Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsession compulsive Disorder is an illness or condition characterized by senseless thought and behaviors of distress and not easy to overcome, and are repeated. Obsessions are usually negative behaviors or thought in nature about a certain thing or someone. Compulsions then are meant to cater for the anxiety due to the obsession experienced. For example, due to a conviction that there are bacteria in a dirty can that one touches, he or she may result in excessive or repeated wash of hands. The disorder can be diagnosed either by behavioral or medical treatment.
Causes that have been linked to OCD include neurobiological causes and environmental influences. There has been evidence that there is a linkage of the environmental factors to genetic factor. The good news is that patients with these disorders can be treated. Environmental influences Environmental linkages involve the behaviors that have been observed over a length of time by the individual suffering from the disorder. They can also lead to how the individual reacts when faced by various conditions and practices e. g. religious, causing them to have a ritualistic way of acting or doing things.
Various environmental influences have been linked to this kind of illnesses. Environmental factors found to be having heredity components includes; life of the family, child-parent relations, events happening in life, and divorce. (Purcell et al. 2002; as cited in Grisham R. , Tracy A. , and Perminder S. ,2008). In the analysis of the disorder, it has been shown that prenatal injuries should also be investigated in addition to experiences related to psychosocial nature, toxic pathogens related to the increased OCD rates.
Prolonged labor and edema in pregnancy have been found to be related to this illness in the later life of an individual (Moffit et al. , 2005; as cited in Grisham R. , Tracy A. , and Perminder S. ,2008). (Vasconcelos et al. , 2007; as cited in Grisham R. , Tracy A. , and Perminder S. , 2008) has also found a relationship between streptococcal infection resulting to the abrupt onset of the disorder and symptoms of TS. Stress, events of trauma according to Brown (cited in Grisham R. , Tracy A. , and Perminder S. , 2008) are risk factors as far as this illness is considered.
Again, PTSD features can may be linked or associated with the causes of OCD. Physical and child sexual abuse has also been linked to this illness (Lochner et al. , 2002; cited in Grisham R. , Tracy A. , and Perminder S. , 2008). Presence of traumatic events in life was also linked to the events occurring in OCD severe symptoms. These factors work to influence the brain and generally can be considered to be changing the way of thinking and view of things of an individual, and thus brain linkage with causing the illness can be implicated.
If a child for example was continually raped at childhood, it may cause the child to be obsessed every time he sees a man or a person he suspects in this way, because of the pain and injuries inflicted. Environmental influences have more impacts than the biological and genetics on OCD. Genetic and biological linkages to OCD and their environmental interactions Genetic linkages have been developed with this illness although there is no convincing proves or adequate evidence of genitival influences linkages to the illness. (Kim, 2005 as cited in Grisham R. Tracy A. , and Perminder S. , 2008) found that 5-HTTLPR polymorphism has been found to have relevance with religious-related and somatic obsessions. Certain genetic linkages have been traced with certain behavioral-environmental related conducts of OCD patients. Chromosome 4 sites have been linked to be specific to hoarding (Miguel et al. 2005; as cited in Grisham et al. 2008). Another study discovered hoarding to be highly heritable. Factors related to, religious, aggression somatic and sexual obsessions and the compulsions involved have been found familial.
Early onset of the disorder has been found to be influenced more by heredity than late onset, for example age below 18 years. (see Diniz et al. 2004; Eichstedt et al. 2001; Geller et al. , 1998; Rosario et al. 2005; as cited in Grisham et al. 2008). (Lochner et al. 2005; as cited in Grisham et al. 2008) Genes like COMT, MAO-A, and 5-HT 2A have been linked to sexual dimorphic associations in OCD. Rituals of cleaning, obsessions linked to contaminations and more aggression has been found to occur in women having OCD while in men; sexual, symmetry, exactness and slowness has been identified. Zohar et al. 1992 as cited in Grisham et al. 2008).
In adolescent and young people, OCD symptoms have been found to be more frequent, with the trend reversing in adulthood. (Fireman et al. , 2001, Fontenelle and Hasler, 2008, Heyman et al. 2001, as cited in Yoon-MiHur and Jeong H. , 2008). Treatment of OCD It has been proved that the most effective approach to medication is the psychotherapy which involves retraining the individual with the disorder on cognitive behavior to eliminate the need for the compulsion activities i. e. to eliminate them.
The thoughts of the individual are retrained to respond in a manner to eliminate need for compulsion. An applied criterion called exposure and response prevention involves exposure of the individual to the things they fear like presence of germs and making them counteract the possible behavior like the need to wash hands at all. Afterwards, with dedication and commitment, the overall problems would be eliminated. Hover drug approach which entails usage of paroxetines, fluvoxamines, clomipramine and sertralines antidepressants has been applied.
These however have side effects and safety effects which can raise concerns (Mental Health, 2006). It can be seen that if the disorder has hereditary linkages, it would be hard to deal with or that such said solutions above may not have full good results. In some cases, a pure psychosocial solution may not be very effective especially where the effects are serious. In these a combined approach of clinical and behavioral treatment on the patients can be applied. Neurobiological treatments coupled with the environmental behavioral treatment would also be effective in treating patients with the disorder.
Guidance and counseling may also be necessary for depression cases which may not be self-solving. In order to determine which technique to apply, it would be necessary for one to evaluate and determine the severity of the influence of the disorder. If the disorder is not severe, patients can be made to understand what it really means to have it, its effects and what can be done about it. These can be put on a self dosage where they will administer a dosage to themselves.
Here, only psychosocial treatments would be effective, since the patients can learn to treat themselves and can understand the implications. Patients can be advised on how to retrain their thoughts not to be receptive or ignore the compulsive activities. Patients can also be exposed to the agents causing fear or unusual senseless reactions and be taught on how to respond. For a very severe case of the disorder, patients may be over distressed and may not even understand the need for the cure or they may just not accept that they have the problem.
Here, counseling may be administered together with the clinical approach if possible. It is necessary to note that for such a disorder to end, it is good to have the patients initiate or show positive response to treatment. It would be for them to show the need to change their behaviors, for example. For the people who have been physically abused in their childhood, counseling may be necessary for them to improve their better view of such things.
Stepped-care CBT approach which entails beginning with the cheaper methods of patient treatment, then the least followed by the option which is most to the most expensive if the lesser intrusive one fails can be adopted. Stepped care treatment program entails. A therapist administered treatment may be a final solution. Conclusion OCD may be influenced by environmental, biological and genitival factors. Treatment of patients can be administered depending on severity of the disorder and/ the effect or impact of the previously administered treatment.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 18 October 2016
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