus to this earth, there will be episodes of evil throughout the world, in which the anti-Christ, stimulated by Satan, will try to gain supporters.  The idea is that the Anti-Christ will impress the population with enormous works, building up strength for the final battle of Armageddon. According to this story, the Anti-Christ will be very popular because of his dazzling works, and will silence or destroy anybody or any group that refuse adherence to his bid for power. On the other hand, Jesus is supposed to return quietly, without fanfare.

There is broad agreement in Christianity agreement that, in the times before the anticipated return of Jesus to this earth, there will be episodes of evil throughout the world, in which the anti-Christ, stimulated by Satan, will try to gain supporters.  The idea is that the Anti-Christ will impress the population with enormous works, building up strength for the final battle of Armageddon. According to this story, the Anti-Christ will be very popular because of his dazzling works, and will silence or destroy anybody or any group that refuse adherence to his bid for power. On the other hand, Jesus is supposed to return quietly, without fanfare.

Country singer Dwight Yoakam brought this notion into contemporary focus on his popular 1988 album, Buenos Noches from a Lonely Room, in the song “Hold Onto God:” “Satan shall lead down a pathway of sin/Away from your heavenly home/With many great wonders, many great signs/Deceiving all but the strong. Be not misled by miraculous deeds/Performed in the name of the Lamb/For he shall return as a thief in the night/To claim his own once again.” The fact that a few lines from a popular country song so briefly sum up this End Times scenario shows how recognizable it is in modern America. [3]

Religions in America long reacted to countercultures.  In recent times, this manifested during the 1960s era of Baby Boomer protest against traditional values, including religion.  Christian authorities could not disregard the protesting youth  Conventional religious societies sought to attain the force of young people who appeared to be leading the state in new-fangled directions. In wake of the 1960s,, numerous seekers rejected mainstream Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish expressions. Rebellion against tradition affected these people, and many made their spiritual pursuits toward Eastern religions, traditions of contemplation and rumination, toward drugs, or paganism. Some rebels were naturally attracted to the ultimate rebel.

They might not have read Paradise Lost, but the message of Milton’s Satan, who would rather rule in Hell than serve in Heaven, made for a dramatic repudiation of the values they wanted to oppose.  During the late twentieth century, with fears of social breakdown, nuclear war, and millennial change, there was a sense in many communities that the world was on the brink of something big.  Many people responded to End Times scenarios.

The conception that people today are living and breathing in an age of immorality knowing that the end is in close proximity is exciting. The idea that soon, malevolence will be whacked by heavenly powers who will obliterate the powers of the anti-Christ, still sees a lot of variations. It attracts both the traditionally faithful, who hope for a new, Christ-ruled future, and the rebellious, who want to see the world overturned.

The anti-Christ is a component of popular culture. The anti-Christ’s story has profoundly influenced the portrayal of evil in music, literature, and films.  The evil spirit also makes his manifestation in all popular culture.  For example, rock and roll music, aimed at rebellious teenagers, often uses Satanic and Anti-Christ imagery. Classic Heavy Metal bands such as Black Sabbath and Iron Maiden pioneered this style. In 2006, Marilyn Manson released his album, Dancing With the Antichrist.  .

The Anti-Christ shows up in many ways, a few more terrifying than others.  Some see Satanic popular music as simply a pose, others fear it is a harbinger of the Anti-Christ’s arrival. With nerves on edge, some fearful people express the conception that the anti-Christ’s power is accountable for violent behaviours in the world today.  Crimes committed by youth in the grips of Gothic or neo-Satanic popular culture – for example, the school shootings at Columbine – can be interpreted as Anti-Christ-inspired.  On the other hand, for an angry young person, there can be no more dramatic act of rebellion toward authorities than professing loyalty to the Anti-Christ. Even if a rebellious youth does not understand the historical and theological implications of acting out in this way, they know enough to be sure that they will shock many people.

There are connections between anti-Christianity, new religions, and contemporary confused, even depraved, American culture. In case we consider ‘depraved’ too a strong term, we have to acknowledge traditional Christian stances on  controversies such as pornography, abortion, murder, suicide, drug abuse, homosexuality, alcoholism, sexual misbehavior, and other correlated issues. While society’s position on some of these evolves, not all Christian denominations accept such phenomena.

To traditionalists, these behaviors are, in fact, depraved. To those who object to that classification, it is the traditional definition that is offensive. Both work against each other.  Depravity and criminality therefore become strengthened in resistance to traditional values. Of course, Christianity is not the only religion to cope with this. Its roots in America are the deepest, however.  In a polarized environment, the rise of anti-Christ practices can to be construed as a concluding stage of a certain movement, in which the religions of the past have created a productive atmosphere where rebellion thrives.

The anti-Christ state of mind is but a bewilderment of the most fraudulent secular values and passions, which is ritually toughened by popular culture and media. It is possible that a correspondingly strange and demonic type of religious industry will come into play. That is, during a time when religion’s relationship to society is unclear, and the relationship between good and evil is also unclear, a dialectical collision between these influences can energize the Anti-Christ idea.

Usually when the anti-Christ is represented in films and music, he is characterized as someone who looks like the devil – red-skinned with horns on head, tail, hoofs, and pitchfork, unless he is in disguise. Sometimes, only his voice can be heard. In the hit movie The Exorcist, which dramatized the novel by William Peter Blatty, a demonic voice was perhaps the most frightening effect.  Satan, as a mysterious reality who is the epitome of evil has productive narrative prospects. Some texts depicted a human character’s resistance to the anti-Christ.  Sometimes a person falls prey to temptation, sometimes they resist successfully, perhaps with divine assistance. This serves to mark human failings as pitfalls in the ongoing endeavour to survive while living a morally excellent life.

ROOTS OF THE ANTI-CHRIST NOTION

What or who is the anti-Christ? What or how does he look like? How does he behave? The assertions of churches say extremely little regarding the anti-Christ. But as heirs of the Reformation era and as those told to distinguish the signs of the times, people are always concerned with the anti-Christ.  This section of the thesis explains some of the religious beliefs which shape the public’s image of the anti-Christ.

IDENTITY

Catholic Scripture says that the anti-Christ is a religious, political, individual who is against God and Christ’s church, who will arrive in the future. In the Scripture, the anti-Christ is used in I John 2:18, 22, 4:3 and in II John 7; the Bible is abounding with teaching concerning the reality we identify the anti-Christ. The major  relevant passages are (II Thessalonians 2 – Daniel 7, 8, 11 – Matthew 24 – and Revelation 13, 17 and 18) where the anti-Christ is referred to as a little horn, a beast, a false Christ (wicked) and man of sin.[4]

            The anti-Christ’s name provides warning of what he really is. He is the anti-Christ, or the anti-Messiah.  Judaism, the root of Christianity, calls for the arrival of a Messiah at some point int time.  Christians – not Jews – believe that Jesus was, is, and will be this Messiah. “Christ” is a Greek translation Messiah, or “Moschiach” in Hebrew pronunciation, whom these Jews anticipated would come from God to save them and usher in the Kingdom of Heaven on Earth. Christians believe that Christ is the individual given by God to accomplish this particular work in God’s name. The work of Christ is to redeem the people from sins as well as death through His own death, as well as to mend God’s conception as a foundation of virtue and harmony.

What unites all branches of Christianity is the belief that Jesus of Nazareth is Christ; He is the servant of Jehovah – God’s anointed one. Jesus is the qualified being to accomplish the work of saving the people and renewing their foundation. The affirmation of the church through the ages is – “Jesus is the Christ.” Since Jesus Christ is God’s pivotal figure, it stands to reason that Satan, as God’s adversary, has one, too. According to Matthew 24:24, the anti-Christ is the fake Christ. The anti-Christ asserts that he is anointed with the Holy Spirit by God and then claims to be qualified in accomplishing God’s orders to redeem the people and renew creation. He is a fake Messiah and an anti-Messiah, sent to stop the true Messiah’s mission of saving humanity.

Anti-venom neutralizes venom from snakebite; anti-biotics are given against infection; so the anti-Christ is against Jesus Christ. This explains the real meaning of what the anti-Christ is – he is the conflict figure for Christ. He is in individual disagreement with Christ; he is not in favour of Christ’s Word; he is against Christ’s Church -Holy Scripture. Additionally, for the reason that Christ’s undertaking is to prove the name of God to people by means of showing Himself, the anti-Christ is opposite to God, Christ’s father.

Consequently, though the anti-Christ will try to show that his appealing power is love, concern for humankind, and hope for the demoralized, what drives the anti-Christ is not really love but abhorrence. The single appealing force in his existence is disagreement to Christ, antagonism to each and every one that He stands for, and to all those who stand for Christ.  These are logical religious inferences which most Christian doctrines uphold, and which anti-Christ imagery in popular culture reflects.

The anti-Christ also specifies replacement. The anti-Christ opposes Jesus with the intention of supplanting Him – to acquire His place as the Christ. Even though the English language does not frequently make use of the prefix ‘anti’ to represent replacement, it is an ordinary application of the preposition in Greek tongue.

When the Catholic Scripture says that Jesus Christ died ‘for people’, one of the prepositions used is ‘anti’ signifying that He died as the replacement for the people. This is the minor connotation of the ‘anti’ preposition. The anti-Christ purposes to be ‘as a replacement for’ or ‘a surrogate for’ Jesus Christ.

 II Thessalonians 2 points out how the anti-Christ comes as a fraudulent  Christ and how there is a conspicuous outer resemblance involving Christ and the anti-Christ. Antichrist, as well, will carry out wonders and signs. Christ has a kingdom and thus the anti-Christ. Christ comes through the supremacy of the Spirit; the anti-Christ will come by the supremacy of an evil spirit – the devil.[5]

In all ways, the anti-Christ will appear as the real Christ. The anti-Christ is Satan’s corresponding person to Jesus; He was God’s preference to institute His kingdom, renew creation, redeem His people; the anti-Christ is Satan’s choice to create his infernal kingdom, to gather people into it. Those people will be dependent on the Devi;. God’s entire plan relies on the works of Christ while Satan’s plans rests on the work and victory of the anti-Christ.

Even though there is differentiation of judgment among post-Reformation Christian groups concerning these doctrinal points, it is not complicated to distinguish why a lso many consider that the anti-Christ will be a single man. There is a narrative authenticity to the notion that Christ’s enemy stands divergent to Christ, but furthermore claims to be Jesus Christ. If he is to make that claim plausible, he must be a man as Jesus was a man. He must be a man in whom people will place their faith, an attractive man with whom people can seek freedom from their melancholies.

That is the central point of the idaa that the anti-Christ will be an unambiguous entity, a particular person. A lone personality of exceptional capability and unusual authority will come up, who is disparate to Jesus and asserts to be Jesus. It is important that the anti-Christ will be a man. The anti-Christ will not be a bizarre creature, unrecognizable, stranger or an alien.

He will not put people off at first, but tempt them with his attractiveness. It has been said that the humanity will know him well, for his character will be humanity’s character. Man for eternity has and constantly will claim equal opportunity and distinctiveness with God and the anti-Christ’s claims will be plausible for he will be one of humanity. In this way, the anti-Christ serves as a symbol for humanity’s attempts to reach godly status on its own, as with the Tower of Babel and other biblical narratives.

Revelation 13 gives supplementary teachings on the anti-Christ, saying that his sovereignty will be a religious and a political kingdom.  This expands the notion of the individual man to the notion of that man’s earthly kingdom. The visualization of Revelation 13 has to be read taking Revelation 12 into consideration, where the dragon evicted from heaven, recognized as Satan or the devil, hunts woman in a new indulgence. The dragon is irritated becaise Jesus Christ, the woman’s child, is caught up into bliss before this dragon can consume him. Then, the dragon spits his venomous black spleen on this woman, maltreating her, making hostilities with her seed for the anti-Christ hates and attempting to destroy the church.

In Chapter 13, 2 beasts appear which are creations of that dragon in Chapter 12 – creations as well as servants; “…and the dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority” (Verse 3). The first beast is an untamed animal rising out from the sea. It will look like a leopard, but the feet are similar to bear’s feet and its jaws like the lion’s. Its 7 heads and 10 horns would appear as the dragon in Chapter 12:3 wherein he was distinguished with 7 heads as well as 10 horns. Of course, these colourful images call for interpretation, which many popular culture texts try to do.

The heads of those beasts are bursting with wickedness but one of those heads has a disfigurement from an injury but will look healed. After the creature has mounted from the sea, the entire world will adore the beast, while it discharges irreverence in opposition to God and generates hostilities with saints and then overcomes them.  Revelation 12:17 concludes: “And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.”  That will be the final battle that determines humanity’s fate forever.

This is similar to the beast that Revelation 17:3 mentions. Here, it is characterized as scarlet in colour, being ridden by an immense whore, the Whore of Babylon. If we read the visualization in Revelation 13 remembering Daniel 7, we will distinguish that the revelation of Revelation 13 is derived from Daniel 7, and that the monster in Revelation 13 is the creature of Daniel 7.  This provides continuity from Old to New Testament. The beast from the sea from John is an amalgamation of the bear, leopard, lion, and inexpressible 4th beast in Daniel 7, whose 10 horns bring about 1 horn that speaks enormous, conceited things, and generates hostilities with saints and then prevails.

This beast from the sea represents the anti-Christ as a world regime, a political authority, the likes of which humankind has never perceived. The derivation of this beast is in fact the sea that represents the agitated countries and citizens of the earth. Isaiah 57:20 tells us, “…The wicked are like the troubled sea, when it cannot rest, whose water cast up mire and dirt” and if more is required, Revelation 17 says, “…the waters which thou sawest, where the whore sitteth, are peoples and multitudes and nations.”[6]

Uncertainty rises when we distinguish that the beast has crowns and horns. In the Scripture, horns are representative of authority, and crowns of prevailing authority. Above and beyond, Revelation 13:2 tells us that the beast has authority and throne and enormous power; Verse 7 says that he has supremacy over all relatives, tongues as well as nations. If any difficulty lingers, Daniel 7 tells us that the 4 beasts are the 4 kings; and Revelation 17 tells us that the beast is a king from the earth. Centuries of separation and division on earth will finish in one-world regime.  Therefore, notions of a world-wide regimg bring up fears of Revelations for many people.  The United Nations, the Pope, and many dictators have all been accused of being the anti-Christ.  The issue is that the anti-Christ is expected to be a world ruler.

The anti-Christ is thus a political authenticity, a new-fangled world order – a worldwide unanimity. We give emphasis to the point within the previous paragraph for the reason that there is repeatedly the notion that Antichrist will simply be a religious figure. Scripture makes clear, however, that the anti-Christ will be a political authority. This political authority will be a universal supremacy.

The beast with horns and crowns represent the comprehensiveness of influence and ability over nations. Verse 3 tells us that the entire world surprised after that beast and Verse 7 tells us that he has authority over all families, tongues as well as nations; Verse 8 says that all those who dwell on earth shall adore him.

But it is a universal authority that is the objective of, and personification of, all preceding powers in the world. This is elicited in Revelation 13 in 2 ways; first, the beast of Revelation 13 has the description of a bear, leopard, and lion, in order that, though it is the concluding progress of Daniel 7’s 4th beast, it someway exemplifies the other 3 also.

The 4 beasts in Daniel 7, roughly all concur, correspond to 4 great world sovereignties – Medes and Persians (Cyrus),Babylon (Nebuchadnezzar), Macedonia and Greece (Alexander the Great) and, ultimately, Rome. The beast in Revelation 13 is the concluding growth of the old, Roman kingdom – which specifies that the anti-Christ will emerge from the Christian West, and not from the pagan East.

Many interpreters believe that the fourth beasts in Daniel 7, roughly all concur, correspond to 4 great world sovereignties – Medes and Persians (Cyrus),Babylon (Nebuchadnezzar), Macedonia and Greece (Alexander the Great) and, ultimately, Rome. The beast in Revelation 13 is the concluding growth of the old, Roman kingdom – which specifies that the anti-Christ will emerge from the Christian West, and not from the pagan East.  Of course, at other times, people have seen other kingdoms in this account.

Subsequently, that anti-Christ’s is a wide-reaching sovereignty is also the denotation of seven heads of the beast illustrated in Revelation 17. The seven heads of the beast are seven kingdoms wherein five of them had descended, one of them afoot and one yet to draw closer. In biblical times, Rome was the sovereignty, and the one drawing closer could be an anti-Christian monarchy. The five were supposedly the Medo-Persian, the Greek kingdom, the Babylonian, the kingdom of Babel by Nimrod, and the Assyrian.

The ‘healing-of-the-wound’ of Revelation 13 associates the achievement of the anti-Christ. One of the beast’s heads had a poisonous injury that was cured. The description of this is that during Nimrod’s time in Babel, there was an endeavour to amalgamate all people. God stopped this attempt. The efforts were frustrated, but towards the End Times, the anti-Christ will be trying again.

Through this, we can think about what II Thessalonians 2 says, “…he who now letteth will let, until he be taken out of the way.” And that is, “He that restraineth will restrain…” There is someone or something that impedes, lingers, and hinders, the anti-Christ from coming; but during the closing stages of the Apocalypse, that obstruction will be taken away and the anti-Christ can be successful in fusing all nations and kingdoms of humanity to one.

Many believers think that the signs of these biblical prophecies are all around us now.  They state that one has to be blind and deaf in order to ignore the parallels with contemporary culturel.  Today, there is discussion of the end of the nation-state and the rise of globalization. The amalgamation of the entire world is implied. There are other descriptions of the Beast coming from the ground.

But whatever the description, the central idea is that the anti-Christ will united the world… He will manipulate pagan faiths and make them popular. He will also claim to offer a better form of Christianity. This will be true Christianity’s ultimate struggle, before its ultimate victory.  So, there will be an attempt not only to control the world in one political body, but to blend all religions into one faith.  Of course, this faith will be another anti-Christ trick, which Jesus will defeat in the end.

PURPOSE AND METHODS OF THE ANTI-CHRIST

The purpose of the anti-Christ is to demolish God’s elect – the saints. The man – the anti-Christ, indwelt by the spirit of Satan, is against God and against Jesus. With an abhorrence that is rooted back to where the angels descend before Genesis 3, the anti-Christ scorns God and His foundation in Jesus. But according to Scripture, the anti-Christ can never touch God. In accordance with Revelation 12, God threw him out from heaven. Therefore, the anti-Christ can never touch Jesus, either.  So he will attack Jesus’ church.  As described by Revelation 12, this church is the “…remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ;” they are characterized as the ‘elect’ of God in Matthew 24.[7]

In popular culture, this allows for the Catholic Church and all of its associations to be used in movies and novels as part of the End Times war. This supposes a bitter conflict in which religious doctrines will be contested. The anti-Christ will make use of all accurate catchwords, by means of the language of church, even throwing within a Bible manuscript. But the anti-Christ is the definitive liar, and will mislead countless people. The anti-Christ will make use of every tool existing: politicians, school teachers, news broadcasters, artists, scientists, musicians, doctors, businessmen and lawyers. All will be hard-pressed to the service of the anti-Christ to betray men. But particularly he will make use of those whose mission it is to influence and to educate men who assert to be preachers of gospels of Jesus.

Some believe that the gospels of the anti-Christ are modern humanism – the contentment of man, magnificence of man, reconciliation and affluence, wealth and health of man. The number of the beast is 666 – the figure of the man.  But the anti-Christ will not incline his hand through declaring in public that he is the anti-Christ. He will not declare that there is no Jesus, no God, no deliverance and the significance of the Bible is counterfeit.

Particularly within the New Testament, ever since Jesus’ ascension, the anti-Christ is seen as coming. This creates suspense, with the spirit of the anti-Christ, laying the foundation, getting ready, being prepared.

STRUGGLE AGAINST THE ANTI-CHRIST

A major part of the story is action: the action that involves a final world war. The struggles of people of God in opposition to the anti-Christ have constantly been and will constantly be an exciting part of the story.  The anti-Christ is expected to have support throughout the world, by many people who believe wrongly that they are on the side of right and good.  The anti-Christ will seek to conquer the world with violence amd military might.  But he will be defeated – and not just by guns, tanks and bombs. Christians go up against the anti-Christ just as Jesus opposed him, in the manner Jesus dictated, with the Word of the Gospels.

THE NUMBER “666”

Many world leaders have been called the anti-Christ: Nero, several Popes, Ronald Reagan. Many accusers look hard for signs that correspond to the biblical warning number, 666.  In Revelation, the number 666 implies the expression ‘Chi-Xi-Sigma’ or ‘kai ho arithmos’ and represents for Jesus as the statue on the cross than the Gnostic thought of the new spirit of  Jesus spirit – the Son of Man – existing in all men. The numbers in the New Jerusalem are 3168-1080-1224-1764, but particularly 864-666 (all these decrease to 9). New Jerusalem is 961 (7), as is the quantity of leaves in the Tree of Life which are for the curing of all nations.  But because the number has supposedly magical and dangerous power, any appearance of the number always gives rise to anti-Christ fears.  Also, if someone is accused of being the anti-Christ, an accuser will usually find a way to ‘discover’ the warning sign, 666.

This symbol or mark, to which John implies, as well as the numeral of the forename, namely 666, can be recognized in 2 ways:

  1. Plain understanding – 666 would the arithmetical significance of the letters of the name, so we can distinguish who is the anti-Christ
  2. Figurative or Devout understanding – in the Bible, 6 is the figure of deficiency, thus, the anti-Christ would have the triple entirety of imperfection, in his political, social and religious dimensions, representing the culmination of man’s disappointment and evilness.

7 is the figure of faultlessness in the Bible, 7 days of creation, 7 days of a week, the two 7s of the Book of Revelation. 6 falls short – like the anti-Christ, and like mankind.  6 is frequently used as the emblematic numeral of deficiency of humanity (one head, one body, two arms, and two legs).

OMENS

Omens have an elementary cultural role: They notify dying people of approaching fatality, and they prompt people to begin acclimatizing themselves to circumstances and to focus their religious beliefs. Omens predate Christianity.  These omens fundamentally fill the empty parts of Christian understanding. People have constantly desired to escape from time, to discard the nervousness provoked by mortality. The formation of omens in almost all cultures has, conceivably, come from an inherent desire to suppress this nibbling uncertainty.[8]

They are associated with pre-Chrsitian ‘magic,’ as well. Omens can be associated with particular dreams or behavior or the unexpected appearance of animals. However they show up, omens are seen as signs of coming events, as warnings of danger ahead. Since the anti-Christ is the biggest danger possible, it is natural that in popular anti-Christ stories, omens play a major role.  Because the modern world prizes rationality instead of omens, the stories often involve someone who understands these signs trying to convince a sceptical public that the End is Near.  In movies and literature, omens bring suspense.

ANTI-CHRIST FIGURE IN AMERICAN POPULAR CULTURE

Having explained the basic religious background and implications of the anti-Christ story which shapes most Americans’ understanding of the concept, it is now time to examine popular versions of the anti-Christ story.[9]

There are many popular culture texts in which the anti-Christ provides the drama.  Some of these are enormously popular. Not all Americans are drawn to these stories out of religious belief, of course.  Most are drawn by desire for entertainment. Also, most of these accounts – such as movies – are made by creators who do not create religiously-approved texts.  In fact, these cultural elites, such as the Hollywood establishment, are sometimes charged with being critical of Christianity, and of Catholicism.  They can be seen as modern carriers of the “anti-Christian” tradition.

During the First and Second Great Awakening, there were some onlookers who worried about the public’s devotion to the salvation message. Others worried that the Great Awakening itself might signify the anti-Christ’s false Christianity. Beginning in the 1960s, a variety of social revolutions harmed religious authority. Universities, government and commercial bureaucracies were also challenged. However, religion was a great target for the counterculture, because American religion constantly supported the independence of personal conscience in devotion.

During the `60s, psychedelic drugs such as LSD sparked interest in so-called visionaries. There was interest in going beyond normal consciousness, in search of the answers to mysterious questions. Psychedelic drugs seemed more exciting than bible-reading, and had the added attraction of being part of some Native American religions, such as the peyote buttons taken by members of southwestern.

The pursuit of individual visions and omens  introduced numerous Americans to new customs and new ways of worship  Most stressed the chance for an individual to break away from tired Christianity and to discover the secrets which drugs could reveal  In other words, Drug Culture and the counterculture set up a spiritual environment in which anti-Christ stories could be popular. Here are some examples:

COMICS

  • Marvel Comics have high-level demons – Azazel, Mephisto, Satanish, and Marduk Kurios. These comic characters control diverse characteristics of Hell and claim connection with the Biblical Satan. Some critics hypothesize that these evil spirits represent anti-Christ while others think they basically make use of the name of a more authoritative evil spirit to sow apprehension amid their enemies. In other words, they use the image of evil to attract rebellious youth without actually having religious significance.
  • In Vertigo comics, the stature of the evil spirit is represented by Lucifer Morningstar – fallen angel and previous leader of hell. The name is a classic anti-Christ term, and the character is very exciting and dangerous.  Thus, young readers will find suspense in these stories.

VIDEOGAMES

  • In Shin Megami Tensei, the anti-Christ is represented as shinrei or the servant of YHWH. He takes the appearance of a human being who fits a distinctive representation of a metal rock star, while as an evil spirit he appears like skull-faced monster with creepy-crawly parts. Beelzebub, Lucifer, and several names attributed to Satan or the anti-Christ are different entities.
  • In Guitar Hero III: Legends of Rock Satan, it uses the name Lou; the anti-Christ plays a huge role within the story, acting as a cool instrument for the group all through the story. Eventually, the player plays a metal-inspired adaptation of The Devil Went Down to Georgia in a boss-battle

TELEVISION

  • Cow and Chicken series

      The major antagonist is a nude devil-like character appropriately named ‘The Red Guy’; the anti-Christ is a portrayed more of a useless con-man than a truthfully malicious body.

  • Charmed

      The source of Evil is an elected sovereign of demons, similar to an anti-Christ that he is referred to in a season on one occasion.

  • Buffy the Vampire Slayer

     The first Evil was an individual comprising all evil in the planet.

  • South Park

     It says political point through portraying the evil in an obnoxious sexual connection with Saddam Hussein; certainly, while Satan is at times portrayed as anti-Christ, he is as frequently a compassionate character whom God uttered as a whiny bitch.

  • Stargate SG-1

     The character of Sokar takes the personality of Satan, and turn out to be one of the most authoritative of species, possessing enormous militia which he wanted to acquire over System Lords and consequently the galaxy; he created his Hell on Ne’tu the protectorate of Delmak, where he brings his enemies for torment as well as chastisement.

  • Powerpuff Girls

      “Him, an evil, lobster-clawed, red-skinned, cross-dressing demon; the speaker states that ‘Him’ is so wicked that his name must certainly not be mentioned.

MUSIC

  • The melodic break of Augmented 4th is at times known as tritone and then “The Devil in Music” – a given name to circa1400, given its odd sound. Composers were optimistic to fail to attend from the break, and while it is at times found in anti-Christ music of that time, it was certainly not used in religious composition until the dynamic systems of keys came into use
  • Several musicians claim they acquired their musical skill from a deal with an anti-Christ. Countless folk-blues bands have songs and even complete albums theoretically dedicated to the idea of an ‘Old Scratch’ mischievous sprite temperament
  • Satan or the anti-Christ has featured in contemporary popular music. Many rock stars (Rolling Stones, Iron Maiden, AC/DC and Ozzy Osbourne, Black Sabbath) have criticized evil worship, even though some Christian groups have construed it as veneration
  • Randy Newman plays Satan in his musical and studio album version of Faust. Some listeners claimed to uncover satanic messages obscured in popular music by means of playing records backwards.
  • Anti-Christianity are common themes of Heavy Metal Music; notoriously widespread in Black Metal wherein most expressive themes are with reference to the anti-Christ and hell, which has meant black metal remains a rather underground variety

FILM

  • Al Pacino as Satan in a form of the lawyer “Devil’s Advocate”
  • In “Constantine”, the mischievous sprite is acted out by Peter Stormare as a barefoot person wearing white costume and leaving slimy black footprints
  • “The Exorcist” is another appealing use of the anti-Christ in this horror film as the evangelical endeavour of William Peter Blatty. He has explicated that his objective was to represent the definitive evil as a manner of reminding humanity of the necessity to deem in the Supreme Good – God
  • Alan Parker’s film “Angel Heart” features a personality who enlists the aid of the major character to discover Johnny Favourite. The story reveals black magic as well as Satanism expansively; the twist is that Johnny had formerly sold his spirit to the Devil, but managed to escape through taking on a different man’s life.
  • In “The Pick of Destiny”, the anti-Christ is depicted as a red, horned being that loves metal music and is tremendously good at playing drums

For countless Americans, the emergence of anti-Christianity overwhelmingly influenced the language wherein they characterized and explicated to themselves their religious quests – whether they recognized it or not.

What the emergence of anti-Christianity eventually did was to popularize resources of alternative wisdom, mysterious tradition and implement them to modern American living. Religion, then, was not actually with reference to revolution – it was on democratization and popularization of alternative customs.

The field of arts (visuals, music, film, literature) is a social fabrication. They address and may possibly be intended to generate or manoeuvre a person’s needs, ambitions, and reservations. It communes implication; it represents meanings and shared apprehensions defining a specified time and place. There is, certainly, a soar from several analysts’ impressions and interpretations to denotation and feelings more commonly. Yet seeking to recognize personal experience ought to be a component of any extensive knowledge of human associations.

Unquestionably the significant events and the emergence of anti-Christianity affect popular discernment and culture. Yet the popular culture may possibly take part in a role in the habituation of what is seen and heard as worthy and in how actions are comprehended and felt.

One of the stimulating and continuing aspects of modern change is the hazing of borders formerly presupposed. Consider media substance; these are more and more delivered through different means, different strategies – diverse ways to convey images and messages. Additionally, it is habitually not probable to draw a line between modern worthy events as well as popular culture. They may possibly be reciprocally rousing and intermingled.

Before being distinctive, popular culture and the emergence of anti-Christianity may be delicately involved with scrutiny. Music proffer meanings of artistic neutralization – information which help diminish and call forth struggle against old ways and traditions on religion. These may be easier for individuals to connect in behavioural neutralization having implements of resistance.

Artistic expressions within a society having civil liberties is a major way for expressing appreciation or disparagement and this is likely to be addressed to an audience. Popular songwriters, cartoonists, and artists, when dealing with the anti-Christ topic, often expose, depict, and somehow legalize this notion of anti-Christianity through their works of art.

In deeming the consequence of a song’s meaning, we have to be modest and cautious and not presuppose that they will be homogeneously heard and comprehended, or cause actions or feelings that might be required by an artist. There is an enormous multiplicity among contexts, listeners, music and periods.

Lyrics, for instance, can be considered for their supposed anticipated meaning (by the performer, the creator, or the promoter), or with further buoyancy, their sense to a listener. A song’s assumptions, origins as well as connections to the other songs as well as things happening within the society can be scrutinized. But within most cases, it is a dive from there to extensive generalizations with reference to the meaning of a song or any type of art to mass exceedingly multicoloured audiences.

The personified evil or the anti-Christ has played a significant role in the American popular culture. Characteristics of the primeval apocalyptic perceptions are notions that there is a pointed division between evil and good people or beings, that existing governments are in control of the wicked powers, that several good power is thus imminently or amid superseding in an elemental way to throw out evil and bring back good, and that good authority will institute a culture wherein good reigns everlastingly and evil is eternally caged or demolished.

These fundamental assumptions that undergrid the anti-Christ point of view at times arrives to expression in pop culture:

  • Satanism and Witchcraft

     Wicca as well as Satan churches are blooming and have tax excused standing; Santeria; New Age movement; movies and books promoting Satanism and witchcraft

  • Anti-Christ Groups

     ADL, ACLU, with other God-haters work with corrupt constabulary officials and depraved judges to stalk and assault Christians and work to eradicate vestiges of Christian faith

  • Drug plague

     Drug dealers steal, rob, and murder; nation beleaguered with LSD, heroin, ecstasy, cocaine, xanax, marijuana, zoloft, oxycontin, alcohol.

  • Paedophilia

     This means molestation of child widespread in society and in churches.

  • Homosexual immorality

     Examples of homosexual immoralities are same-sex marriages, drag queens, transvestites, gay culture; homosexuality in schools, sodomy.

  • Music impropriety

     Heavy metal adoration of devils, hip-hop culture, sexual barbarity are some examples.

  • Pornography

     Pornography examples are multibillion business of child porn; snuff death films.

  • Rape of Children

       Rape of children are influenced by blood and aggression, satanic cartoons, witchcraft as well as sex themes witchcraft and sexual books, video and internet games, textbooks filled with hostility and anti-Christianity

  • Constabulary

      Police frequently beat and abuse victims and disobey citizens’ rights; courts and judges are dishonest.

  • Foreign Relations

      America gives billions in foreign support to Israel, Russia, and Egypt but still is the most abhorrent nation; people deride Americans but want their money.

  • Professions

     Gluttonous doctors and lawyers who steal, cheat, lie, kill and teachers and psychiatrists having sex with patients and students.

  • Systems in Tax

     Agents and tax authorities break the law.

  • Non-operational Schools

     Atrocities are plentiful, guns, drugs, knives, lax discipline, cheaters and plagiarists, homosexual teachers, gangs, rapes, achievement test scores drop, parents forced to home school

  • Murder

     Kids killing teachers and parents, parents killing kids, sadistic teens and serial killers murdering at a quick pace; culture spawns violent behaviour.

  • Body disfigurement

     Body disfigurement such as piercing of tongues, navels, ears, and body parts common, tattoos illustrate skulls, serpents, death, girls cutting flesh, horror

  • Language

     Blasphemy and filth heard on TV and radio.

  • Political waste

     Republicans and Democrats are immoral and uncontrolled.

  • Idols

     Worst illustration of humans are frequently celebrities.

  • Vicious Churches

     Clergy applaud homosexuality, several clergy are homosexuals and paedophiles who explicitly disparage God’s Word, false prophets and teachers deceive masses.

  • Prayer disqualified

      Group prayer is illegal in school, athletic events, and somewhere else.

  • Mentioning Jesus

     Illegitimate in schools and somewhere else, but as curse word.

  • Abortion

      Abortion is slaughter of infants, partial birth abortion is legitimate

  • Ten Commandments

     Removed from courtrooms, schools, public display unauthorized.

  • Christmas caricature

     Commercialism reigns, Jesus removed, public manger banned by courts.

  • Atrocious Films – movies on sexual violence, rape, cannibalism, necrophilia, and worse are uncontrollably popular.
  • Death traditions

     Schools take learners to cemeteries for death education, films demonstrate sex with dead corpses; euthanasia of the aged endorsed by several.

  • No-Win hostilities

     Annihilation and genocide in Iraq, Haiti, Korea, Vietnam, Panama, Columbia, Palestine, and so on.

  • Bloodshed

     TV and films saturated with body dismemberment, Mafia hits, crime wave by illegitimate aliens is unimpeded by the authorities.

  • Terrorism

     Airplane hijackers, snipers, anthrax, U.S. clandestinely becomes major supplier of terrorist networks.

  • Environmentalism

     Globalists connive with regime to close down forests and confine access of people to parks, savaged private property rights.

  • Sports Crimes

      Crude satanic/sex spectacular; football star murders people and is acquitted; basketball star sexually assaults girl, baseball star spits on referee; baseball stars discovered to be cheaters.

  • Men vs. Women

     Music videos call women ‘bitches’ and ‘whores’, promote sexual violence; women hate men, men abuse women.

  • Racial discrimination

     Blacks hate whites, whites hate blacks, minorities run over rights of most; banned immigrants are favoured over citizens.

  • Morals Bankrupted

     Everywhere, there are burglary; corporate crime; cultural indicators (film and music) give confirmation of moral failure, illegal gambling industries, venereal diseases.

***

There was a turn down of anti-Christianity following the 18th century illumination and modernization – a turn down in the anti-Christ being perceived as an authentic and forthcoming danger. Nevertheless, the anti-Christ still remained breathing and well in certain types of culture, predominantly in the more conventional forms which give an explanation for a large proportion of contemporary Christianity.

All of these conventional Christians pledged on no account to theories regarding anti-Christ’s deceitful plans to destabilize God’s action. On the other hand were the very fear-provoking claims of satanic ritual maltreatment. There were several contextual elements that fed the expansion of this particular presumption counting the following:

  • There were fears in Christian circles concerning the New Religious Movements or “cults” from this viewpoint that were viewed as brainwashing and deceiving their possible members to joining. One of the consequences was a rather prearranged anti-cult society, counting groups like those organizations that follow the footsteps of earlier groups, which produced considerable amounts of anti-Christ literature. The inadvertent worship of anti-Christ through other “cults” normally, could obviously be included in this framework
  • There was the actual subsistence and visibility of an authentic Church of Satan, which claimed to be the continuance of the universal adoration of Satan that had been happening since primordial times

In certain groups of Christian workers who held the viewpoint that there was an anti-Christ scheme, certain techniques made which resulted in a towering number of cases where adults and children confessed or reported to participation in anti-Christ rituals, frequently as victims. In several cases, the consequences of such approaches concerning stories of anti-Christ exploitation were in print in popularizing books.

In real meaning, this entailed a universal, mysterious association of anti-Christ parishioners who were methodically exploiting both adults and children to appoint in feral and anti-Christ rituals.  The detail that this was certainly a speculation coming out of certain peoples’ views and not authenticity is currently widely documented.

What is predominantly attention-grabbing is the comportment wherein stereotypes of the treacherous anti-Christ which have an exceptionally long account – counting the trio of cannibalism, human sacrifice, and sexual misrepresentation – take part in a major role in this happening as well. For instance, during the Roman times, Christians were blamed by outsiders of participating in accurately these activities, as were foreign groups in ancient times. Comparable dynamics of demonization were taking place in the medieval and early contemporary witch hunts.

A subsequent main hypothesis, which is rather less terrifying or disconcerting, takes account of the accusations against some music bands concerning their adherences with the anti-Christ through backward messaging or backmasking. The thought was that if we play their music backwards, we could hear an alternate meaning that, it was supposed, was placed there deliberately by musicians to serve their master, anti-Christ.

Many bands were similarly accused of conveying messages of the anti-Christ to the vulnerable ears of the youth. The reality is that, if we want to discover it, a word that sounds in the vein of “Satan” would come into view in any music that is played backwards. But almost immediately the thought of putting concealed, backward lyrics on music was intentionally taken on, predominantly in the case of metal bands that seemed to believe that the anti-Christ along with ‘666’ was ‘cool’.

Anti-Christianity is not a monumental body, therefore a prearranged division cannot by characterization be bumped with other groups. Groups are miscellaneous and draw on various magical, occult, as well as pagan resources. Some groups are independent and gather beliefs and activities from different Satanist tributaries or traditions.

Generally, anti-Christianity is not standardized in its governmental beliefs, structure, or practices. Consequently, there are dissimilar types of anti-Christ groups, from conventional to non- conventional, and diverse types of practitioners, from dabbler to zealot.

Groups as well as individuals may show a discrepancy in their level of confidentiality, degree of hostility to eclecticism, Christianity, spiritual worldview (beliefs of magic, view of Satan and God, the afterlife, and so forth.), and their extent of deviancy. But no matter what we may possibly note the differences among anti-Christs, powerful commonalities stay behind:

  • Every anti-Christ has chosen to recognize himself with an individual, practice, or representation that practically all society accurately views as malicious, abnormal, and wicked.
  • Every anti-Christ sooner or later individually engages in immorality and often inconceivable misrepresentation.
  • Every anti-Christ rejects the God and courts the anti-Christ whether or not he/she recognizes these classifications as biblically characterized.

Anti-Christianity per se is intrinsically immorality. They sense it would be healthier to completely indulge in this existence, and if nothing else be breathing and smouldering with detestation for all perpetuity than to purely survive in heaven. To be brief, they think it is more enjoyable to live blasphemous and go behind the most irreligious of all, the anti-Christ, than to be alive with and for God.

The first is associated with notions of supernormal underlying psychic capabilities as well as laws of the nature. The sacrifice is killed at the summit of the rite to expand the anti-Christ’s psychic power, thus escalating the Satanist’s probability for accomplishment in achieving the principle of the ceremony. The thought is that the power or soul of the sacrifice when slaughtered is unconstrained into the immediate ambience and can be tied together by the anti-Christ.

Second, implying to the anti-Christ viewpoint, the killing of the victim is plainly surrendered to the anti-Christ, who in response will cause to be conveyed about whatsoever is required. The superior the appeal, the “superior” the sacrifice ought to be. Also, in view of the fact that this kind of anti-Christ functions on the belief of entirely reversing and perverting Christianity, he thinks that he will augment his supremacy through performing more and more monstrous actions.

 

ANTI-CHRIST: 1960-1970

One of the struggles dealing with history is we perceptibly must split things into expedient periods, as well as decades create some logic. The trouble is if we learn periods such as 1960s, the establishment and closing stages of the era are likely to get small shrift. Several people would state that the `60s, as we reflect of them, the time of uproar as well as experiment, did not in fact get going after the Kennedy murder, and so a lot of the events that people believe of as being part of the `60s don’t really happen until the early `70s.

All is concerned in the query of why and how the `60s end, why by mid-`70s so many of the `60s principles are part of the ordinary – citizens perceive the greening of USA, this continuous future of liberalism – while, by 1981, USA elected Ronald Reagan, a traditional president.  A great deal of change is an alteration of insight with reference to the temperament of evil – for the reason that in the `60s many societal problems are viewed as a dysfunction.[10] In the late `70s, more and more they are viewed as evil, whether people are looking at transgression at homes or foreign violence.

The anti-Christ was a personal belief in the `60s and `70s – that ‘he’s alive’. The perplexity arises due to two fallacies: (1) treating deviating biblical references as if they denote very similar individual thereby making a complex figure that is not seen in Scripture; and (2) mistaking the period wherein these deviating figures are to become visible.[11]

The contemporary anti-Christ is pictured as a compelling politician – ideal media man. In `60s, John F. Kennedy appeared to fit the principles for a contemporary anti-Christ, and his worldly head injury sealed it for several credulous Christians. The anti-Christ supposedly will have the expressiveness of Winston Churchill (Revelation 13:5) as well as the unrefined sentiment and crowd appeal of Adolf Hitler (Daniel 7:20; 8:23).

The anti-Christ faith in the 60s until the 70s is basically any belief scheme that argues the primary wisdom of Christianity, starting with the personality of Christ. The anti-Christ is devout figure; the anti-Christ, different to much contemporary theory, isn’t a political stature, regardless of how ‘anti’ (in opposition) Christ he might be. The contrived complex Antichrist is not the anti-Christ of 1st and 2nd John – placing it all simultaneously, we can observe that anti-Christ is a portrayal of the structure of apostasy and personal apostates – thus anti-Christ was the realization of Jesus’ prediction that an instance of enormous apostasy would approach, when a lot will wane and will deceive one another and disgust one another.[12]

When individuals talk regarding politics and religion, they are frequently looking at the evangelicals, they are looking at Protestants, and they are seeing at evangelical Rights. Actually, all are familiar with extremely authoritative religious movements that were extremely triumphant all through the `60s. It is not possible to gaze at civil rights movement, for instance, except for terms of a spiritual movement, and questionably a great beginning. It is directed by the Baptist preachers, strappingly supported by conventional clergy, and particularly the Catholic Church.[13]

We cannot look at a great deal of `60s liberal movements, for instance the anti-Vietnam War pressure group, without seeing the role of conventional churches, liberal churches – the Roman Catholic Church. Consequently religion usually continues to be an extremely strong energy the whole time. The “revitalization of faith” in the `70s could be viewed conceivably as the media discerning something which had forever been existing but which had runaway their awareness. Unquestionably, evangelical groups turn out to be more dynamic.

It is appealing to scrutinize that New Age Movement teaches that everyone is really gods or devout-in-nature deep in our consciousness – it’s just that people do not distinguish it until we attain “Christ awareness” or “oneness with life” by means of “higher awareness” techniques. In current years, they have persisted that the human race is bordering on an “unexpected, evolutionary jump” or “revolution,” and that when adequate numbers of people accomplish an individual revolution (a spiritual, pantheistic acuity of reality), then all o can attain a remarkable leap forward in discerning the ancient vision of peace, affluence and the brotherhood of the human race personified in a new world order.[14]

Consequently, the noticeable recent expansion in liberty and egalitarianism all over the world, New Agers assert, is due partly, at least, to this stirring of spiritual awareness.  Ever since the late `60s and early `70s, millions of Westerners, particularly the Americans have been caught up in an enormous diversity of Eastern pious cults. A lot of these cults mislead people into thoughts that they are only ordinary or technical techniques for recreation and self-realization. But, an assessment reveals that they in fact have all of the description of a religion as described in a dictionary, and that they are sheered in Eastern religious conviction methodologies as well as techniques premeditated to accomplish a higher level of perception.

Similarly, under no circumstances throughout history have we viewed the emergence of many self-proclaimed gurus and messiahs; they factually have propagated into thousands. Even though there may perhaps have been some false messiahs here and there down all the way through history, people have never been deluged by an abrupt, massive attack of false gurus and messiahs like we have in our contemporary society.

An example of a prophetic sign heralding the coming of the ‘end of the age’ is the onset of tumults that in the Greek means tremendous societal confusion. Consequently, the end time accomplishment of this farsighted prophecy ranges from mass metropolitan riots as well as demonstrations that were a trademark feature of the late `60s, to the horrendous assault of contemporary organized terror campaign that plagued the human race at rapidly-increasing levels of dread and devastation since the early `70s, counting the unbearable revolutionary attacks that happened on September 11, 2001.

Other distinguished examples of tremendous social disorder (rumours of wars) would take account of the bio-chemical and nuclear holocaust scares people have endured as a contemporary humanity in current years. Leading among these terrors was the highly triumphant propaganda misdemeanour that was launched throughout the `80s by the Soviet Union with reference to the revulsions of the nuclear war. Then ultimately, recently, there has been the danger of fundamental Islamic terrorists via weapons of mass obliteration against the Europe, USA, Israel and other regions of Western society. So, it does not appear achievable for someone to dispute that Western society has suffered an extreme era of social chaos and horror than what we have endured in modern times.

Consequently, each aspect of a biblical divination must be totally fulfilled sooner than we can truthfully say it is fulfilled. On that base then, we have to scrutinize that now and then people will state that “wars as well as rumours of wars” are not a farsighted symbols of the end of the world for the reason that we have forever been beleaguered by wars all through history.[15] But, Jesus Christ was enquired by his disciples to describe the prophetic indicators that would indicate the proximity of His Coming as well as the end of the age.

Therefore, the “wars as well as rumours of wars,” mentioned in Matthew 24 and Luke 21, are an authoritative indication to an exceptional set of unspeakable circumstances and state of affairs that would overwhelm the entire world throughout the “last days” (Matt. 24:3-6), and only collectivism has established the capability to generate dramatic and extremely aggressive trouble spots throughout the world at once.

Actually, during the `70s and `80s, it appeared as if innumerable numbers of communist-inspired wars as well as brush wars were blowing up in hotspots in the globe. Furthermore, this geopolitical occurrence was in bare contrast with other times in history when the wars were fewer in number at any given instant, and were irregular or local in range, or were the wars that involved huge campaigns such as World Wars I and II.

At first, the `60s and `70s thoughts may ascribe the unbelievable paranormal occult power of the anti-Christ to the common spirit or celestial perception of the cosmos. But, those who are intelligent will know that it’s Satan who is the real source of phenomenal occult capabilities, not some power attained through superior perception or an abrupt, remarkable leap in development. However, without delay subsequent to the pre-tribulation Rapture takes place, one and all will understand unmistakably that Satan is the genuine explanation for the barely credible authority and abilities of anti-Christ.

For example, the changing role of women by the 1970s, the large expansion in divorce, and after that the coming of abortion in 1973 – these are signs of end times. The thought is: America is deceiving its children; children call for God; children must pray. We can observe what happens when children are not permitted to pray: we have the late `60s, we obtain the disorder, and we obtain the riots, and so forth. It is from 1962 that we start getting individuals who have been fairly quietist, who stayed out of politics, but commence to declare they have to get involved, and they also have to get involved in a certain way.

There are several very significant books which reproduce academic trends and which guide them – apocalyptic representation of end times, which is so unbeaten for the reason that it tries to coalesce social pandemonium at home as well as the disadvantage of America abroad as the twofold problems facing its citizens – these are signs of end times; we begin with Rapture, all good people will be taken away, and then the construction of an evil one-world position under the authority of an anti-Christ wherein Christians are victimized.

We distinguish an insurrection against the 1960s, enormous concern with reference to the 1960s, and an ever-increasing sense that administration, and distinctively the federal government, is attempting to compel these very disagreeable honourable changes, predominantly on schools, predominantly on children.[16] Much of the confrontation, for example, concentrates on the textbooks. There were a few, very, extremely triumphant campaigns to wash out unpatriotic or depraved themes within the textbooks.

It was a large encounter from the mid-`70s forwards. In the late `60s and early `70s, abortion in particular, as well as contraception, had constantly been major Protestant-Catholic separations.  That is one of the utmost significant moments in American spiritual political account, for the reason that it is accurately the first time that deep-seated Protestants or evangelicals structure a general front with the Roman Catholics; this is the first occasion that has happened. The statement that we give so little concentration to it within the history of the age is extraordinary – it is decisive.

The other thing we find in the `70s is when we encompass these diverse movements, is that a number of them turn out to be very aggressively proselytizing. Thus, for instance, it was in 1979 that America has the failed revolution in Mecca that terrifies the Saudi Arabian establishment, and then they fundamentally make a devil’s negotiation with Islamists, which is to go and alter the world to Islam, but stay away of the country. It was from that point, in South Asia for instance, or in Africa, that we get these Saudi-funded mosques being instituted. That is when we get the enormous evangelization society and the homecoming to a more fundamentalist type of Islam around Asia and Africa.

On the other hand, television and film producers appear to uncover Catholicism overwhelming. There are some reasons. First, more than any other Catholic denomination, the Catholic Church is extremely ocular, and consequently eye-catching to producers as well as directors concerned with the visual picture. Statues, crucifixes, vestments, monstrance, – to say not anything of the symbols of sacraments – are things that more word-oriented Christian denominations have predetermined.[17]

Therefore, the Catholic Church lends itself completely to the media. We can be certain that any film about Satan or the Second Coming or evil possession or, for that matter, any kind of irruption of the transcendent to existence, will prefer the Church as its location. Second, the Church is still seen as overpoweringly ‘other’ in contemporary culture and is consequently an object of progressing attraction.

As previously noted, it is very old in a society that celebrates the novel, professes facts in a post-modern civilization that looks doubtfully on any claim to fact, and speaks of secrecy in a sensible, post-Enlightenment world. It is thus the perfect circumstance for scriptwriters looking for conflict necessary in whichever story.

It has been argued that, despite this overwhelming enthralment with the Catholics, the entertainment industry holds the clear disapproval for the Catholics; it is as if directors, producers, playwrights as well as filmmakers feel gratified to institute their rational bona fides through trumpeting differences with the establishment that holds them in thrall. However, it’s television that has established the most productive argument for anti-Catholic writing. When priests emerge on television shows, typically appear as paedophiles, and are hardly ever seen doing their jobs.

Providentially, there is little reason to be anxious on attempts by obsessive Christians to retake authority. It is simple to be deceived by talk of a spiritual renewal, but the detail that Christianity needs to be invigorated is just another symbol that it is a failing religion. The reality is that Christianity has never been so feeble or weak.  With Islamic extremists and Christian fundamentalists waging a holy war not in favour of contemporary democratic values, conventional religion never had many enemies. Professors are starting to candidly assault it, and the industrious masses are starting to query what it is worth.

Satanism and Christianity are the two inseparable parts of a whole. We cannot consider the subsistence of one devoid of believing in the continuation of the other. Satanists are not in fact Anti-Believers in Christianity – they are counter-believers. In a scientific point of view, ideas with reference to ethics and principles are merely the product of human philosophy. People learn a lot of their ideas on right and wrong from customs of their culture, and these ideas carry on to be fashioned throughout the lives by personal interests as well as the interests of those they heed.

DARK MATERIALS TRILOGY

His Dark Materials is a trilogy of narratives by the fantasy fiction writer Philip Pullman, including Northern Lights (The Golden Compass in North America and published in 1995), The Subtle Knife (1997) and The Amber Spyglass (2000). The trilogy of narratives has also been in print as a single-volume compilation in the United Kingdom as well as North America, titled basically “His Dark Materials”.

The trilogy goes behind the coming of age of two major characters, Will Parry and Lyra Belacqua, as they meander throughout a multi-verse of parallel universes as well as a backdrop of classic events. The tale begins in Northern Lights with fancy elements such as armoured bears and witches. As the trilogy goes, it gets figurative layers of connotation, introducing a broad range of ideas from fields such as physics (quantum physics), philosophy (philosophy of religion metaphysics, and, questionably, a quantity of hylopathism), and religious studies (biblical representation).[18]

The trilogy happens across the multi-verse, moving stuck between numerous alternate worlds. In Northern Lights, the story happens in a planet with a number of similarities to the Earth; its civilization seems to look like the 19th century Victorian era dress fashion and steam punk technology stage. It could also be conjectured that within this world The Reformation never happened, John Calvin is referred as the Pope. The church (referred as “Magisterium”) controls all of western humanity (and most likely the entire planet). In The Subtle Knife, the story happens on Earth and in Cittàgazze, and in The Amber Spyglass it crosses throughout a collection of miscellaneous worlds.

One important characteristic of Pullman’s narrative is his notion of demons. In some universes within the trilogy’s humanity, counting that where the story’s character Lyra Belacqua is born, the human spirit is manifested all over life as an animal-shaped demon that forever stays close to its human equivalent. Witches as well as a few humans have entered regions where demons cannot bodily enter; as such, their demons can move as distant from their humans as wanted.

Demons will frequently only speak to their humans, but they can converse with other humans as well as demons freely. Throughout childhood, the demon can alter its shape, but on adolescence it settles to one figure. The ultimate figure reveals the person’s real nature and individuality, entailing that these alleviate after youth. Spectres prey on the demons of adolescents as well as adults, devouring them and rendering said demon’s human basically catatonic; they lose thoughts and ultimately fade and die.[19]

Demons and humans can also be detached by intervention, a course involving cutting the demon away from his/her human. This procedure can be conducted in a medicinal setting, like the manganese guillotine and titanium used at Bolvangar, or as a structure of suffering used by Skraelings. This departure has a high humanity rate and renders demon and human little more than submissive zombies. Severing the connection by means of the silver guillotine process releases remarkable amounts of anonymous energy that can be converted to electric or anbaric power.

The cosmos in Northern Lights has motivating technology; at a glimpse, it appears to be significantly behind the Earth, but in a lot of fields it is equivalent or better to Earth. As proof, it is exposed that Lyra’s humanity has identical knowledge of particles of physics, referred to as investigational theology.

In The Amber Spyglass, a superior inter-dimensional warhead is discussed that when aimed by means of a sample of a target’s DNA, can track down the target to whichever universe and disturb the foundation of space-time to structure a limitless chasm into nothing, enforcing the aim to undergo a fate worse than usual death. Other superior devices comprise the Intention Craft that carries a very compelling energy weapon amid other things; though this expertise is first distinguished and used outside Lyra’s cosmos and might perhaps be the creation of engineers from some other cosmoses.

The Northern Lights – In Northern Lights, Lyra Belacqua, a youthful girl brought up inside the secluded world of Jordan College, Oxford, and her demon Pantalaimon is taught of the subsistence of Dust, an outlandish elementary particle supposed by the Church to be substantiation for Original Sin. Dust appears to be less fascinated to the incorruptibility of children, and this generates gruesome experiments being executed by the Church-controlled scientists on captured children in the frosty wastelands of the far-away North.

Lyra and Pantalaimon expedition to save their friend Roger Parslow and the other captured children from this danger, with the help of the Panserbjørne (the armoured bear) leaders of the Gyptians (Iorek Byrnison, John Faa and Farder Coram) the aeronaut Lee Scoresby, as well as Serafina Pekkala, the witch. After connections with witches and armoured bears and success in a lot of arenas, Roger was killed by Lord Asriel (Lyra’s father) in his own triumphant experiment to produce a bridge into a different world. Followed by Lyra and Pantalaimon, Lord Asriel travel through it independently looking for the source of Dust; ignorant that they mean to stop the Church from demolish it.

The Subtle Knife – Lyra journeys throughout the Aurora to Cittàgazze, an unearthly metropolis whose denizens have exposed a spotless path between worlds at a distant earlier occasion than others inside the story. Cittàgazze’s irresponsible utilization of technology has unconstrained soul-eating Spectres, making the world powerless of transportation by post-adolescents. Lyra meets Will Parry, a 12-year-old boy from Earth who has staggered into Cittàgazze after killing a man to defend his sick mother in an endeavour to find his long-lost father.

Will turns out to be the carrier of the supposed Subtle Knife, an instrument forged 300 years ago by the Cittàgazze’s scientists of very similar materials as silver guillotine. One rim of the blade is able to create portals in worlds and the other border cuts through any type of matter.

After meeting with witches from Lyra’s world, they travel on. Will found his father, who has been gone astray in Lyra’s humanity under the supposed name of Stanislaus, only to observe him murdered shortly, and Lyra is captured by her mother, Mrs. Coulter, an agent of the Magisterium who knew of the divination that Lyra is the subsequent Eve. Will is inculcated by a pair of innocent lovers, Baruch and Balthamos, that he should travel with them to present the Subtle Knife to Lyra’s father, Lord Asriel, as a warhead in opposition to The Authority.

The Amber Spyglass – Will pays no attention to the angels and with the aid of the Bear King Iorek Byrnison, a local girl named Ama, the Chevalier Tialys and the Lady Salmakia, and Lord Asriel’s Gallivespian spies, saves Lyra from the cavern she has been concealed in. They expedition to the Land of the Dead to discharge the ghosts from their incarceration imposed by the domineering God, The Authority.

Mary Malone, a scientist of Earth concerned in Dust (or Shadows, as she knows of them), travels to a territory populated by outlandish sentient creatures known as Mulefa. There Malone learns of the factual nature of Dust, breathing as pan-psychic elements of self-awareness. Lord Asriel as well as a transformed Mrs. Coulter join forces to obliterate Metatron – The Authority’s Regent, but are slaughtered in the process, taking Metatron down. The Authority dies of his defencelessness amongst an immense battle involving the rebels as well as his servants.

Pullman illustrates the Christian paradise to be a lie. In his third book, the genuine eternal life is portrayed as an unwelcoming place where individuals are anguished by harpies until Will and Lyra tumble down into the ground of the dead. During their intervention, the harpies concur to discontinue tormenting dead souls, and as an alternative take delivery of the true stories of the deceased in substitute for leading them another time to a better world. When the lifeless souls come into view, they soften as they turn out to be one with the universe.

Pullman’s “Authority” is openly assured that the Authority was actually not the maker of worlds. Pullman’s trilogy does not conjecture on whom or what might have shaped worlds. Members of the Church are normally presented as zealots. The trilogy reveals the collapse of Heaven, a ladder under the power of Authority as well as his regent. As an alternative is the task to construct the Republic of Heaven.

THE LEFT BEHIND SERIES

The Left Behind Series of novels represent the catastrophic events of the Christian destruction and it has been a familiar sight of the American publishing history. Ever since the first of the novels – Left Behind in 1995, the sequence has traded in the neighbourhood of 60 million copies, ensuing in revenues of almost $1 billion. Printed by the popular evangelical author Tim LaHaye and political activist Jerry Jenkins, an inexhaustible writer as well as editor, and derived from LaHaye’s ideas with reference to the end-times, the sequence returned to The New York Times bestseller catalogue with Glorious Appearing, its 12th episode, after its March 30, 2004 introduction.

Devoid of warning, the most disturbing happening in mankind’s account takes place – millions worldwide have vanished, born and unborn, the dead and alive – many right before the people’s eyes. Frenetic “survivors” of the vanishings begin their exploration for their families and friends as well as answers to what has occurred. Among them is Pastor Bruce Barnes, pilot Rayford Steele, his daughter Chloe Steele, who begins to determine that what has really taken place, and is the Rapture. In the intervening time, a young columnist, Cameron Buck Williams follows an unidentified, but delightful Romanian policy-maker named Nicolae Carpathia, who hurriedly attracts millions of followers, apparently overnight.

Commenced into the succession we distinguish a character named Chang. In accordance with the series, Chang hangs with the detested Christians. Simultaneously on the other hand, he is breathing in a humanity, which is governing the Mark of the Beast, and torturing, imprisoning, and killing those who have acknowledged Christ. He rides the hurdle and although he had not taken the mark as yet, neither had he acknowledged Christ. The explanation he gives for not acquiring the mark is that it looks “excruciating”. His father takes him to a medicinal provision where he is given the mark. Feeling condemned, he then finds his Christian associates who notify him that given that he is marked first by God, he has the mark of the Beast.

Among those who followed the sequence, there are changing opinions as to whether it’s anti-Semitic. The piece of evidence that level-headed observers, in and outside the church, have categorized as intimidating to Jews some of the most triumphant books of the precedent decade recommends that these novels create extraordinarily delicate questions on the subject of what it means to be inhospitable to Jews.[20]  The disagreement is not that the Left Behind series is unambiguously disparaging and pigeonholed – it is not. It characterizes, on the other hand, a world wherein Jews are not as completely human as Christians – unless they turn out to be Christians. The resulting books go behind a small quantity of those “left behind” who currently comprehend what has happened and are born another time.

They struggle the efforts of the anti-Christ to rule over the human race throughout this period of Tribulation, the 7-year length of pandemonium and dread initiated by Rapture that will bring to an end with the arrival of Jesus (and the aggressive bereavement of non-believers).  The Tribulation, Rapture, and countless other events along with details within the sequence reproduce a mental picture of the end – copied predominantly from the book of Revelation – that is, to some extent, shared by millions of Christians, predominantly in the fundamentalist and evangelical communities.[21]  Christian predictive subject matters are explored in an imaginary perspective around the theme of “Rapture”, an understanding of the First Epistle to Thessalonians.

In the midst of those Christians who consider there will be Rapture, there are 3 most important theories on the point in time of this occurrence: Pre-Tribulation, Mid-Tribulation, as well as Post-Tribulation. This narrative takes the Pre-Tribulation Rapture arrangement. The narrative is built in the region of such End times subjects as the Second Coming, the anti-Christ, the Tribulation, as well as the expected approaching Millennium of Messiah.

THE LION, THE WITCH AND THE WARDROBE

The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe is a fantasy narrative for children by C. S. Lewis; it is the first book of The Chronicles of Narnia written in 1950. The tale takes motivation from the Gospel themes of death, betrayal, redemption, and resurrection. In the succeeding books, there is a jiggle in the course of the Trinity thought, with Aslan in the Christ-role as well as a passing orientation to the “Emperor over the Sea” as God. The children structure a disciple-group in the region of Aslan, with Peter the High King as St Peter and Edmund as Judas. The girls go after Biblical standard, as Mary Magdalene and the other Mary, being first to distinguish the revived Aslan.

Additionally, there are a variety of references to Christ’s putting to death, counting the disgrace prior to his bereavement and splitting curtain inside the Temple, symbolized by the breaking of stone table. The book is not proposed to be a re-telling of the Biblical stories in a different form; it merely borrows information from them in order to exemplify fundamental conceptions of Christianity (and other ideas— Platonic beliefs).[22] Moreover, the White Witch is thought to be tumbled down from Lilith, who some spiritual texts articulate was Adam’s first companion.

The most important story is a parable of Christ’s crucifixion. Aslan surrenders himself for Edmund, a conspirator who deserved fatality; similarly that Christ surrendered Himself for the sinners. The cross is substituted by the Stone Table (used in Celtic religious conviction). Furthermore, the splitting of Stone Table reveals the blanket of the sanctuary splitting at the instance of Christ’s demise. As with Christian Passion, it is Susan and Lucy who tend Aslan after he dies and are the first persons to witness him after his renaissance. The consequence of the bereavement contains fundamentals of ransom theory of compensation and the contentment theory: Aslan endures Edmund’s punishment (satisfaction), and buys him from the White Witch, who was permitted to him by explanation of his deceitfulness (ransom).

Four children – Edmund, Susan, Peter, and Lucy Pevensie – are evacuated from London throughout World War II, and stayed with an elderly Professor in a great country-house. The children travel around, and Lucy, the youngest, climbs to a cupboard and finds it heads to a snow-covered territory. She meets Tumnus, a faun who tells her that the territory is called Narnia, and that it is ruled by the cold-blooded White Witch, who guarantees that it is always iciness but certainly not Christmas.

Lucy went back through the cupboard, spending hours in Narnia. It happens that no time passed in England, and she is incapable of convincing the other children concerning her exploration, as the cupboard returned to usual. Some weeks later, Lucy re-enters Narnia, Edmund follows.

Edmund fails to get closer to with Lucy, and instead comes athwart the witch, who entices him with magic sweets and promises of authority. The witch persuades him to attempt to bring the other children to her citadel. The witch departs, Lucy arrives, and both Edmund and Lucy went back together through the cupboard. Edmund, feeling exasperated that Lucy was right, maliciously tells the other kids that they were only playing and that there is nothing really there.

Ultimately, conditions lead all 4 kids to hide in the cupboard, and they almost immediately find themselves inside Narnia. They find out that Tumnus has been kidnapped. The kids are sheltered by a couple of talking beavers named Mr. Mrs. Beaver, who narrate a prehistoric prediction that when two Daughters of Eve and two Sons of Adam fill the 4 thrones at Cair Paravel, the witch’s authority will be unsuccessful.

The beavers tell of the true king of Narnia – a lion called Aslan – who has been gone for countless years, but is active again. Edmund’s absence is eventually not noticed. Realising that they were deceived, the others begin to meet Aslan. Meanwhile, Edmund reaches the citadel of the witch. She unsympathetically treats him and, and taking him with her they begin to catch the other kids. On the other hand, her power is deteriorating and then a thaw strands her sleigh. The other kids reach Aslan, and a repentant Edmund is saved just as the witch almost kills him.

Calling for ceasefire, the witch insists that Edmund be returned to her, as a prehistoric law gives her ownership of all traitors. Aslan, accepting the law, offers himself in Edmund’s place; the witch accepts. Aslan is surrendered by the witch, but returns to life, and, throughout a final skirmish, the witch is killed. The kids turn out to be kings and queens, and spend numerous years in Narnia, growing to adulthood, before returning to their world, where they discover themselves children all over again.

Edmund appears to be the character most near to Judas – but different to the original Judas, Edmund does not pass away or get relegated to eternal damnation, but is absolutely redeemed by Aslan – Jesus. Edmund contains fundamentals of the Paul the Apostle. Lewis characterized a story’s series of events as a network whereby to grasp something else. With its narrative of a redeemer who suffered the penalty for others’ sins, and whose supremacy proved greater even than fatality, this consequential myth reproduces rays of expectation into a civilization paralyzed by the coldness of scepticism, where many in actuality would like a winter better devoid of Christmas.

DEATH OF SATAN

Andrew Delbanco in The Death of Satan considers with an appeal for renewal not of traditional religion but of the logic of personal liability fostered by conventional religious ideas of evil with this subject – the continual dialectic in American existence amid the removal of Satan under the weight of modernity and desire to get him back. The author argues that in modern America, the Devil and the immorality the Devil represents are trapped connecting the liberal propensity to describe atrocious acts as the result of bad societal luck and fundamentalist desire to demonize enemies.

Delbanco takes his most functional idea of evil from St. Augustine through Jonathan Edwards, Martin Luther King Jr. and Reinhold Niebuhr, who, he argues; all perceived Satan not as a raiding other but as a representation of our own underprovided love, potential for jealousy and malice to formation. When we stop imagining and naming this evil, it will have truthfully acquired mastery over us.

The conservative means for a culture to get hold of such vision, and have that mental picture put broad influence into effect, are by religious customs. If religious customs are under steady assault through literary elites and are obstructed from being agents of ethical vision, there is not anything to restore them – at any rate anything that can be effectual on a broad degree.[23]  Our quandary nowadays is demonstrated in particular in a position where this Founding Father tells us to come across. The intelligence of religious compulsion has abandoned courts of justice. The tradition of American law is drifting and everyone knows it.

The account of American literature and particularly modern literary and theoretical theory reveals how this world begins. Ours is a civilization of satire, grounded within a discussion of incredulity. Delbanco thinks as a worldly, multinational intellectual that there is no coming back again to comforts of a joint moral cosmos beached in transcendence. But he also knows that the expenses of this quandary are terrifying; when this hypothesis or thought gets loose from books, it turns out to be a different matter all in all.

For it is mismatched with personal accountability.[24] In this logic, the most eloquent ironists of the preceding few years have been not the professors but the killers like Menendez brothers. It reveals that Delbanco’s method in The Death of Satan has massive potential for point of view. We can learn many through focusing on the dark surface of human relationships. He tells the story of moral and religious deterioration through concentrating his awareness not on the penalty of God in the American civilization, but on the penalty of Satan.

The postulation here is that whilst a lot do not consider that the continuation of God is rationally practical, they cannot perhaps contradict the reality of evil. Given this piece of evidence, does not require a forceful moral logic of evil; to look on the features of the anti-Christ may be the solitary way we have to demean the viewpoint of relativism that clasps the knowledge group and makes the universal man unsympathetic.

People want ethical order for the reason that we dreadfully want to understand human experience, counting the experience of anguish, as carrying enormous weight. In describing the history of Satan in Christian divinity, Delbanco correctly insists on Augustine as an innermost stature. He erroneously claims, on the other hand, that, as Augustine’s belief grew – the evil spirit simply falls out of cosmology. While Augustine trained a policy of evil as deprivation, he also is the father most accountable for teaching Satan as the angel who fell from the heavens who rebels aligned with God and personifies the sin of arrogance as a dynamic, spiritual authority.

FILM: “The Omen”

The Omen (2006) is an American remake of the horror film “The Omen” in 1976. The movie is written by David Seltzer and is directed by John Moore. The primary photography began on October 2005 at Barrandov Studios in Czech Republic; the movie is part of the Omen sequence. Robert Thorn is a superior representative in the U.S. federal government, positioned in Italy. Katherine, his wife, gives birth to a baby boy, their first child who becomes a stillbirth. Katherine doesn’t know that her baby died, and Robert is intensely sentient that this news would destroy her. On the other hand, the hospital’s Catholic pastor, Father Spiletto, presents Robert with a method to spare Katherine the suffering: another youngster was born that night-time whose mother died throughout childbirth. Robert is influenced to get the baby and never inform Katherine; they named the baby boy Damien.

Anxiety involving the Thornes and Mrs. Baylock rises when the nanny begins to make decisions not in favour of their wishes, counting trying to keep Damien in going to churches and having a large dog devoid of their permission. A tour to the zoo ends with the primates going uncultivated at the vision of the child. Damien goes crazy, screeching and screaming throughout a drive to the church. For the meantime, sequences of photographs taken by photographer Jennings prefigure several dreadful deaths.

Another time, Father Brennan speaks to Robert, and says a prediction saying Damien will slaughter anybody in his way. Almost immediately Father Brennan was killed in a strange disaster. Katherine finds she is heavy with child but wants to abort for the reason that she is afraid to have one more child. Robert then rushes to the hospice and was informed that she lost the baby. Katherine wakes up and tearfully begs her husband not to let Damien kill her. Robert went into a monastery and convenes Father Spilleto, who told him where to locate Damien’s mother. He found the mother in a grave, Maria Avedici Santoya, in Chervet, a cemetery north of Rome. When they opened the burial place, they found a corpse of a canine similar to jackal.

In the bordering vault, Robert finds a dead body of a human baby with a broken skull. He comprehends his biological son wasn’t stillborn but was, actually, murdered that night-time. Robert realized that Damien is the cause of these occurrences, and decided to go behind Brennan’s recommendation and set out to Megiddo and convene Bugenhagen. Bugenhagen told him what Robert feared: Damien is the anti-christ, and consequently ought to die. At first, Robert refuses to slaughter his son but sees a transformation of intellect after Jennings was decapitated through a falling sign after uttering that if Robert does not kill his son, he will be dead.

Robert went back to his home and finds Damien; he cuts off a lock of Damien’s hair, and sees the 666 birthmark, and is about to kill Damien by means of stabbing him with 7 Daggers of Megiddo, in the form of a cross – the solitary weapons capable of harming the anti-Christ.[25]

Unexpectedly, he was attacked by Mrs. Baylock and after the fight, he went to a church to kill Damien. Regrettably, as he was about to hit the rage, Robert was killed by a representative of a Diplomatic Protection Group connected to and qualified by the Specialist Firearms Command squad at the moment upon which he is saying the Lord’s Prayer with his son who was struggling underneath him, but Damien survives. Damien looks his father’s funeral while he was holding the hand of America’s President, who was in fact Robert’s Godfather. The final shot of the film reveals Damien turning around and then smiling at the spectators, therefore breaking the 4th wall.

FILM: “Rosemary’s Baby”

Rosemary’s Baby (1968) is Roman Polanski’s first American movie and his subsequent, frightening horror motion picture. Polanski was the screenwriter and based the mysteriously atmospheric movie upon Ira Levin’s best-selling narrative of the similar name. The frightening, uncanny gothic movie is about a newlywed couple who went into a great, incoherent old bungalow building within Central Park West, and commence an affectionate, post-honeymoon phase.

They turn out to be friendly with the unconventional adjoining neighbours – an overly-considerate and disturbing elderly couple.  Through focusing in this movie on a solitary, completely developed personality within a decipherable atmosphere, Polanski appeals to a lot of the prospect of filmic practicality. Simultaneously, though, the horror type poses a contained challenge to practicality for it sets the realist revelation of reasonable social communication not in favour of an alternative perspective that comprehends the universe regarding of anti-Christ forces.

Rosemary’s Baby gives a supernatural description for the peculiar situations it reveals. In every case, on the other hand, nervousness is assembled through playing on the uncertain connections between fantasy and realism.  The bewilderment between outer and inner reality produced by the extraordinary reveals manners of experiences that are emotionally immature, recalling a self-absorbed epoch of growth wherein the human being was not capable to differentiate him/herself from the world.[26]

Polanski’s films attain their upshot through reproducing puerile states in their protagonists as well as in their viewers. Because of an early concentration in the surrealist society, who researched with artistic representation of unaware thought procedures, Polanski made a remarkable assortment of techniques with which he is talented to communicate such mystification.  The frights stimulated in Rosemary’s Baby first and foremost take the structure of puerile terrors focusing on bodily truthfulness. The movie turns the conservative cinematic perceptions of blameless experience back on them to expose humanity wherein the psychosomatic and the truthful are frighteningly impossible to tell apart.

Although Polanski’s script remains on the point of Levin’s original narrative, the movie maximizes the vagueness between mistrustful protuberance and the level-headed procedures that the narrative eventually seeks to decide. The movie’s power comes from Polanski’s negative response to make events simpler: vagueness is unvarying, in that we can never be certain whether Rosemary’s suspicion concerning the witches’ coven is beached in authenticity or a fabrication of her aggravated thoughts. Urban alienation, sexual politics and a profoundly distrustful perspective of human communication pervade the movie.

The most distinguished difference connecting the novel as well as the film is the technique wherein the paranormal theme is handled – anti-Christianity. Levin’s narrative eventually takes the enquiry of the subsistence of God as well as the anti-Christ dangerously, but quite the opposite Polanski uncompromisingly satirizes it all the way through balancing the good with the evil. The movie’s final scene, with Rosemary within Madonna-like clothing subsequent to receiving stranger bringing gifts, unambiguously spoofs the birth of Jesus Christ. Earlier throughout the ceremonial dinner that Guy and Rosemary share with their companion Hutch, Polanski adds a macabre succession of dialogue with reference to the Agnus Dei of Christian myths.

Such mysterious impulses may perhaps stimulate Rosemary’s increasing buoyancy in a cult; they may perhaps also lead the addressees towards a comparable point of confidence within the greasy situations of the movie. For Polanski calls each and every belief into enquiry by means of repeatedly manoeuvring the movie’s misapprehension of authenticity. He frequently exhibits its verisimilitude. The connotation of the utmost naturalistic descriptions is continuously called to dispute. Half-open entryways put forward a concealed reality by the prejudiced perspectives they proffer of what is taking place behind them, for individuals along with actions are merely half distinguished.

What can be acknowledged as believable may perhaps, in reality, are merely the foundations of comfort of the consciousness. Consequently, changes within the environment reverberate the phases of Rosemary’s deterioration. As her feelings of precautions diminish, the effects of the movie more and more give emphasis to an endangered as well as polarized hallucination of humanity.

The intimidating as well as distorting effect of the wide-angle cinematography is even extra well-defined near the closing stages of the movie when the hand-held camera goes before Rosemary’s fleeing down the yawning passageways to the security of her lodgings. In a comparable manner eerie dissonances that sensationalize Rosemary’s tenderness along with the diabolical manoeuvrings she hears around her eventually take over from the tantalizing images of the movie’s preliminary lullaby. At first, the colour contrasts the threatening shadows of the aged apartments with brilliant prime hues neighbouring Guy and Rosemary.

On the contrary, these transformations soon bring about tasteless jarring.  The movie’s termination, wherein the coven is exposed as genuineness lets the addressees to escape unswervingly dealing with the troubling implications of splintered psychosomatic states. On a more profound level, on the other hand, Polanski determinedly incriminates us in such situations through his established representation of the improbable anti-Christ world. It is ultimately this measurement of the movie that terrifies people.

Through involving the audience with an actually reasonable temperament in an apparently fashionable world, the film, Rosemary’s Baby, increasingly takes not only its female protagonist but also its addressees to circumstances of helplessness and distressing bewilderment about the reality of anti-Christianity. Though the audience may never distinguish Rosemary’s baby, the final illustration of Rosemary superimposes its perverted ogles over her own; for the “unfamiliar” forces that petrify her eventually arise in her.

INFLUENCE IN THE SOCIETY

Popular culture (pop culture), literally means ‘the culture of the people’. It consists of cultural elements prevailing in any given society, primarily using more popular media, colloquial speech and a well-known language. Pop culture results from daily interactions, desires and needs and ‘cultural moments’ that are making up everyday living of the mainstream. It can comprise any practices, including those pertaining to mass media cooking, clothing, and the countless facets of entertainment such as music, literature and sports. Popular culture frequently contrasts with a more restricted, even exclusive high culture.

If one would regard culture as a means of defining oneself, an enormously individualist manner, a culture needs to exert a pull on the interest odd people and to influence them to provide a part of themselves in it. People would like to feel a part of a crowd and to recognize their cultural identity in that group that tends to happen physically in a small, isolated community to some extent.

On the other hand, mass culture lets people characterize themselves in relation to everyone else in the mass society at the level of a city, a nation, a global community – a former colonial empire, a wide-spread language, a religious conviction – or even of a whole planet. Pop culture finds its turn of phrase in the mass movement of objects from areas such as music, fashion, sports and film. Pop culture had a particular pressure on art as of the early 1960s, through Pop Art.

Traditionally, commentators on culture characterized the term ‘popular culture’ either in negative terms as those parts or expressions of culture not established into the cultural setting of the social elite or in an institutionalized milieu. Some discern the products of a high culture as ‘art’ and pop culture as simple ‘entertainment’. On the other hand, this value-distinction eventually misleads in its utilization of definitions, given that all art in a few sense entertains, and all diversion similarly entails artistic discipline of several kinds.

Religion, on the other hand, for many is the sacred engagement with that is believed to be a spiritual reality. Yet religious conviction about the anti-Christ is a worldwide occurrence that has played a component in all human culture and so is a much broader, more multifaceted kind than the set of beliefs or practices established in any single religious belief. An ample about the anti-Christ understanding of religion should consider its distinctive qualities and patterns as a structure of human experience, and the similarities and differences in beliefs athwart human cultures.

In all societies, human beings make a practice of interrelating with what are taken to be spiritual powers. These may be in the form of spirits, gods, ancestors, or any category of sacred realism with which humans consider themselves to be associated. Now and then, since popular culture seem to dominate the Americas and even the entire world, the anti-Christ power is understood generally as a comprehensive reality and at times it is approached through its manifestation in particular symbols. It may be considered as peripheral to the self, internal, or both. People interrelate with such an existence in a sacred manner – that is, with respect and care.

One of the major influences of anti-Christian philosophy is the Holocaust. The Holocaust was the most evil “genocide” in account. Those who executed it meticulously created the means to powerfully capture and kill millions of people. The Holocaust led to the founding of international laws against human rights violations. Jews were not the merely victims of the Nazis throughout the Second World War. The Nazis also imprisoned and killed people who were in opposition to their administration on grounds of ideology. The ill-fated reality is that, the Holocaust is an issue whose enormity is palpable, but it is easy to turn into almost anesthetized to it.

Others consider it as an anti-Jewish diversity of a universal hatred bound for ethnic minorities. For the anti-Semites, Jews correspond to mythical, inexplicable, and evil forces; are omnipotent; and portray a threatening role in world history. Within the middle Ages, Christian anti-Jewish advocating sought to avoid contacts with Jews, and countless Christians believed that Jews were in union with the anti-Christ. Christians were blaming the Jews for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.  Several believed that Jews were not human beings and that they exercised magic to become visible like other people. These beliefs amalgamated with accepted superstitions in relation to the magical power of sorcery, human blood, and perversity, giving rise to the blood libel – the sham indictment that Jews made use of the blood of Christian children in their rituals.

Such stereotypes of the Jews intermingled in the minds of numerous Europeans with horror of foreigners and coalesced with social and economic frictions. Consequently, anti-Jewish brutality often erupted. The Christian church and different governments acted out laws that proscribed Jews from getting involved in certain occupations, imposed them to live in certain areas, kept them away from going to universities, or even debarred them from various nations.[27]

For countless centuries, the Roman Catholic Church taught anti-Jewish attitudes and beliefs. The anti-Jewish tradition of the Catholic Church did not support the assassination of Jews. On the other hand, the promulgation of insults, abhorrence, dreadful conditions, and often “demonization” of Jews stimulated several Catholics to acknowledge anti-Semitic dealings when the Nazis and their collaborators introduced them.[28]

The same was factual of Protestant churches. The guide “On the Jews and their Lies,” by Martin Luther during 1542, used tremendously violent language. It called on Christians to situate synagogues on fire, to obliterate Jewish houses, and to place Jews in stables, and it directed rulers to expel Jews from their nations. The writings of Luther had an important influence on German Protestant theologians and also put into an atmosphere of judgment that overlooked or approved maltreatment of Jews.

it has been brilliantly analyzed that these developments in the most affluent and most legible exploration of American society is a representation of the diversity of religion in contemporary America, inclusive with fascinating stories, engaging characters, the catastrophe of misunderstanding and abhorrence, as well as the hope of friendships, offering a guide to all within the diverse America of the 21st century. Because of the American “dream”, American “ideals”, the “ethos”, unparalleled diversity of beliefs in the anti-Christ has constructively surfaced paying particular awareness to the ‘most different’ of the new religious Americans of large groups – Buddhists, Hindus, and Muslims about faith communities such as Sikhs, Jains, and Afro-Caribbean religious convictions.

It has been found that there is an analogous theological typology in earlier studies of anti-Christianity; there were separate concerns – ‘No matter how people weigh up religions that are dissimilar from others, no matter how people think with reference to religion, if some are secularists or atheists, the covenants of nationality to which all remain place all people on common ground. The American society will be better served if people take the pluralist passageway into the progressively diverse religious future more willingly than choose for either segregation or integration.

Four characteristics of civic pluralism have been delineated closely paralleling the theological pluralism. First, pluralism must not be associated with diversity that is called ‘mere plurality’, but rather it necessitates dynamic engagement with diversity. Second, pluralism goes further than effortless acceptance of diversity in an endeavour to achieve real, productive understanding of others dissimilar from oneself and one’s group. Third, pluralism is not relativism of perspectives. Through the ideals of Americans, Pluralism has been become and engagement with differences along with particularities.

As a consequence, pluralism is as well a fragmentary commitment among diverse elements of the social order. The civic paradigm of exclusion/assimilation/pluralism presented in the book will undoubtedly draw out debate, praise, criticism, and modification as has the theological concept of anti-Christianity. For countless Americans, these two paradigms interweave since an ever more diverse religious civilization raises theological inquiries of truth claims.

Americans have a difficult time telling specifically what values they live by. Even if they had considered this matter, they would perhaps eventually, decide not to respond in terms of a perfect list of values. The explanation for this conclusion is itself one especially American value – their principle that every person is so unique that unchanged list of values could never be applied to all, of their equal citizens.

Even though Americans may possibly think of themselves as being more diverse and random than they in reality are, it is important that they think they are. Americans have a tendency to think they have been only vaguely influenced by church, family, friends or schools. Eventually, each believes that they personally chose which values they want to live their own life by and these days, to believe in the anti-Christ have become an effect of their freedom, not just because of the popular culture.

At one extreme, committed anti-Christ believers distinguish only their own practice as a religious conviction, understanding expressions like worship and prayer to refer completely to the practices of their convention. Even though countless believers stop short of claiming a restricted standing for their tradition, they may perhaps nevertheless use identical terms in defining religion. At the other extreme, religion may be equated with ignorance or fanaticism.

In popular culture, predominantly in the Americas and in the Western nations, anti-Christianity has turn out to be a part of popular culture’s legends; its references appropriated through hundreds of succeeding music, TV shows, visual arts, films and emerging anti-Christ groups and societies.  Terrorism has been very much linked to the anti-Christ; it is an act carried out to achieve an inhuman and corrupt objective and involving threat to security of any kind, and in violation of the rights acknowledged by religion and mankind.

This is a broader classification of terrorism. Under this characterization, nation states themselves could be blameworthy of terrorism. Any cold-blooded or corrupt objective together with an act that threatens safety measures and rights notwithstanding the motivation could be well thought-out as “terrorism”.  Through this notion, it is believed that the anti-Christ takes various forms above and beyond organized military confrontation (guerrilla warfare, insurrections, coups d’état, revolutions, and terrorism. A state of war can as well be present with no tangible route to arms like the cold war.

The martial institutions of a state and the way it wage wars are concluded mainly by its form of social structure, economic strength, government, and geographical situation. Increasingly wars have an effect on non-combatant civilian populations (not only the combatants) who may be left impoverished, dispossessed, and cause to undergo sickness. Warfare started in the Western civilization, in the Fertile Crescent flanked by the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf. The working classes were itinerant until the discovery of grass seeds that could be developed and animals that could be tame led to the founding of established communities.

Primarily, military forces were prepared to protect these communities against the intruders; then, due to the pressures of bigger population and multiplying herds, boundaries of the community were hard-pressed outward at the expense of bordering peoples. In about 3500 B.C., Middle East from Mesopotamia to Egypt was in continuous mayhem as empires increase and fall. Now, people think, where could the anti-Christ be at this point?

The anti-Christ attempts to rationalize violence by arguing that they were frustrated by bringing political change. The anti-Christ claim terrorism as the option available to them.  At the same time the anti-Christ acts have been defined as crimes in both national and international law; violence purposely directed next to innocent civilians is a crime. Likewise, violence spreading beyond a recognized war to violate territory of non-combatant states is also a war crime.

Many studies show that the anti-Christ is common in nations with political freedom and that nations with the least terrorism are most democratic. While a state espousing peace may possibly claim a sense of higher moral ground than regimes that support the anti-Christ, anti-Christianity in the former creates predicament for a free nation. On the other, a nation priding itself in its lenience of peaceful protest may choose to deal with anti-Christianity in ways set by its constitution; this may render that state futile with the problem.

Countries for democracy and totalitarianism have provided fertile view for anti-Christianity on account of the nature of their societies; civil liberties are legally protected, citizens have fundamental rights, and government control as well as constant surveillance of its citizens and their activities is not present. Similarly, repressive societies wherein the government monitors citizens and restricts their language and activities have provided difficult environments for the anti-Christ. State sponsorship supplies arms, money, and a safe place for the anti-Christ; it transformed ordinary groups into more powerful opponents. Sponsorship from the government and society also place resources of an established nation’s military, diplomatic, and intelligence services; these improve the terrorists, facilitate planning and support operations. Governments pay terrorists for their services.

Anti-Christianity and the implementation of worldwide legislation produce a transformation in the cost-benefit calculations of anti-Christ organizations and their sponsors. Nowadays terrorist organizations may execute either guerrilla or anti-Christ attacks in accordance with their preferences and local circumstances only, with no exterior cause to prefer one type of assault over the other. In the end, as much as the rest of the world is involved, the 2 types of assault are ethically equivalent; chastisement is equivalent in both cases.

Iran, Iraq, Syria, Libya, Cuba, North Korea, and Sudan have been known as the major resources and assets of terrorism. Iran was named as the most vigorous resource of terrorism for aid to groups such as Hamas, Hezbollah as well as Palestine Islamic Jihad. Though former Taliban government in Afghanistan supported al-Qaeda, the far-reaching group led by Saudi émigré Osama bin Laden, America did not distinguish the Taliban as a legitimate government and therefore did not list it as an asset of terrorism – an asset believed to be coming from the unknown anti-Christ.

Communication technology has dramatically changed how anti-Christ organizations commune. E-mails, websites, cell phones, fax transmissions, and satellite telephones made it achievable for organizations to consider a global strategy. Anti-Christ plans his acts to get a hold as much media disclosure as probable. Media exposure magnifies the anti-Christ occurrences by means of spreading fear among a mass audience.

CONCLUSION

By means of defining anti-Christianity as a commitment to the devil with what is taken to be a reality, it is probable to believe the significance of belief in human life without making claims about what it actually is or should be. Anti-Christianity is not an object with a solitary, predetermined meaning, or even a sector with comprehensible boundaries. It is a feature of human experience that may possibly intersect, integrate, or go beyond other aspects of life and society. Such a definition keeps away from the drawbacks of limiting the exploration of religion to Western or biblical categories like monotheism (belief in one god only) or to church composition that are not universal.

To this day, everyone is aware about the anti-Christ but it would appear that everybody is all also ignoring and most of the time, unconsciously following the anti-Christ’s ways of dominating the world, we may not be sure, but all these through popular culture. The Catholic Church should functions under two forms. Primarily, the church is to be gathered for education, teaching, worship and fellowship. On the other hand, true worship and fellowship is seen in Scripture as a consequence and a response to biblical revelation. Secondly, as a further outgrowth of the church congregated and the impact of that on its spiritual life, the church is scattered all over the week for the purpose of evangelism and ministry.

In a context dealing with the purpose and ministry of the church in the world, People are called to reflect on what the people of God ought to be doing. People are to be engaged in building up this spiritual house, offering religious sacrifices in the worship of God – not the anti-Christ, proclaiming the Excellencies of God – not the anti-Christ, to a world lost in obscurity, and abstaining from fleshly lusts so that we can keep our conduct, our comportment of existence and testimony, commendable before a questioning world lest we pay no attention and break the reputation of our witness.

The belief that one’s self individuality can be possessed whether by paranormal entities (demons, gods, ghosts, etc.) or by physical means (brainwash, hypnosis, etc.), is a deep, panic-stricken and irrational fear.[29] This idea that a person may be possessed by a supernatural personality, other than its own, happens in all religions.

Throughout the centuries people have been slaughtered, grief-stricken, and incarcerated since they were believed crazed by devils; their grotesque demeanour blamed on something society could either understand or control. In modern times “civilized” communities worldwide have coped with possession in several ways. The popular scientific approach of analysis effortlessly explains cases of possession as mere hysterics; diabolical possession is attributable to belief in diabolical control.

Anti-Christianity may be recognized as a materialization of coherent and gratis human act; as such it is discerned from, or even against, natural world. All that one carries out in expressing oneself as human by one’s action is culture. This is the most universal, anthropological understanding of culture. Anti-Christianity can as well be taken in a distributive common sense; then it is considered as the manifestation of the individuality of a particular social group, humanity or a nation.

We make a distinction on particular cultures for we are influenced that they have definite features that make them distinctive one from another. This undertaking is even more complicated to carry out in the case of developed cultures, of social orders having a long and intricate history, than it is with cultures of primordial societies. The culture of anti-Christianity is perceived here not as a set of original constituents, but especially as a definite system with its appropriate and distinctive organization of these elements.

Religion, as perceived by humans, is a people’s fundamental supposition about the kind of world they breathe in, what forces or individuals control it, and what the place of humans is; foundation of world view lies in key metaphors employed, approach of making common sense of one’s lived experiences, communal metaphor (representation of the world is culture – universe run by personified beings), natural symbol (applies representation of the body to societal structures and organizations), entrepreneurship image (key principle is that labour, land, and wealth are possessions – goods produced not for utilization but for transaction; the world is a marketplace and all within it has, or must have, its cost).

Approaches to anti-Christianity reveal a more general apprehension within anthropology: the discipline defines itself as a knowledge in that all anthropologists base their explanations and interpretations on empirical substantiation (and several anthropologists are focusing on developing universal models of human behaviour), and the discipline as well characterizes itself in terms of the significance with which it takes confined practices and beliefs and its obligation to understanding diverse cultures in their own terms by means of participant observation.

Consequently, even though many Westerners (as well as anthropologists) have abandoned “anti-Christianity” out of hand as being unempirical, practically all anthropologists presuppose that there should be good explanations for the continued existence and significance of religion and, by proposition, presume that practices and religious beliefs are in some sense “rational.” To be able to determine the rationale for the substance of anti-Christianity, on the other hand, experts normally move beyond the unembroidered claims of any religion to look at its figurative connotation or underlying societal functions.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bennett, David. The Party of Fear: From Nativist Movements to the New Right in American History. University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Blanshard, Paul. American Freedom and Catholic Power. Beacon Press, 1949.

Brown, Thomas. The Image of the Beast: Anti-Papal Rhetoric in Colonial America, Richard O. Curry and Thomas M. Brown, eds. American History, 1972. pp1-20

Bruce, Steve. No Pope of Rome: Anti-Catholicism in Modern Scotland. Edinburgh, 1985.

Clark, David. The Sociology of Death. The Sociological Review, Blackwell Publishers, 1993.

Davis, David. Some Themes of Counter-subversion: An Analysis of Anti Masonic, Anti-Catholic and Anti-Mormon Literature. Mississippi Valley Historical Review 47, 1960. pp205-224

DeMar, Gary. You’ve Heard It Said: 15 Biblical Misconceptions that Render Christians Powerless. American Vision, Atlanta, GA, 1991.

Delbanco, Andrew. Death of Satan. Noonday Pr, 1996.

Ford, Paul. Companion to Narnia, Revised Edition. Harper, San Francisco CA, 2005.

Hunt, Dave. Global Peace and the Rise of Antichrist. Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1990. p5

Jenkins, Philip. Pedophiles and Priests: Anatomy of a Contemporary Crisis. Oxford University Press, 2001.

Jenkins, Philip. The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice. Oxford University Press, 2003. p23.

Jenkins, Philip. The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice. Oxford University Press, 2004.

Keating, Karl. Catholicism and Fundamentalism: The Attack on Romanism by Bible Christians. Ignatius Press, 1988.

Kenny, Stephen. Prejudice That Rarely Utters Its Name: A Historiographical and Historical Reflection upon North American Anti-Catholicism. American Review of Canadian Studies. Vol.32, Issue4, 2002, p639

Kirban, Salem. Countdown to Rapture. Harvest House, Irvine, CA, 1977. p181

Levin, Ira. Rosemary’s Baby. Buccaneer Books, 2007.

Lindsey, Hal. The Late Great Planet Earth. Zondervan, Grand Rapids, MI, 1971. p113

McGreevy, John. Thinking on One’s Own: Catholicism in the American Intellectual Imagination, 1928-1960. The Journal of American History 84, 1997. pp97-131

Milton, John. Paradise Lost and Other Poems, with introduction by Edward M. Cifelli, Ph.D. and notes by Edward Le Comte. Signet Classic, Penguin Group, New York, 2000.

O’Malley, Patrick. Catholicism, sexual deviance, and Victorian Gothic culture. Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Sayers, Dorothy. Dante’s Inferno: The Comedy of Dante Alighieri: Cantica I: Hell. Penguin Books, New York, 1949.

Seltzer, David. The Omen. Signet, 2006

The New American Bible. Catholic Book Publishing Co., New York, 1991.

Thiemann, Ronald. Religion in Public Life. Georgetown University Press, 1996.

Warfield, Benjamin. Antichrist: Selected Shorter Writings of Benjamin B. Warfield, vol. 1, ed.  John E. Mecter. Presbyterian and Reformed, Nutley, NJ, 1970. p356

Wheat, Leonard. Philip Pullman’s His Dark Materials – A Multiple Allegory: Attacking Religious Superstition in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and Paradise Lost. Prometheus Books, Amherst, NY, 2007.

Wray, TJ and Mobley, Gregory. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil’s Biblical Roots. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2005. pp203

Yeffeth, Glenn. Navigating the Golden Compass: Religion, Science and Daemonology in Philip Pullman’s His Dark Materials. Benbella Books, 2005.

Yoakam, Dwight. Buenas Noches From a Lonely Room. Lyrics Mode. 2007. Retrieved December 3, 2007 from http://www.lyricsmode.com/lyrics/d/dwight_yoakam/

[1] Wray and Mobley, 2005

[2] Bible,1991

[3] Yoakam, 2007

[4] Bible,1991

[5] Bible,1991

[6] Bible,1991

[7] Bible,1991

[8] Brown, 1972

[9] Blanshard, 1949

[10] Davis, 1960

[11] Hunt, 1990

[12] Bennett, 1988

[13] Jenkins, 2001

[14] DeMar, 1991

[15] Jenkins, 2004

[16] O’Malley, 2006

[17] Sayers, 1949

[18] Wheat, 2007

[19] Yeffeth, 2005

[20] Thiemann, 1996

[21] Lindsey, 1971

[22] Ford, 2005

[23] Delbanco, 1996

[24] Kenny, 2002

[25] Seltzer, 2006

[26] Levin, 2007

[27] Kirban, 1977

[28] Clark, 1993

[29] Milton, 2000

Free Origins, End of Times, Influences in Modern America Essay Sample

A

  • Subject:

  • University/College: University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Date: 20 March 2017

  • Words:

  • Pages:

Let us write you a custom essay sample on Origins, End of Times, Influences in Modern America

for only $16.38 $13.9/page

your testimonials