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Open Database Connectivity Java Database Connectivity Computer Science Essay

Open Database Connectivity and Java Database Connectivity are fundamentally a connexion from client or application running on the computing machine to the waiter or database. The map of connexion is to direct and have petition bid that written in Structured Query Language ( SQL ) . By and large, ODBC is a portion of operating system stand foring the interface or called Application Programming Interface ( API ) which display on the computing machine screen for communicating intent with the Database Management Server ( DBMS ) besides called a waiter.

Applications that running on several computing machines can pass on with a individual database after lading a peculiar driver. Further item will be explained.

In this engineering epoch, there are Numberss of database entree middleware which become a connexion between applications on client side and database waiter. There are many types of connexion ; ODBC, JDBC and connexion twine. The connexion is used for directing petition informations from API to the database waiter and besides having informations which have been requested by the client and translate to the linguistic communication that can be understand utilizing SQL bid.

The thought of implanting SQL codification into package to let it to pass on with databases was introduced in 1980s. Databases did non supply internal storage for SQL questions that could be invoked by external plans. Embedded SQL was introduced as database specific extension to high-ranking linguistic communications like C/C++ in order to let plans to question and pull strings the content of databases. Although this method has been used for some clip, it creates many jobs with type checking that leads to inefficient and decelerate development of database scheme and package that uses the databases.

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Open Database Connectivity ( ODBC )

During 1992, with the thought to enrich the Call Level Interface ( CLI ) , Microsoft has formed a method of communicating to client/server database known as ODBC. As portion of Microsoft ‘s Windows Open Systems Architecture ( WOSA ) , ODBC supplies a series of Application Program Interface ( APIs ) to simplify and besides give criterions for assorted programming actions. In add-on, a general set of database-access services can be given by the Windows platform with the ODBC theoretical account. Once an entity crates an OBDC driver, it can be any type of informations beginnings such as SQL and Oracle waiter. Therefore, for both Windows and Macintosh informations entree application, ODBC should quickly emerge as an of import industry criterion.


Furthermore, ODBC executions run on many runing systems, includingA Microsoft Windows, A Unix, A Linux, A OS/2, A OS/400, A IBM i5/OS, andA Mac OS X. Hundreds of ODBC drivers exist, including drivers for enterpriseA DBMSA such asA Oracle, A DB2, A Microsoft SQL Server, A Sybase, A Pervasive SQL, A IBM Lotus Domino, A MySQL, A PostgreSQL, A OpenLink Virtuoso, and desktop database merchandises such asA Microsoft Access.

The being of ODBC alleviates every database and application developers in larning the use of informations entree interface. With ODBC, application developers can let an application to at the same time entree, observation, and adjust informations from multiple, diverse databases.

ODBC is a specification which application and database developers inscribe as either “ ODBC Client ” or “ ODBC Driver ” . For the client side or “ front-end ” there is a data entree interface that appears on desktop screen, the illustration figure of interface will be shown. The driver is loaded on the “ waiter ” Database Management System ( DBMS ) and the “ client ” , nevertheless, there is a difference in term of interface and processing method for the front-end computing machine. A figure of users can entree informations that have been stored on a computing machine which applied DBMS. The terminal user should be satisfied of the public presentation which is faster because the driver is non installed on the computing machine and no infinite is required. Furthermore, the terminal user ‘s computing machine will procure from any virus onslaught which can be prevented by cut downing unneeded installing.


Harmonizing to ( Harvey, P. 1999 ) , portable informations entree codification and dynamic informations binding are the two chief advantages of coding an application with the ODBC API.

Portable Data Access Code

The ODBC API ; besides known as CLI ( command-interface ) , is available on all major platforms. It is besides working as outlined by X/Open and the ISO. Microsoft platforms involve legion sweetenings to this specification. Microsoft 3.51 is the recent version. The idea is that by utilizing the ODBC API of a coder is apt to obtain informations entree codification which is convenient to other platforms. This thought can be visualize from associating to a different ODBC driver to moved over to a heavy SQL waiter so that information for an accounting plan application can be inhabit on a light SQL waiter during development. In return, platform and informations beginning portability were carried by ODBC

Dynamic Binding

User or the system decision maker is enabling by the dynamic binding to merely configure an application to entree any ODBC-A compliant informations beginning. Therefore, it becomes the lone biggest advantage of coding an application with the ODBC API and obtaining such an application. The terminal user can take a information beginning, e.g. , an SQL waiter, which enable by the dynamic binding to use it to all informations applications. Therefore, no recompiled or recorded of the applications should be done for the new mark informations beginning. This can be accomplished when the IDBC calls base on ballss by the ODBC Driver Manager to the user ‘s ODBC driver without require to re-link the codification. Consequently, ODBC allow the users to make up one’s mind a topographic point to hive away the informations.

Examples of ODBC in Use

By utilizing the Oracle ODBC Driver and ships with Access 1.1 to entree front-end accessing informations from on Oracle back-end.

Ocular Basic front-end accessing informations from a dBase back-end utilizing one portion of the MS ODBC Database Drivers Pack, the dBase ODBC Driver.

To entree informations from an AS/400 utilizing the AS/400 ODBC Driver available from Rochester Software for C application written utilizing C+ODBC SDK+Win SDK.

Many users can portion a database is really a methodological analysis of sharing files. Users should do certain all the appliers that use database are accessible to the database files so they are allow for sharing a database. Besides, the appliers were non a spot can open the database in “ sole “ manner. Other applier will be prevented from utilizing the database if sole manner is use by the user to open a database.

Users have to put in the appropriate ODBC driver for the database in their system so that they can entree an ODBC database. This driver should be installed by utilizing the ODBC Manager application which located at Windows Control Panel.

ODBC use a Data Source Name ( DSN ) to allow user to associate a database with a driver. On the other manus, ODBC Administration which is located at the Control Panel is used to configure the DSN a alone name so link it to both database and a driver.

User will stipulate which DSN to be work with one time a connexion unfastened to ODBC. Therefore, all the bantam inside informations involved in opening database will be taken attention by ODBC.

User should configure the ODBC DSNs, the ODBC drivers, and the constellation values used in ODBC.INI before accessing the ODBC database. Besides that, users have to acknowledge foremost the construction of an ODBC driver and the ODBC API with some of the ODBC-related nomenclature.

The application should bespeak a connexion from the ODBC Driver Administrator in order to stipulate the desired informations sourced. This has to be done so that any application can obtain informations in a database and set up a connexion to that database via matching ODBC driver.

First, hunt on ODBC and travel for the subject “ Using Data Source ” .This measure should be done by utilizing Help because the Control Panel of Windows 2000 does non include the arrow to the “ ODBC Data Source ” Second, take the Add button to include a new information beginning. And eventually to finish this procedure, select the appropriate driver to utilize for the database so click the Finish button.

Java Database Connectivity ( JDBC )

JDBC known as a scheduling model for Java developers composing plans which entree information kept from database, spreadsheets, and level files. User usually used JDBC to link a plan to a “ behind the scenes ” database. However, the connexion depends of what database direction package is used to command the database. A connexion of reassigning informations signifier client to database and frailty versa is one of the similar function of ODBC and JDBC. In add-on, to link the database both informations entree middleware were irrespective on X/Open criterion. Conversely, the linguistic communication used of applications running on the client side distinguishable both ODBC and JDBC. JDBC can be merely usage on the applications that written in Java linguistic communication or codification. ( Henry, K. 2001 ) .

Basically, ODBC and JDBC have similar thought of map which becomes a connexion or medium of reassigning informations signifier client to database and frailty versa. The X/Open criterion for database connectivity influence when these two informations entree middleware. The difference of both ODBC and JDBC is the linguistic communication use of applications running on the client side. JDBC is merely focused on the applications that written in Java codification or linguistic communication.


Harmonizing to ( Konchady, 1998 ) , two sort of architectures can be use when communicate the database. First, the straight communicating between JDBC driver and database. Once the driver has connected to database, the SQL statements are the bids on representative of the Java plan. The driver director will have back the result from the response of the database and eventually to the needed bids of the application.

Second, communicating between the ODBC driver and JDBC driver through a “ span ” . A peculiar JDBC driver can match with legion ODBC drivers. ODBC drivers perform SQL bids for exact databases to avoid complication of informations retrieval.

Database Communication Architecture

On top of that, the making of JDBC/ODBC Bridge is to derive benefit of the big sum of ODBC-enabled informations beginnings. The span executing to converts JDBC calls to ODBC call and it become as the backend database by go throughing the born-again calls to the appropriate driver. In return, this strategy is advantage because informations can be entree from multiple sellers. Nevertheless, due to the added overhead the public presentation of a JDBC/ODCB span is slower if comparison to a JDBC driver entirely. Therefore, A JDBC must be translated to ODBC to a native API to make a database call.

Accessing a Database from an Applet

By utilizing a JDBC driver without a span it will required with lesser operations. First, MySQL database is used with Gwe JDBC driver and from the Gwe host site, JDBC driver categories has to be download. After that, JDBC call will be base on ballss by the applet logis to a driver director which on the other custodies will go through the call to a JDBC driverNext, JDBC driver will enable a TCP/IP connexion with the MySql database waiter. Then, informations is relocating back and Forth through the connexion. Last the connexion will automatically shut when the processing of the database has completed.

The JDBCAPI can be applied to stand-alone applications and applets. However, the connexions from the same waiter where the applet was downloaded merely can be accepted due to the common applets limitation. Therefore, to route the database traffic the web waiter should first run a proxy service in the event where the web waiter and database waiter are from the different machine. On top of that, local information and remote waiters are able to entree by stand-alone applications.

JavaA applets and plans can work as the drivers ‘ API to associate to databases, depository and convey back database constituent every bit good as achieve saved methods. Therefore, creative activity JDBC a Java-enabled transmittal machinery for SQL. DriverA type 1 is supplying JDBC connectivity via ODBC drivers through a JDBC-ODBC span. Each client device that utilizes a JDBC-ODBC span must be loaded by database-specific client codification and ODBC plan codification. Sun clarified driver type 1 for expedience ‘s intent up to the clip of package sellers had invented the other three types of drivers. The decision makers are required to put in ODBC drivers on the client devices and configure it.

DriverA type 2 includes of an interface, formulated to some extent in Java, among the vendor-specific database entree middleware such as Oracle SQL*Net or Sybase Open Client, and Java plans. JDBC driver type 2 is typically a consecutive nexus the proprietary API of to the database merchandises ; Oracle OCI. It does n’t necessitate theA being of ODBC. It does, nevertheless, require the decision makers to configure the database seller ‘s proprietary database entree middleware by put ining it foremost.

DriverA type 3 is working as a calls transcriber into a database-independent web protocol from JDBC at the client side. Furthermore, there is a separate driver portion at the waiter which translates the database-independent JDBC demands into database-specific, local calls. Type 3 drivers are in this manner able to associate Java-based clients to a separate server-side driver that has been developed from other types of databases. Type 3 drivers desire cardinal web protocol, TCP/IP for case at the client side, nevertheless they do non trust on theA being of ODBC or vendor-specific middleware. Nevertheless type 3 drivers have to be complex plenty to cover with a multiplicity of networking conditions, affecting firewalls. Furthermore, Java plan using a type 3 driver can pretension to be most general, on running any Java-enabled platform from a affiliated database waiter with a TCP/IP. Among its other benefits, a type 3 driver is well-matched for map over the Internet.

DriverA type 4 is a simple Java driver which becomes a petition convertor into a database seller ‘s peculiar web protocol from JDBC. Vendor ‘s database merchandise attacks which consume by a Java attacks besides have mandate. Type 4 drivers are better matched for intranet map than Internet map. Since it relies on database entree protocols from database sellers ‘ proprietorship, a type 4 driver is further clearly possible to travel towards from a database seller.

The browser will expose on the screen one time the application is running.

A Data Manipulation window and a Database Metadata window will be unfastened once the constitution of the database to the connexion. The Database Metadata window has two frames and its map by immediately browse the database metadata every bit good as the current database. Thus the properties of the table names from presently opened database. On the other manus, the property names and types will be show in the heading by the bottom frame one time a tabular array name is selected.

The illustrations of SQL statement are SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE. The user can come in any of these statements on the text window provided.

JDBC Performance

AA simple every bit good as practical linguistic communication, Java tenders a figure of advantages: portability, fewer likelinesss of coder inaccuracies, reusability of entities and combination with intranet/Internet engineerings. Nevertheless, Java is an taken linguistic communication, sense that you run a computing machine plan such as browser which turn executes the recommendations within a Java plan. Sing that Java is interpreted, it sometimes serves public presentation incommodiousnesss to application conceivers. JDBC drivers written in simple Java, or partially in Java, sometimes map slower than expected. To calculate out the incommodiousness, there will productions of Java run-time optimisations, JIT ( Just-In-Time ) compilers, and even Java-specific CPU french friess. Java ‘s public presentation will acquire better over continuance, and the bing province of affairs is often more than sufficient for informations entry. Even so, JDBC public presentation can be a concern for drivers written in Java.


There are 3 sort of faculties which viz. JDBC driver, a category file which is known as the Java run-time environment and the driver director. The ODBC driver will go a different bed if the JDBC-ODBC Bridge was preferred by the users. Longer low-level formatting continuance occupied from the excess beds of codification as it suggest extra processing. Therefore, users are recommended to develop the Web server computing machine every bit good a database waiter. Furthermore, this attack allow users to link an contraption heterosexual to the database through a JDBC driver which written in pure Java. On the other manus, users can happen a flexibleness in platform picks by utilizing a separate database waiter computing machine when configure the Web waiter with a placeholder.


DatabaseA and driver sellers require to execute some sweetenings in JDBC before it turns out to be truly functional. The first sweetening is to relieve users in recovering informations harmonizing to sequence of rows in a tabular array. The bing pointer is non efficaciously working because it can non travel rearward. Hence, the user can non capture the old informations ; nevertheless, they can capture the current informations that being saved.

JDBCA drivers besides require being able to cover with the interrupting block of records individually and for this affair, it involves multiple rows returned in a individual answer message. Normally, there are a figure of rows for a question to acquire a consequence and by directing every row at one clip and non at the same time is clip devouring. An application will have a individual answer which consists multiple of rows from database and one time the answer has been deblocked, the following row will be deliver by JDBC driver.


This article has covered ODBC and JDBC specifically, in term of the definitions that have been cited from a figure of journal articles, the history which explained when and why this connectivity being invented. In add-on, the stairss in using ODBC and JDBC for the novices besides shown diagrammatically to relieve readers for their apprehension. There are many proficient footings used for reader ‘s geographic expedition of this topic such as name of the Operating System ( OS ) , database, waiter, package and linguistic communications. Furthermore, this article contains the broader information sing to ODBC and JDBC and non merely concentrating on specific portion.

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Open Database Connectivity Java Database Connectivity Computer Science Essay. (2020, Jun 02). Retrieved from

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