Organizations And Behavior Essay
Paper type: Essay
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Management is an important activity in the performance of an organization. Management involves integrated activities which together ensue that there is effective planning, control, and organization of recourses to lead the organization to achieve its goals and objectives. This means that managers need to have a wide range of information pertaining to different departments in the organization.
In this paper we are going to discus different management perspectives through accomplishment of different tasks. The paper will look into organization structure can culture, motivation of employees, working with others in teams and groups, and organization leadership and management.
Comparing organization structure and culture of McDonalds and King George Pizza in Canada
The fast food is one of the most competitive industries in the world. The fast food industry has been recording higher rates of growth in North America including U.S and Canada than any other part of the world. MacDonald is a major player in the North American fast food industry while King George Pizza is one of small fast food establishment in British Columbia.
Although the two companies operate in the same industry, there are a lot of similarity and differences in the organization structure and culture. This is based on the difference that comes as result of difference in their operation. McDonald organization structure is based on the size of its operation which means that the structure has to adapt to the franchise nature of its operation (Haas and Wotruba 2003, p. 92). On the other hand, King Georges Pizza is a local restaurant operating just one branch in British Columbia.
The culture between the two organization is also similar and at the same time with some differences. One of the key successes of MacDonald in the fast food industry has been its strong customer oriented culture. McDonald has adopted a market oriented culture which ensures that the company understands its consumers very well. On the other hand, King George Pizza has also adopted a market oriented culture but its marketing activities have not been well targeted to the consumers like those of McDonalds.
Due to its larger size of operation, MacDonald has adopted a bureaucratic structure that allows for standardization of its operations. The company has adopted tall structure in order to provide for standardization of operations and decision making process. On the hand, King George Pizza has adopted a pre-bureaucratic structure which lacks standardization with management strategies meant to meet the operational needs of the small establishment.
The success of McDonalds has been cemented on it culture and organization structure. Since it was established, the company has taken consumer oriented hospitality culture that keeps customers coming for more. McDonald is one of the companies which use a huge part of their revenues on customer service and advertisement in order to create good relationship with its customers.
Apart from the customer oriented culture, the leadership of the company is democratic and ensures inclusion of employees in the decision making process. The company takes its employees as the most important capital asset for its growth. Therefore McDonald employees are well motivated. The structure of the organization has ensured standardized operations in all its establishments. Although there is management control from the head office, the franchises are given freedom in decision making process to make decisions which fits their operation (Haas and Wotruba 2003, p. 92).
On the other hand, the King George Pizza has adopted an organization culture and structure that fits its operation. Like MacDonald, the company has a strong consumer oriented culture and although it does not have a customer service department, the employees have been well trained on customer service. This has ensured the continued flow of customer to the small establishment in a competitive fast food market. At the same time, the company has adopted the right structure for its small operations. This structure ensures that there is strong control of the operation of the establishment by the management.
Task 2 – Approaches to Management and Leadership
- Management approaches and how they can be implemented
Management is one of the most important factions in the organization. Management involves playing key roles of planning and organizing the resources for the organization to lead it to achieve the set goals. Research has documented a correlation between the effectiveness of the management and the overall performance of the organization.
There are different approaches to management depending on the kind of organization that one is dealing with (Haas and Wotruba 2003, p. 92). One of the most common approaches to management is the project management. This approach ahs been used for decades although it has been undergoing several changes in the recent past. Under this approach, the management takes the organization as a project that has specific goals and objectives to achieve.
Therefore the guiding principle in the management is the requirements of the project and the fulfillment of the mission needs of the organization. This approach therefore assumes that the organization runs in cycles like a project and in each cycle, there are specific objectives that have to be leading the achievement of the overall goal. However, this approach is more focused on the technical mission or the technical aspects of the projection and various plans of action and milestones to be achieved are the guiding pillars for the organization.
Under this approach, the management takes into consideration activities like team building, budgeting, tracking the tasks as assigned to different individuals in the organization, reviewing individual performance, and many others. The success of the project or the organization is based on the way it meets its deliverables on the stipulated time and the set budget. This means that this approach is a bit rigid and set to details. To implement this approach, the management has to understand the goals and objectives of the organization and then formulate the necessary plan that will lead the organization to achieve the set goals and objectives.
Another common management approach is the Balanced score card approach. This is a strategic planning and management system which is widely used in business, government, non-profit organization, and in other organizations with an aim of aligning the acclivities of the business with the vision and the overall growth strategy. This approach is also aimed at improving the internal and external communications and toe monitor the progress in the performance of the organization in light of the set goals.
This management approach is also focused on the drivers for the future growth and performance of the organization. To achieve this, the management prioritizes the projects or initiatives which are likely to assist the organization to achieve these goals. In order to implement this approach, the management has to view organization from four different perspectives including the learning and growth perspective, the business process perspective, the customer perspective, and financial perspective (Haas and Wotruba 2003, p. 92).
- Operational change
As the U.S economy recede, most companies have been forced to undergo operations changes which are meant to reduce the cost of operation to align with the changing economic condition. The U.S Automotive industry which is on its knees due to threats of bankruptcy has seen a number of players in the industry under various operational changes in order to reduce the cost of operation.
With the large burden of meeting the high labor cost, General Motors is one of the companies which as restructured its operation in a number of ways in order to cut its cost. Although the changes have emanated from the economical factors which may be beyond the control of the company, it has result to massive layoff and closing down of its plants in order to reduce the cost of operation.
However, this has not gone well with UAW which is the trade union representing automotive workers in the US. The issues for confrontation has been the agreement that were made earlier between the company and the worker and even in the current financial crisis, the UAW has refused to let the deal go. Apparently the company could have retained some of the labor force and lowered the rate of pay per hour.
At this time we can say the company is in a crisis. Managing change during a crisis is one of the most difficult tasks for any organization. At the time of crisis the organization needs to have a strong leadership style that does not compromise on the need to bring the organization back to its feet. Therefore authoritative leadership should be used to manage the current restructuring taking place in Ford General Motors. Authoritative leadership would minimize the number of time the management ha s to engage with the employees and the unions since the union has failed to recognize the current financial situation of the company.
Task 3 – Motivational Theories
In the 20th century management, the organizational assets were the most important capital for an organization. However, this has drastically changed in the 21st century and employees have become the most important capital for any organization. A well motivated workforce can help an organization to have a competitive edge in the market which other organizations may find difficult to replicate. One of the most important factors in human resource management is to ensure the overall satisfaction of the employees. The main duty of human resource management is to ensure that employees are represented in the management and their affairs are taken care of.
Motivation of the employees is one of the human resource practices that have been shown to increase employee satisfaction and therefore low rate of employee turnover and higher retention. Different organizations have taken different approaches to employee motivation (Weightman 2008, p. 45). Research has documented that despite the varied methods of employees motivation, monetary incentives remains the most effective. Employee motivation can be described using behavioral and social approach.
According to the behavioral approach, the management needs to have a clear understanding of the employees including the incentives and rewards that are used to motivate employees in the company. In this case the managers have a duty of identifying the specific behavior that need to be reinforced in employees. These may include outstanding performance of the employee, punctuality, neatness, accuracy in completion of tasks and others. Any employee who shows improvements in these behaviors need to be rewarded to reinforce the development of those positive behaviors.
On the other hand, social approaches include the integration of the cognitive and the behavioral aspects. This theory view motivation as a factor produced by two forces including the expectation of the individual to succeed at work and the need to gain vicarious experience. Once the management recognizes the individual expectations, then they should provide the approach environment that will help the individual employee to achieve these.
According the Maslow hierarchy of needs, we have different needs in our life that has to be fulfilled. The Maslow hierarchy therefore assumes that there are those basic needs that have to be met for the employees to the motivated. The Maslow hierarchy of needs can be used to categorize how employees have different needs that have to be met for them to be motivated (Weightman 2008, p. 45). . The Maslow hierarchy theory starts with the basic needs up to social need. At the bottom there is physiological needs, safety, social, esteem, and self actualization a the top
This means that it is important to recognize the specific needs of the employee that has to be met first according their hierarchy of needs. According to this theory, there are some basic needs that have to be met and in our life, we struggle to meet these needs. This means that our quest in life is to climb up the Maslow hierarchy to meet these needs. Therefore if such needs are not satisfied, then individual motivation will arise from to satisfy them. In line with fulfillment of these needs, a business therefore needs to offer different incentives to the workers in order to fulfill the different need as they progress up the ladder.
Another theory of motivation is the two factor theory of Hertzberg. Also known as hygiene theory, it emphasizes more on the factors in the working environment which causes satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The following table lists the top six factors which cause dissatisfaction and the top six factors causing satisfaction.
|Factors leading to dissatisfaction||Leading to satisfaction|
|Relationship with the boss||Work itself|
|Relationship with peers||Growth|
Like Maslow, Hertzberg reasoned that there are different individual needs which can be satisfied by money while there are others which cannot be satisfied by money. He argued that physiological needs or basic needs should be satisfied first while the other physiological needs should be satisfied later (Weightman 2008, p. 45). .
The implications of Hertzberg theory assert that the management should not only meet the hygiene factor to avoid the dissatisfaction of employees but they must also provide other factors which intrinsic to work in order to have satisfied employees. For example IBM, which is one of the most prosperous ICT companies in the world, has taken various strategies including flexible working schedules, pay per performance, and others in order to motivate their employees. The company takes an order from a client and allocates it to the worker who then works closely with the client to ensure that they meet all the technological challenges given by the client.
Task 4 – Working with others, teamwork, groups and group dynamics
- Difference between teams and groups
In many instances, we tend to use the work group and team interchangeably. However there are many differences between a tem and a group in the real application of the two. In management we usually stress the importance of team building and not group building. This is because the strength of a team depends on the common purpose and the connectivity of the individual members. On the other hand, the strength of a group come the volume or the willingness to carry out the command given by the leader.
In real application, it is very easy to form a group rather than a team. A group can be formed by individuals of different types and background but eventually it will be very difficult to achieve the commonality between the group members. It is very difficult to build consensus in a group for a leader that it is in a team. Unlike a group which is simple to form, a team is quite difficult to form.
The members of a team are not selected on the ground of commonality but on the ground of compatibility in different complementary skills. For example a business team can be made up of an accountant, a salesman, secretary, and others. Every member plays a different role but which are integrated to achieve a common goal. Unlike in a group, there is no room for conflicts in a team.
The role of teams in a small and a big organization differs in some aspects although all the teams have the same role of achieving a set goal. However, teams in a small organization may be easier to form and evaluate and their process of work may be simpler due to the size of their operation. On the other hand, teams in a larger organization may take time to form since all members have to be consulted. Their process of work may be a bit difficult since they have a large operation to cover.
- Application of Tuckman and Jensen team development model
Tuckman and Jensen present us with four stages which define group development. Although the process can be subconscious, the four stages present the process which all groups go through in their formation.
The first stage is the forming stage in which the individual behavior is defined by the desire to be accepted by other members of the team (McGrath and Tschan 2004, p. 61). At this stage, serious issues, feelings, controversy, or conflict are usually avoided. The individuals get more focused on adapting to their roles and gather information about others.
The next stage is storming stage in which the group remains good to the other only when important issues are addressed. There are minor confrontations which are dealt with or are ignored. These conflicts are related to work or relationship in the group. The next stage is the norming stage in which the rules of engagement for the group member are established. At this stage, members understands the other well and the experience the efforts and experience of the other. However, individuals at this stage are resistance to change especially from outside for fear of group break up (McGrath and Tschan 2004, p. 61).
The last stage is the performing stage which not many groups usually reach this stage. This stage is characterized by interdependence and flexibility and every group member understand their role and trust each other. The group identity, loyalty and the performance are high as members become task oriented.
- How communication methods can affect team performance in a large multi national organization.
Communication is one of the most important factors for optimum performance of an organization. The communication process helps the organizations to pass important operation details from one department to the other. The communication structure in an organization is also very important since determines the flow of information from the management to the employees. The communication structure in an organization should ensure the smooth flow of information between the dyad in the work place. However, communication methods can affect team performance in multinational organizations.
In most multinational organizations, the teams may be allocated to a certain function far away from the managements of the organization. This means that the team may be faced with the difficulty of enquiring important details regarding their duties from the management. At the same time, there is a high likelihood that the team will be made up of individuals using different languages. This means that the team will require an interpreter for it to function effectively (McGrath and Tschan 2004, p. 61). While forming teams for multinational organizations, language barrier should be one of the most important factors to consider.
Haas, R.W. & Wotruba, T.R 2003, Management: Concepts, Practice and Cases, Texas: Business Publications, Inc
McGrath, J. E., & Tschan, F 2004, Temporal matters in social psychology: Examining the role of time in the lives of groups and individuals. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
Weightman, J 2008, The Employee Motivation Audit, Cambridge Strategy Publications