On Theory of Brief History of Translation
On Theory of Brief History of Translation
In general, since mankind started translation activities, the study of translation has never ceased. Discussions about translation have become so frequent that various translation theories have been formed gradually in Chinese. In this paper, Habermas’s theory of communicative action reinterpreting the concept of the understanding of translation studies, and Translation to indicate this special form of cross-cultural communication in how to effectively interpret metaphor. Keywords: theory of communicative action; metaphor comprehension; translation
Translation is a metaphor of language as the carrier of the cross-cultural communication activities, but also a language that will carry the message to another language to the inter subjectivity of communicative action. Inter subjectivity of communicative action for the research, after Germany modern philosopher Habermas’s “theory of communicative action” (Theory of Communication Action) opened the door for people new window. The theory is swelling in different philosophical ideas and views to choose based on the creation of a complex, multifaceted “rational alliance system”, it “understood” as the core language, based on critical theory of the financial community, general pragmatics, social evolution theory as a unified framework.
2. Under the theory of communicative action the concept of translation studies to understand
2.1 Translation studies in the new way – AC Zhu act theory. Translation Studies from the traditional structural linguistics semantic stage to stage, the development of transmission 90 to the 20th century deconstruction of the stage, after a lengthy process. Semantic translation of the traditional paradigm by the impact of the classical theory of knowledge, that “man is the soul,” the understanding of the object is totally dependent on the translator’s subjective feelings, emphasizing the translator’s understanding and inspiration, emphasis on “spirit” and “Transformation”, had gained the so-called flash in the pan. Because it is too much emphasis on the translator’s initiative to make this cross-cultural communication activities translate into a mystical practice.
80 years of the 20th century, structural linguistics in China set off a new upsurge in Translation Studies. People started to pay attention the text, try to use linguistic analysis methods instead of intuitive feeling that in the complicated hidden behind the words of a universal and regularities, as long as it can control the expression of all, making the translation into a simple mechanical operation, that is, the semantics of a target language are stored in the source language and regulations put a rule in the semantic content of thought into the preparation of.
Obviously, such a tool and went to the other extreme – too much emphasis on language as the object of the role of law, then followed by the fierce criticism of the ideological trend. Deconstruction gives people a new way of thinking. It broke structure, deconstruction of the system so that the provisions of one dollar to diversify the situation, the logical name translation from the language of Sri Lanka fetters doctrine, but still it will be translated once again into the irrational, too much publicity consciousness, so that interpretation becomes an infinite delay activity, the understanding and exchanges between people seems to have become impossible.
How to overcome this ideology of intolerance, effective language as medium of intercultural communication activities? I believe that the use of Habermas’s theory of communicative action, for the translation of research to find a new way of reason.
2.2 Translation understands the concept of re-interpretation. A French translator said: “The translation is to understand and make people understand.” Building understanding is the cornerstone of translation is the first step in the process of translation, not a good understanding of the translation step. When we think the theory of communicative action has opened a new translation of the windows, it is necessary to understand the concept of re-interpretation.
Habermas believes that the language as a medium of social interaction, verbal communication to understand each other, or far from effective communication. Communicative action in the language, that language, the analysis can be regulated. Each speech acts and statements have the effect the dual structure. Purposes of section as the main statement, in the communication layer between the main body; and vice statement as part of statement, in the main contents of the table between the layers. Part of the implementation of speech acts in a decisive role, because it limits the relationship between language and the listener, but also the meaning of the Statute of the contents of the statement. The two structures in the speech act are interdependent.
Sometimes words that are a part of which may be stressed, but it does not mean denying other part, but it only temporarily relegated to a secondary position. For example, “my phone battery died,” the phrase, seemed to be merely stating the fact that mobile phone battery is dead, but in fact it implies a variety of behavioral significance; ① because the battery died, so I just did not pick up the phone; ② I must go recharge; ③ I will not carry a cell phone and with PHS, the PHS something please call me. This is the hidden part of the implementation of, According to the specific situation; it would serve the purposes of this or that effect.
Searle that “the idea of the original speaker, or intrinsic intentionality is converted to words, statements, signs, symbols, etc., these words, statements, signs, symbols meaningful to speak out if they have a From the speaker’s thoughts in the derived intentionality. They not only have the traditional linguistic sense, but also with the intention of the speaker’s meaning.
“This is undoubtedly the words of Habermas and similar to the dual structure theory. Accordingly on the significance of understanding is also necessary to double the corresponding division. Understand a word should be divided into two to look at the presentation layer is the known what on the issue, and in the communication layer is the know-how of the problem. know -what is the statement that those who understand how to reach such a clear knowledge and understanding that it can acquire the knowledge; from the perspective of those who understand, to ask him to be able to understand semantics, syntax, rules, line up the “words, statements, mark the symbol “what constitutes the meaning. know how is the statement that those who have the ability to construct or implement the ability of this speech act is an implicit awareness of the rules; from the perspective of those who understand, to ask him who can understand the speech of this implicit awareness of the rules.
In this dual understanding, understanding of the content of verbal expression is an understanding (know-what), but to those who truly grasp the inner speech must enter double intentionality level understanding (know-how), that is part of the implementation of the understanding. Therefore, understanding can not be stuck in the form of a priori judgments must be reached in the communication process. to understand the goal is to guide a recognition that “the sharing of knowledge, trust each other, the two international interdependence consistent with the subjective. “It not only includes the traditional understanding of linguistic expressions, but also” in connection with each other that the normative discourse related to the correctness of the background, and between the two main some kind of coordination “, and” the two participants in the process of communication is something the world to reach understanding, and the intention to make himself understood each other. “
Habermas’s theory of communicative action on the construction of translation studies methodology has the macro guidance of translation practice is also instructive significance? View of the Newmark said, “metaphor translation is a microcosm of all the language translation, because translation to the translation of metaphor methods were showing a wide range of choices: either transfer its meaning, or reshape its image, or a modification of their, or their meaning and image of the perfect combination. “The following instructions will use the metaphor theory of communicative action in cross-cultural communication The Interpretation of.
Metaphor is a phenomenon of language use in the “Dictionary not found in metaphor.” Metaphor from the modern point of view of science should be in the form of metaphor with the exception, belong to different categories in the semantics, logic dislocation, resulting in a semantic conflict, and when the listeners have responded to the conflict, it generates a metaphorical sense, that is a metaphor to understand the words. For the metaphor of the operating mechanism, it was actually made such a description: “Metaphor involves two different areas (areas) concept; the production of metaphorical meaning is the result of the interaction between the two concepts.
This interaction by mapping the way in the mapping process, belonging to a related concept and structure of the field was transferred to another area, the final after the formation of a new synthesis of conceptual structure, that is, metaphorically. And this mapping and integration process is based on two areas of similarity in some respects. “This is no doubt that the understanding of the need to double by metaphor.
The process of understanding metaphors consist of two parts: the identification and metaphorical meaning metaphors inference. In fact this is a secondary level of understanding into the process of understanding. Give an example of people often referred to “The tongue is a fire “, from the presentation layer of understanding (an understanding),” tongue “by the American Heritage Dictionary defines this way:” the fleshy, movable, muscular organ, attached in most vertebrates to the floor of the mouth, that is principal organ of taste, an aid in chewing, and swallowing, and, in human beings,, important organ of speech “.
We can say that the tongue is an important organ as the human body, the first and most vertebrates have the same taste and chew and auxiliary swallowing function, in addition to, or who have speech capabilities important language organ. to the basic meaning of the center, tongue behind the formation of the word meaning a large collection: it can mean something shaped like a tongue, such as tongue of flame (flame), guiding tongue (rail-oriented switch rail), switch tong (switch to copper), can also refer to human speech acts and speech capabilities, for example, hold one’s tongue (keep silent), lose one’s tongue (lose the capacity to speak, as from shock).
The other key words in the speech act of fire, in the American Heritage Dictionary can be found in the following definition; “a rapid, persistent chemical change that releases heat and light and is accompanied not flame”. the same , the meaning behind it can be found in the collection, such as, cooking fire (cooking fire), forest fire (forest fire), wild fire (wildfires), the fire of cannon fire), and other specific forms of the fire. You can also find other meaning, such as the boy is full of fire (which decided the boy is very warm and excited), He was on fire for mismanagement (because of poor management and blamed).
When the tongue and the fire both carry the meaning of their huge collection of words is embedded in the basic language of A is B frame (sentence) to go when the logical relationship between the two on the adoption of “is’, to interact.” Is “used to denote a equivalents. it literally, or change a point of view, the presentation layer from the listener’s understanding of the term should be reasoning as follows:” the tongue is a fire “.” is “meaning that the two sets is in some ways equivalent.
However, we are both from the above understanding of the meaning of the word of view, they clearly belong to two different categories, among them with a ‘`is” connected, the the equivalent of conventional logic does not work, so from the presentation layer, we can identify this is a metaphor, thus completing the first part of understanding metaphors. When the listener is clear that to use metaphorical language behavior, the expressed will of the true meaning of metaphors to infer, that understanding will enter the second stage of course, understand the purposes of this part of speech acts, understanding “the original speaker’s thoughts, or inner intention.”
Can be assumed that if “The tongue is a fire” is said to give an artist is accused by the media to listen to, then the speaker or may contain a sympathetic glance report of intention. Artists are always much media attention, due to For various reasons, may be one-sided media, the exaggerated reports of certain facts, and spread such a report will be turned into a stumbling news and rumors, they will more or less to the artist himself or his cause to bring a number of trouble.
The context is the equivalent of the tongue and the fire provides a logical possibility: the tongue – the language of human organs – the words of the act – media coverage – people reported adverse reactions (Wei news and rumors) – to the artists themselves or their cause trouble (damage to reputation or hinder the cause of development), the fire – will shine the chemical substances – excessive light and heat of fire, destroying things, or even result in death, so that both the destruction of the found a similar function, logical reasoning tenable. “The tongue is a fire” means a variety of popular artists and no shortage of opinions and statements in the news or rumors coffee, they may attack their personality, or even because of their presence, the company lifted the employment relationship, or no one would dare ask this artistes. So we have reason to infer that the speaker is the issue of Renyankewei sigh, or cautioned entertainers say and pay attention to their own to avoid capture by the media hype after which her career. At this point, the listener to complete the original speech act of an effective understanding, guiding the listener and the speaker of some sort of recognition.
Complete understanding of metaphor, must be made through an understanding (understanding of the content of verbal expression) to reach two to understand (the intrinsic intentionality of the speech understanding of those). In the same language system is the case, between systems in different languages should be so, because only then can an effective cross-cultural exchanges. How should we operate on the self-evident metaphor translation, or the preservation of the source language metaphor, or metaphor replaces the target language, or to have the target language dominance feasibility, as long as it helps the reader to complete the intention of listening comprehension.
3.1 Preservation of the source language metaphor. When the Metaphor and figurative language and translation in the source completely or substantially the same language, the metaphor for the body of the source language, target language readers will have to listen to listen to readers of the source language similar to the psychological Lenovo, and complete understanding of similar intent, target language are advised to preserve the source language metaphor. such as: Links to Research (1) He is the only foxes. English fox, fox and Chinese refer to the same animal, when it was used as that person when they contain “cunning” in Italy, even listen to the reader and writer, said in a different language systems and cultural background, it can effectively understand the implementation of the partial speech act: be careful of this man, he is cunning. Another example: (2) think tank think tank
“Think tank” in the Chinese culture does not exist in, but the “library” in Chinese culture, store things in the middle, so even though the people in Chinese culture has not been recognized with the “library” to describe the characteristics of “thought “The collection, but this” library “of knowledge to guide on English culture” think tank ‘, the identity, so “library” This Vehicle can save down. After all, this cross-cultural communication, we can not underestimate the listen to the reader’s understanding, not to deprive them of their understanding of rights.
In the translation process, in order to achieve the purpose of cross-cultural communication, and sometimes need to work to preserve the source language metaphor, that metaphor at the same time preserve the source language to make the appropriate explanation. Such as: (3) What will it be when the increase of yearly production is brought to a complete stop? Here is the vulnerable place, the heel of Achilles, for capitalistic production. (Friedrich Engels, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844) If the complete cessation of growth in annual production, what the situation is going to do? Like Achilles heel, as this will be the Achilles heel of capitalist production.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 20 September 2016
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