The Prince is a book which written by Niccolò Machiavelli in 15 century. It including the methods to rule and become a wise prince of Italy. To become a good ruler, it depends on the different type of princedoms and situation. However, the basic quality stays with his people. The ruler of Governments and State are either Republics or Princedoms. He also mentioned the essential principle, the way to defend the enemy and how to supervise the troops. He evaluated the importance of quality to become a wise Prince and made the suggestion.
For Princedoms, it either from hereditary or is a new ruler.
As for the hereditary Princedoms, which the State which usually used to be governed by his ancestor, as long as follow with the citizen’s tradition, avoid the ultra-violence, the state will be easy to maintain. Another one is Mixed Princedoms, more difficulties will appear. The problem usually began and maintained for a long period. As the reason, the man is willing to against their old ruler and gain a new ruler. In order to set up deterrent force, violence is requisite. After becoming officially ruler of the State, the opponent becomes the enemies. Become strong is essential. Used rebellions as the pretext, the new ruler could easily gain and secure the statue. To rule it better, two key point is necessary; one is that if there exists the original family; they should be entirely wiped out in the statue. Also, the new ruler should respect the district’s old law and tax.
If the State where has different culture and tradition, the best way to govern lasting is live there in person. Without the long distance, the disorder could put down insurrections at the beginning. Another expedient is sending colonies, making the troop become the key of the Province, but not sending too much; otherwise, the expedition will be costly. Sending colonies out of Province, instead of using troops is the best choice. To become a better ruler, help and keep the poor will be helpful than weaken the stronger; all weaker powers usually united together and follow with the government of the stranger. The weaker power will help to defense or subdue with a much more formidable foe. Also, a good prince should begin the war as soon as possible, considering is unavoidable.
There are three ways to rule a country. The direct way is the Prince hold the power by themselves. The second solution is empowering the assist to manage. The other is that distributes the power to the aristocracy. The people from the statue came from the lineage blood, instead of the permission of the ruler. Their people regard those aristocracies as their master and favor in them. The state ruled by the Prince of his servant will have more control over their territory. To occupy the country which controls by the King, the invader should develop the ability of his army force, not depending on the rebellion of that country. In this circumstance, the enemy is the united country. As long as occupied the whole country, the moral will never come back. The country like France is easier to find the discontented aristocracy who is looking forward to the revolution. By wooing and winning over these nobles, they will open the way for your invasion and help you win easily. After the victory, they will become the biggest challenge for you to rule the country. Consolidation in such a country does not depend on the ability of the conqueror but on the situation of the conquered country. There are three methods to hold the newly acquired Country; once it is accustomed, whether to destroy the State or to reside in person; the last method is that allows them to live in their traditional way.
In the new principalities, the difficulties of rule look upon the ability of the conquerors. The bottom who leap to the throne must benefit from the ability or the fate. To achieve the long-term peace and security, fate is unreliable. A good prince should achieve success by his own ability, not by destiny. A man who rises from the bottom to the throne by the luck had no difficulty in making his fortune, but could not sustain it. He said there are two other ways to rise to the throne as a commoner: one is to rise to the throne by evil or become a monarch with the help of his fellow citizens. A shrewd conqueror, after taking over a country, should make clear all the principle and punishment he is going to do, and instantly take action. In this way, the punishment does not have to do it frequently; meanwhile, they will feel safe. Treating them well, the prince can get the support.
In the principality, it is a lucky levity for a commoner to get help from his fellow citizens. Either from the people, or the rich, who are two opposing factions, have produced one of three outcomes: the monarchy, liberty, or laissez-faire. The prince should be on good terms with the people, for all they wish is protection from oppression. There are many ways a good king can try to win the support of his people; these ways vary from time to time. He should try to make his citizens pray to the government and himself at all times and under all circumstances so that they will remain loyal forever. A wise prince, if he could manage to do everything in his power, without lack of provisions, and with the proper defense, it would not be difficult for his subjects to maintain a firm will against the siege.
The good value of the wise Prince should include the thought of the war, the regulation and training, do not depend on the other country’s army or mercenary army. He also should see the malady of the country. Not focusing on the soldier’s pleasure, pay attention to the military force can help get respect can trust from the soldiers. However, in most case, peace is more important. The wise Prince should remain contempt by ignoring the management of his army, and always keep in mind of the quality and keep self-discipline; following two rules, to act and to think, he needs exercise physique adapt to difficult conditions; meanwhile, he needs to gain the knowledge of place, for two advantage: he can know his country better; from the natural feature, the Prince can get to know how to defend enemy. The wise Prince should also know the read histories and learn from the great man’s draft. As a result, a good Prince should never satisfied with the peace and always obtain power from the dangerous. The wiser is the obstruct of became a good Prince, because it will lead to miserly or ignominy. The wise prince needs to guard against being vile and hateful, and generosity is a crisis. The Prince should also become cruel in order to unite and obedient the people. Knowing the timing and level of cruelness, groundless distrust is insupportable.
For the question about love and fear, a good Prince may have both, though fear is more important. If the love is more important, the citizen will have more expectation and hope; Love is sustained by kindness if the ruler has a lot of kindness, which can cause them easily to against their ruler. Due to the evil nature of human nature, people will always give up their benevolence and righteousness for their own interests. Fear could make the man apprehension of punishment and stay in proper position. It is difficult to make the people always love their ruler, however, the fear rely on the action by the Prince, which is controllable. Overall, the wiser Prince should try not to be hatred, but also maintain the prestige. Moreover, the wise prince should depend on oneself, but not rely on others factor. A good Prince should keep faithful by using the law, which is for the man, and the force which is for the beast. He made the suggestion that the Prince should be faithful, merciful, humane, religious and upright, but always fulfill those good qualities are unnecessary. The quality could be only the cover; however, in order to make a better decision. After that, the wise prince should avoid being seen as fickle, flippant, effeminate, timid and indecisive. A wise monarch, while satisfying the hearts of the people, pays attention to respecting the rich, leaves the matter of incurring resentment to others, and personally deals with the affairs that is gratitude.
If the Prince has to take a side, and it is better to choose the weaker one. When he unreserved made the decision, he will automatically gain the respect from the public. The wise Prince should also devotion to art, science, and support commercial activities, provided rewards, entertain people, patronage artists. For the choice of the secretaries of Prince, the minister has to possess with virtue and character, making sure the minister is faithful and think for the Prince. The wiser should be diligent in giving those people the freedom to speak, listening to their opinion, making the decision by himself. Last but not the least, the wise man should always getting ready for the advice, when he is willing to do, not others are willing. In addition, nobody should be talkative when he is unwilling to make the discussion. At the time, the wise man should be patient and capable to hear the truth, flying into a rage, when people failed to tell the truth. People can speak, only if the Prince is wise.
The idea is amoral in three ways. First of all, those rules are written for the monarch. The perspective shows that those people are at a higher level and born different than others. Secondly, the article expresses the idea that to be a good monarch; the person needs to abandon the humanities which are the nature of human beings. A Prince should only care about the war, regulation, and training. No one needs to be born for a certain purpose and follow with it in the entire life. Even for the high-level class, they have the right to entertain for themselves. In his view, if the Prince is the Prince, the purpose of existence only be rule the State, which is amoral to the Prince themselves. Thirdly, he assumed all the human nature is evil, which is an extreme starting point. However, from his point of view, he wrote the Prince base on the knowledge and history of other empire and monarch. Although the summary based on truth, latterly, they all fall down. The reality is more complicated than the truth he read or saw. He saw how the democracy fell down in Florence, and the monarch took back the position. It might be one of the reasons he chose to support the Medici family. He regards the man as the beast in chapter 18, “ be it known, then, there is two way of contending, one in accordance with the law, the other by force; the first of which is proper for men, the second to beasts. But since the first method is often ineffectual.”
Human is much more complicated, holding variety emotion, which cannot simplify to use two rules to distinguish such complicate life. Citizen all has the will to live better and acquire wealth and love. As the result, worth pressure and the treatment are not going to stay long. People under the fear are not in the social formation; in this condition, they will be the same as the beast, though human has the feeling; the action they take will follow with the instinct from thousand years ago instead of the justice. In the state of oppression, there is no legal guarantee of rights and interests, and the monarch has no minimum guarantee of survival for the people at the bottom of the hierarchy. When the society under the monarchy control, in order to maintain his people at the bottom infirm, to maintain pressure is the solution; the monarch stay in the high position, as the result, he does not need to worry about the risk of life, then give fear to the bottom; gradually, the desire for freedom in people’s heart will become more and more intense; the willing to achieve their own interests and the desire to survive will be increasing, and therefore as a code of conduct; at the same time, the society has no common interests. Fear and oppression have led to the loss of morality in the way people behave. In other words, if a country is governed by the spirit of social, instead of one person, the society will maintain stable, arrive at the justice and achieve morality. Even if the people are deprived of the public restriction, the contract regulates everyone in exchange for common interests that the basic guarantee of life and property is obtained from it.
Niccolò Machiavelli’s work is valuable not only as the first written discipline to the prince but also in a historical aspect; it is human’s treasure; however, the value he holds at the start do not contain mortality to the other and did not shows any consideration of humanity in his words. The idea that how he wants a Prince to rule the country probably suitable for the pope at the time; but for now, it definitely is not agreeable in modern society.