Gorvernment guidelines state that as each baby will have his or hers own individual requirements, it is the best to let the child feed on demand. Newborn babies may take quiet small volumes of infant formula milk to start with, but by the end week of first week of life most babies will require approximately 150 ml-200 ml per kg per day (although this will vary from any to baby) until they are six months old. The ideal food for babies to start with is breast milk and breastfeeding should always be encouraged as during pregnancy the breast produces colostrum, a creamy, yellowish fluid, low in fat and sugar, high in carbohydrates, protein and antibodies which help keep the new born baby healthy.
Colostrum also has higher levels of antibodies that mature milk and plays an important part in protectin the baby from infections and kicks starts the immune system. Hormonal changes in the mothers bloodstream causes the milk to be produced.
Breastfeeding: some advantages of breastfeeding are
Human breast milk provided food constituents in the correct balance for human growth
The milk is sterile and at the correct temperature
There is no need for bottles and sterilising equipments
Breast milk provides the child with maternal antibodies and helps protect the child with maternal antibodies and helps protect the child form infections such as diarrhoea, vomiting, chest or urine infection, eczema and nappy rash
Child is less like to be overweight
Breastfeeding encourages mother-infant bonding
Some babies have an intolerance to protein in cows milk
When bottle feeding a child, formula milk must be used, other milks such as cows milk, goats milk will not satisfy a babies nutritional needs and shouldnt be given to babies under the age of one. Babies digestive sytem is unable to cope with the high protein and salt content of cows milk and may cause an adverse reaction. The first four to six months babies should be given infant formula milk as a substitute to breast milk and then the baby may progress onto follow on milk.
Explain how to plan a weaning programme.
Weaning is the gradual introduction of solid food to the babys diet, giving solids to early places a strain on the babys immature digestive system. The deparnent of health recommends that babies be started on solid food at around six months, around six months milk alone will not satisfy babys increasing nutritional requirements especially for iron. Babies usually start chewing food at around the age of six months, whether they have teeth or not.
Before starting a baby on solid food we must see if these three key signs are there that means that the baby is ready for solid food
The baby can stay in a sitting position and be able to hold the head
Baby can cordinate eyes, hands and mouth ( look, grab and feed)
Baby can swallow the food.
Babies that are born prematurely may not be ready by the age of six months and they will be need to be assess individually before start on solids.
Every baby is different, some enjoy trying new taste and textures resulting in moving through weaning quickly and easily, other babies may need some more time to get used to new foods.
There are three stages of weaning
Stage 1 (around six months)
During stage one you can give pureed vegetables, pureed fruits, baby rice and pureed lentils, during this stage milk continues to be the most important food, stage one is the start of transition from milk to solids, During of after milk feeds offer the food on the tip of a clean finger or on the tip of a clean tea spoon.
Stage 2 (around six to eight months)
During stage two you may increase variety, introduce pureed or minced meat, chicken, liver, fish, lentils and beans. It is advised that raw eggs shouldnt be used but cooked egg (yolks) can be introduded from stage two along whith wheat based foods such as mashed weetabix, bread.
During this stage milk feeds decrease as more solids rich in protein are offered. Stage two prompts the parent/carer to introduce other foods when the child is hungry, this can be done at the end of a milk feed and should be done using child teaspoon.
Stage 3 (about nine to twelve months)
During this stage cows milk, can safely be used at about 12 months along with lumpy foods such as pasta, soft cooked beans, cheese and small pieces of cooked meat.
Three regular meals should be given as well as drinks such as water. Stage three encourage the child to have full independence and should be done during established mealtimes. Feeding should be encouraged using spoon or as finger food.
Whilst weaning a child try to encourage a liking for savoury foods, only introduce one new food at a time, salt and sugar mast not be add to foods, make sure the food is at the right temperature, avoid sweet foods or drinks between meals, select foods approved by the childs parents or primary carer, never leave a baby alone when he or she is eating, it is important to be patient if the baby does not take the food, feed at babys pace not ours.
Cite this page
Nutritional needs of babies. (2019, Nov 25). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/nutritional-needs-of-babies-best-essay