Nature and Causes of Police Corruption Essay
Nature and Causes of Police Corruption
1.1. Introduction and background of the study
Police corruption is a form of police misconduct in which law enforcement officers seek personal gain, such as money or career advancement, through the abuse of power, for example by accepting bribes in exchange for not pursuing, or selectively pursuing, an investigation or arrest. Police officers in Bangladesh, almost without exception, are corrupt and will do just as much to earn some money as any other poor Bengali. Remember that many police officers choose this job, because it puts them in a position where they can squeeze some money out of their fellow countrymen.
Although studied and researched, the topic of police corruption, in large part, remains a mystery. Sir Robert Peel was credited with the concept that the police depend on citizen cooperation in providing services in a democratic society. As such, the detrimental aspects of police misconduct cannot be overstated. In terms of public trust for law enforcement, recent polls show that only 56 percent of people rated the police as having a high or very high ethical standard as compared with 84 percent for nurses. Over the past few decades, great strides have occurred in the law enforcement profession.
To begin with, many police agencies have avoided hiring candidates who have low ethical standards and have identified those onboard employees early in their careers who might compromise the department’s integrity. In addition, research has discovered new methods of testing candidates for their psychological propensity to act ethically. However, unethical conduct by the nation’s police officers continues to occur in departments large and small. Research into police corruption offers some understanding of the phenomenon in the hope of rooting out this behavior that serves to undermine the overall legitimacy of law enforcement.
Theories on the role of society in law enforcement, the negative influence of an officer’s department, and a person’s own natural tendency to engage in unethical behavior have been offered as explanations of police corruption. In Bangladesh most of the people is peace loving but they can’t live in peace because of corruption in every major department here. People are facing so many troubles in their everyday life by police corruption when they go to them or they are arrested by police.
Police are using several ways to corrupt people. People are also identifying the causes and reacting as they influenced by the police personnel. It is called that police of our country is one of the most corrupted department of our government. In this research paper the present corruption nature of our police and how people react about them, the causes of police corruption are mainly observed.
Any discussion on police will be incomplete without a word about the origin and development of this institution. Originally, the word ‘police’ was used in a wider sense to connote the management of internal economy and the enforcement of governmental regulation in a particular country. With the passage of time, the term ‘police’ began to use in a much narrower sense to connote an agency of the State to maintain law and order and enforce the regulation of the code of Criminal Procedure.
In the present context of Bangladesh, the term ‘police’ connotes a body of civil servants whose primary duties preservation of order, prevention and detention of crimes and enforcement of law. As pointed out by Ernest Fround, police functions generally relate to promoting public welfare by restraining and regulating the use of property and liberty of persons.
Police force has been in existence in this country in one form or another from the very ancient time. The Mughal rulers in India also had a well organized police force for maintaining law and order in society. The police system during the Mughal period undoubtedly suited to the needs of a simple homogenous agricultural community, but it could not withstand the strains of political disorder and, therefore, with the decline of Mughal Empire, the system of police administration also collapsed.
The British Government in India retained the system of policing prevailing in each province with modification. According to the regulation of 1816, village headmen were made ex officio heads of police also. They apprehend offender and forwarded them to District authorities. The Police Commission of 1860 recommended continuance of the prevailing system of rural policing with minor changes. The Police Act 1861, was enacted to ” reorganize the police and to make it more effective instrument for the prevention and detention of crime” as laid down in the preamble of the Act.
The Government of Lord Curzon appointed another Commission called the Police Commission of 1902 to suggest measures for reform in police working. Surprisingly, the Commission instead of suggesting any measures for reform in the existing rural police highly commended the prevailing set-up. Though our country is now independent, it conveys the rules of Police Act 1861.
1.2. Statement of the problem of the study
In Bangladesh illegal police surveillance has greatly shaped the police image and use of excessive force, rape and killing custody and other questionable practices raised serious questions about the legitimacy of the police. In our country, a police officer makes a prayer for ‘remand’ stating that the accused is involved in a cognizable offence and for the purpose of interrogation ‘remand’ is necessary.
In sub section(2) of section 167 though it is not mentioned that ‘remand’ can be allowed for the purpose of interrogation, at present, the practice is that an accused is taken on ‘remand’ only for the purpose of interrogation or for extorting information from the accused through interrogation.
There is no proper guideline as to when such prayer should be accepted and when rejected by the magistrate and this legal lacuna gives both the police officers and magistrates power to abuse the same. Police officers being motivated or dictated by the executive organ or out of their personal conflict or aggrandizement seek unreasonable remand under section 167 of the Code.
Thus police get the easy opportunity for torturing people through remand. Article 35(4) of the constitution states that no person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. So the provisions of the Cr. P.C. under section 167 are in direct contrast with the provisions of the constitution. This Cr. P.C. was passed by the British government back in 1898 when there is no fundamental rights as we have now in our constitution.
The Indian National Police Commission of 1977 which made meaningful effort to reform the police system had the following to say on the control element “The crux of police reform in our country today is to secure professional independence for the police to function truly and efficiently as an impartial agent of the law of the land and at the same time to enable the government to oversee police performance to ensure its conformity to law. But Bangladesh does not take any effort to reform her police department.
The major problem for the police in our country is the lack of public confidence in police activities. It has been argued that public confidence in police is integral to social order, economic development and sound economic processes. Citizens view the quality of police service as an indicator of the quality of the government. Police who are untrustworthy create fear and anxiety.
1.3. Objectives of the study
This research is mainly built for academic purpose. Its aim is to see what the perception of people about police corruption is. How they react to it and what reasons they identified for police corruption in Bangladesh.
Specifically, the objectives of this research are as below:
I. To see the nature of contemporary police corruption in Bangladesh. II. To find out the causes of police corruption.
III. To see the patterns of police corruption.
1.4. Importance of the study
Recently most police research was carried out by academics in a variety of disciplines, including Sociology, Law, Psychology and Economics. Criminology and Police Science (CPS) is a new and unique concept in Bangladesh. It is very important to conduct an academic research on the nature and causes of police corruption from this department.
The study of the nature and causes of police corruption in Bangladesh is important for the following reasons: Firstly: the police are a citizen’s first link with the criminal justice. Find out the nature of police corruption is very much important to know about current police corruption. Secondly: it is very important for taking stapes to remove police corruption of Bangladesh.
Thirdly: it is very important for increasing public awareness about police activities and also for becoming responsible of police about their activities. Fourthly: it will help the government to take the necessary measures for preventing police corruption in Bangladesh.
Research questions of the study
I. What is the nature of contemporary police corruption?
II. What are the causes of police corruption?
III. What should we do to reduce Police corruption?
2.1. Review of the literature of the Study:
In a CSCE News Release from Uzbekistan, Pitts stated “No democratic state can ever justify what reliable reports tell us about continuing torture, extorted confessions, or the planting the false evidence. Even in circumstances where a genuine threat exists to the well being of the state, rule of law and due process norms must be followed in order to insure that human rights are protected.”
The term police refer primarily to agents of the state whose function is the maintenance of law and order and the enforcement of regular criminal code. It is clear from the definition that the police force is directly related to the state government. The nature and characteristics of police expresses the nature of the government.
Hagan, John (1986);
Police has directed at preserving and reproducing security and order by particular means. Kobler (1980) has dramatized how ominous the police use of force can be. This research begins by noting that the police are the representatives of governmental authority who in the ordinary course of events legally are permitted to use force against citizens.
It may be evaluated differently by people with varying social interests, positions and values. Westly found in the course of his research that the police regard the public as their enemy, feeling that the demands of their occupation set them in conflict with the community.
Police Regulation of Bengal (PRB);
Regulation 33(a) of the Police Regulation of Bengal says, “No Police force can work successfully unless it wins the respects and good-will of the public and secures its cooperation. All ranks, therefore, while being firm in the execution of their duty, must show forbearance, civility and courtesy towards all classes”.
But it is unfortunate that in our society police is looked with fear, suspicion and distrust by the people. This public apathy towards the police demoralizes them to such an extent that policeman lose self-confidence and are hesitant firm step to violations of law because of apprehension of public criticism. Another potential cause which shatters public confidence on police is the increasing interference of politicians in the working of the police.
The political pressure and compromises by the police officials are bound to make them corrupt, dishonest and inefficient. The police as a governmental organization has to serve two masters- one political head and the other departmental head. Politicians often consider police as their tool to meet their selfish ends and therefore oblige police personnel by rewarding them in various ways. The superior-subordinate relationship in police organization is guided by the principle, “lick the above and kick the below”. Such mentality is the characteristic of authoritarian superiors and their dominance over subordinates.
Nurul Huda, former IGP, (2005);
The reality, unfortunately, on ground is different from the legal process in Bangladesh. Before we venture to find out the causes of those behavioral aberrations that have a substantial bearing on the crime and order situation, we may list the deviations that are existing in our country:
Misbehavior with complainants: There is a virtual absence of service orientation and many policemen fail to realize that the complainant at the police station is often an aggrieved person much like a patient who goes to the doctor, and any misbehavior with him would be construed as nothing short of demonic brutality.
Other misbehavior: Verbal abuse and ill-treatment while on patrolling duty, harassment of innocent relatives during arrest, roughing up inmates during house search, ill-treatment of traffic violators, unnecessary pushing around during VIP protection and security arrangements cause a great deal of public discontent.
Illegal detention: Several persons are rounded up supposedly as suspects and detained for longer period in the lock up. There are instances of innocent persons falling into the clutches of erratic policeman.
Custodial violence: Perpetration of third degree torture on suspects in police custody is taken as a matter of routine by many policemen Excessive custodial violence has resulted into deaths.
Crime and corruption done by police: There have been cases in which policemen associating themselves in crimes like rape, robbery, and extortion are on the rise. Although corruption is a malaise that has afflicted our society as a whole, corruption in police has an extremely deleterious implication for their overall image for two important reasons: one, being in uniform the corrupt policemen immediately catches public attention and two, since the complainant the police deal with is often a person with a grievance any corrupt demand imposed on him.
Ram Ahuja (1996);
People who fall in the clutches of the police generally complain of brutal behavior of the police towards them either at the time of arrest during interrogation or while in the police lock-up.
Some of the common practices of policemen reportedly are: use of abusive language or degrading epithets, compelling suspect / accused / offenders to obey all orders, asking embarrassing questions in the street, carrying out bodily searches on false pretexts and appropriating offenders money and belongings (wrist-watch etc.), repeated prodding with thick stick, holding out threats of violence if not obeyed and the actual use of physical force. The use of verbal abuse, insulting behavior, and physical violence on the part of the policemen arouses deep hostility against police.
Many accused complain that they were interrogated by the police without sufficient evidence of accusation. Those who refuse to confess are often tortured or threatened to torture. A good number of accused persons in the courts that confessions from them were obtained not by the use of physical brutality but psychological cruelty like holding out a threat to criminally assault the accused person’s sister, or daughter, or wife, to arrest his old father or mother, to level additional charges of crimes against him and so forth.
Lawrence Sherman (1974);
Police corruption means accepting money or money’s worth for doing something that a policeman is under a duty to do or to exercise legitimate discretion for improper reason.
Sherman has talked of three forms of police corruption: a) one form of corruption is that in which only a few isolated policeman accept bribes. b) the second form of corruption is that in which a large number of officers (lower and higher ranks) take bribes but they are not joined together to form networks of corruptions. c) the third form of police corruption is pervasive organized corruption. In this type, corruption is organized in a hierarchical authoritarian fashion.
Many citizens are primarily frightened by crime, especially crime involving a sudden violent attack by a stranger. (Wilson & Kelling, 1982).
People expect that police will save them from being victim of crime. But in our country many crime victims never call the police for various reasons such as: a) don’t believe that police can help them i.e., many believe that calling the police make no difference since police can neither capture the offender nor recover stolen property; b) cause too much inconvenience i.e. fear of harassment by the police; c) they are corrupt and would not help the victim without paying bribe to them. (Kashem, 2001).
Vadackumchery, James (1997);
There exists a feeling among the general public that the police does anything and many things with crime-doers for proving the guilt against them. The police can do so because they get the protection of law to do certain things they want to be done. For instance, if a policeman mishandles a crime doer in his custody, he can do so in complete isolation -away from the public visibility. The police have established a tradition.
They were involving in informal arrests, illegal detention, torturing of suspects, concocting of evidence in criminal cases even before the Torture Commission was appointed in 1855. This long existed history created a tradition in which the people were conditioned to suffer and suffer eternally what the police did with crime-doers .Until recently and even today, people including the educated in society have been feeling that police can informally arrest people and detain them in their custody.……. The press is also more vigilant in this matter than it was earlier. Kashem, (2004);
In a series of studies Kashem (2000, 2001, 2002) reports that the general public is dissatisfied with the quality of police work. On the average, between 80 and 85 percent of the citizens of Bangladesh believe that police are not doing good job and rate police work is extremely poor. Another study by Kashem (2002) also found that the level of politeness of police is very low.
Sharma finds hostility or ruthless criticism of police efficiency and that police cases mostly fail because of the lack of public cooperation. The nature of policing in our country is reactive rather than proactive. So it is the citizens of the community, and not the police, who assume the initiating role in much modern police work. (Hagar, 1985). If people don’t believe as well as cooperate police, then how a good policing will be expected?
James A. Inciardi, (2005);
Misconduct by police officers in the forms of illegal activities for economics gain and accepting gratuities, favors, or payment for services that police are sworn to carry out as part of their peacekeeping role. ree or discount meals are available to police officers in many American cities. Police officers have numerous opportunities to direct individuals to persons who can assist them for a profit.
Police can also receive fees for referring arrested suspects to bail bond agents and defense attorney, (Kickbacks). Police officers accepting money from citizens in lieu of enforcing the law,(shakedowns). Involvement of police in predatory criminal activities, either directly or through complicity with criminals,(Planned theft and robbery). Police have numerous opportunities to pilfer valuable items. Typically involves jewelry and other goods from the scene of a burglary or from a suspect,(Opportunistic theft).
2.2. The Conceptual Framework of the study
Causes of police corruption
Nature of police corruption
Lack of morality
Theft of property
Abuse of power
The police are a citizen’s first link with the criminal justice. When a crime occurs, the police are usually the first agents of the state to become involved. But the police also abuse their power for fulfill illegal desire. They commit various types of corruption, these are: bribes, kickbacks, gratuities, theft of property, falsifying evidence and shakedowns etc.
The police officer do these corruptions for some of the main reason such as low salary, political pressure, personal gain, greediness, lack of morality, poverty of availability of bad money etc.
2.3. Theoretical framework of the study
One prominent sociological approach to understanding police behavior is based on the premises that police behavior is influenced by the social dynamics of police-citizen encounters. For example, Donald Black’s sociological theory of law holds that the “quantity of law” is influenced by the social attributes of concerned parties -victims and suspects, or plaintiff and defendants, as well as the agents of social control themselves. From this theoretical perspective, situational factors (Sherman 1980a) are the cues on which officers form judgments about how incidents should be handled.
The key theoretical influences are symbolic internationalism and labeling perspective, which saw policing as an important process in shaping the patter of deviance through the exercise of discretion. (Reiner, Robert 2001). The deviant behavior of police comes to people’s sight when they interact with people. This interaction may occur through newspapers.
Organizational explanation (blue curtain theory):
Organizational explanation have shown that corrupt behavior arise through the development of an informal structure within the police department, an infrastructure that provides an officer with the opportunity to not only break the rules but also a transgression that is encouraged and supported by
a sub-cultural code of beliefs. It is a set of informal norms that can be followed by police officers when they encounter an occupational uncertainty.
These informal norms may be characterized as code of silence, unquestioned loyalty to other officers, and cynicism about the criminal justice system. The so-called blue curtain of silence – the refusal of officers to testify against other officers – is one of the major factors protecting and maintaining police corruption.
Again, the most important organizational variable is leadership: the quality of management and supervision. Corruption flourishes in departments that tolerate it. Individual officers are more likely to succumb if they believe they won’t be caught or, if caught, punishment will not be severe imposed by the organization.
Individual officer explanation (rotten-apple theory):
Individual explanations acknowledge that a small number of police officers were responsible for a disproportionate number of acts of police misconduct. This explanation points toward a predisposition on the part of the officer as pivotal, rather than the officer being lured into wrongdoing.
Whether a police officer chooses to engage in corrupt behavior has more to do with his or her personal benefit from an act than a submissive affinity for the deviant infrastructure. In other words, the corrupt officers consciously exercise discretion to engage in prohibited conduct. In most cases, officers who are engaged in corruption have a previous record of misconduct. Only officers having a moral degradation pursue to be corrupted.
This theory is appealing because it emphasizes the moral failings of one or more individuals, provides convenient scapegoats, and avoids dealing with more difficult issues. It also points in the direction of simple remedy.
Psychological approach highlights variations among officers in their behavioral dispositions, variation that is observed by the sociological approach. This perspective directs attention to the outlooks and personality traits that presumably produce different responses to similar situations by different officers.
From this theoretical perspective, officers who are the most likely to use force could be expected to (a) conceive the police role in narrow terms, limited to crime-fighting and law enforcement, (b) believe that this role is more effectively carried out when officers can use force at their discretion, and (c) regard the citizenry as unappreciative at best and hostile and abusive at worse.
3.1. Research Methodology
Methodology is a system of explicit rules and procedures upon which research is based and against which claims for knowledge are evaluated. Methodology contains the overall process of a study. This study shows a property-disposition relationship among the variables. Here property means the individual respondents and disposition is the perception of people towards police corruption. This research is mainly primary research. This research is also a quantitative research. Quantitative research is that research which is studied depending on the quantitative data.
4.2. Field selection
Delduar thana of Tangail district was selected as the field of the study. In this area crime rate is high for the last few years so this area had been selected to collect expected data from the respondents. Some of the major union of this thana had been selected as the field of this research so that these area can represent the thana well.
3.3. Population and Sample Selection
The entire set of relevant units of analysis, or data, is called the population. In this research the selected populations were very much involved with daily life activities and had idea about police activities. Because all of them was victims of police corruption somehow in their life. The sample was selected purposively from the population.
Respondents who were willing to respond the questions noted in the questionnaire and who had available time to give necessary information. Data were collected from 33 (thirty-three) respondents. Although thirty three (33) respondents is not enough for this study but these respondents expresses the overall situation of the area about this research well. So the sample size was very small (33).
3.4. Data Collection Methods and Techniques
Survey method was used in this research for data collection. Face to face question interview was applied for the collection of data. A questionnaire schedule was obtained with some questions. Then the respondents were asked those questions to answer. The answers given by the respondents were noted in the questionnaire form.
3.5. Data Processing and Analysis
The collected data were coded carefully for analysis. This processing (included coding) was done with the help of Microsoft excel SPSS program through computer. Several levels of statistical analysis are performed in conducting analysis stage. Frequency tables (i.e. frequency distribution) are made for univariate analysis. Cross table are made for the bivariate analysis.
3.6. Working Definition of the study
Police: Police refers to state organizations employing professionals who are trained and equipped as specialists in policing who has the authority to enforce and maintain law.
Corruption: The illegal commission or omission of an act which violate law is called corruption. Corruption is infringement of expectations of norms and rules.
Police corruption: Herman Goldstein defines police corruption as “acts involving the misuse of authority by a police officer in a manner designed to produce personal gain for himself or for others”. Police corruption means the deviation of police from their expected legal duties.
Victim: A victim is a person who suffers from something. Here a victim is a person who is victimized by police for corruption.
4. Research Findings
Selected area for the present research is Delduar Thana of Tangail District. The sample size is very small. However, they have experienced many experiences during the interaction with police. Consequently, they also have a perception of their own about the police. Here the information given by respondents of the study are noted below:
4.1. Factual Information of the Respondent s
Table-4.1: Age of the respondents
Age limit(years)| Frequency| Percent| Cumulative frequency| 20-25| 9| 27.27| 9|
26-30| 7| 21.21| 16|
31-35| 4| 12.12| 20|
36-40| 4| 12.12| 24|
41-45| 6| 18.18| 30|
46-50| 3| 9.09| 33|
Total| 33| 100| |
This table-4.1, shows the age of the respondents ranges from 20 to 50 years. Most of the respondents age are less then 36. Maximum, that means 27.27 percent (28.8%) respondents belong in 20-25 (years) age-group. Moreover, the age of the respondents are normally distributed. But the number of having the age more than 46 years is very few.
Table-4.2: Years of schooling of the respondents
Years of schooling| Frequency| Percent|
05| 6| 18.18|
06| 2| 6.06|
07| 1| 3.03|
08| 2| 6.06|
10| 7| 21.21|
11| 1| 3.03|
12| 3| 9.09|
15| 5| 15.15|
16| 4| 12.12|
17| 2| 6.06|
Total| 33| 100|
Table-4.2 Shows that, the years of schooling of the respondent ranges from 05 to 17 (Primary to Masters). Here years of schooling 5 means Primary, 10 means S.S.C, 12 means H.S.C, 16 means Bachelor Degree and 17 means Masters. The maximum, in presentence is 21.21 percent (21.21%) respondents years of schooling are 10 (S.S.C), 9.090 percent (9.09%) respondents years of school are 12 (H.S.C). Only 6.06 percent (6.06%) respondents years of schooling are 17 (Masters).
Table-4.3: Income of the respondents
Income limit| Frequency| Cumulative frequency| Percent| 2000-4500| 12| 12| 36.36|
4501-6000| 4| 16| 12.12|
6001-8500| 7| 23| 21.21|
8501-12000| 6| 29| 18.18|
12001-14500| 2| 31| 6.06|
14501-18000| 2| 33| 6.06|
Total| 33| | 100|
From this table we see that income of the respondents ranges from Tk. 2000 to 16000. About 36.36 percent (36.36%) of the respondent’s income between Tk. 2000 to 4500, And then about 12.12 percent (12.12%) of the respondents income between Tk.4501 to 6000, 21.21 percent (21.21%) respondents income between Tk. 6001 to 8500, 18.18 percent (18.18%) of the respondent income between Tk. 8501 to 12000, 6.06 percent (6.06%) of the respondents income
Tk. 12001 to 18000. So, maximum respondents’ income limits 2000 to 4500 Tk.
Table-4.4: Occupation of the respondents
Occupation| Frequency| Percent (%)| Cumulative frequency| Public service| 2| 6.06%| 2|
Private service| 5| 15.15%| 7|
Business| 13| 39.39%| 20|
Labor| 11| 33.33%| 31|
Student| 2| 6.06%| 33|
Total| 33| 100%| |
From the above table-4.4 we see that 6.06 percent (6.06%) of the respondents have public service, 15.15 percent (15.15%) of the respondents are involve in private service, 39.39 percent (39.39%) of the respondent are businessman, 33.33 percent (33.33%) of the respondents are labor and 6.06 percent (6.06%) of the respondents are student. The highest amount is occupied by the respondents, who are involved with business.
Figure-4.1. Knowledge of the respondents about state law
The figure-4.1 shows that maximum, that mean 51.51 percent (51.51%) of the respondents have less knowledge about state law. 36.36 percent (36.36%) of the respondents have no knowledge about state law and about 12.12 percent (12.12%) of the respondents have much knowledge about state law.
Table-4.5: Knowledge of the respondents about human right
Knowledge level| Frequency| Cumulative frequency| Percent| Much| 6| 6| 18.18|
Less| 13| 19| 39.39|
Not at all| 14| 33| 42.42|
Total| 33| | 100|
Figure-4.2. knowledge of the respondents about human right
The above table-4.5 and figure-4.2 show that, 42.42 percent (42.42%) of the respondents have no knowledge about human right. 39.39 percent (39.39%) of
the respondents have less knowledge about human right. 18.18 percent (18.18%) of the respondents have much knowledge human right.
Figure-4.3. Knowledge of the respondent about police law
The figure-4.3 shows that maximum that mean 60.60 percent (60.60%) of the respondents have no knowledge about police law. 36.36 percent (36.36%) of the respondents have less knowledge about the police law and only 12.12 percent (12.12%) of the respondents have high knowledge about police law.
Table-4.6: Attitude of the respondent towards police.
Attitude| Frequency| Percent| Cumulative frequency|
Good| 4| 12.12| 4|
Bad| 23| 69.69| 27|
No idea| 6| 18.18| 33|
Total| 33| 100| |
Figure-4.4. Attitude of the respondent towards police.
The table-4.6 and figure-4.4, show that the attitudes of the maximum, that mean 69.69 percent (69.69%) of the respondents towards police are bad. Only 12.12 percent (12.12%) of the respondent’s attitudes towards police are good and 18.18 percent (18.18%) of the respondents have no idea.
Table-4.7: Believe of the respondents about “police are corrupted”. Police are corrupted| Frequency| Cumulative frequency| Percent| Yes| 31| 31| 93.93|
No| 2| 33| 6.06|
Total| 33| | 100|
Figure-4.5. Believe of the respondents about “police are corrupted”
The table-4.7 and figure-4.5 show that 93.93 percent (93.93%) of the respondents believe that “police are corrupted”. That means maximum respondents believe that “police are corrupted”. Only 6.06 percent (6.06%) of the respondents not believe that “police are corrupted”.
Table-4.8: Facing corruption of police by the respondents at police station.
Faced corruption| Frequency| Percent| Cumulative frequency| Yes| 31| 93.939| 33|
No| 2| 6.060| 33|
Total| 33| 100.00| |
Figure-4.6. Facing corruption of police by the respondents at police station
The above table-4.8 and figure-4.6 show that maximum respondents faced corruption of police at police station; in percentage 93.93 percent (93.93%) of the respondents faced corruption of police at police station. Only 6.06 percent (6.06%) of the respondents are not faced corruption of police at police station.
Table-4.9: Nature of corruption faced outside of the police station Nature of corruption| Frequency| Cumulative frequency| Percent| Gratuities| 3| 3| 9.090|
Bribes| 22| 25| 66.666|
Theft of property| 1| 26| 3.030|
Falsifying evidence| 4| 30| 12.121|
Kickbacks| 2| 32| 6.060|
Shakedowns| 1| 33| 3.030|
Total| 33| | 100.00|
Figure-4.7. Nature of police corruption outside of the police station
The table-4.9 and figure-4.7 show that maximum respondents faced “bribes” as a police corruption; in percentage 66.66 percent (66.66%) of the respondents faced “bribes” as a police corruption. About 9.09 percent (9.09%) of the respondents faced “gratuities” as a police corruption.
And about 3.03 percent (3.03%) of the respondents faced, theft of property and shakedowns” as police corruption. 12.12 percent (12.12%) of the respondents faced “Falsifying evidence” as a police corruption and 6.06 percent (6.06%) of the respondents faced “kickbacks” as police corruption.
Figure-4.8. Causes of producing corruption by police outside of the police
station The figure-4.8 shows that, in maximum time low salary is the main causes of police corruption. In percentage 39.39 percent (39.39%) respondents said that low salary is the main cause of police corruption. 6.060 percent (6.06%) said lack of morality is a cause of police corruption.
9.09 percent (9.09%) of respondents said power of the police is a cause of police corruption. 3.03 percent (3.03%) of the respondents said greediness is a cause of police corruption. 18.18 percent (18.18%) said personal gain is a cause of police corruption. And about 24.2 percent (24.24%) said political pressure is the another main cause of police corruption.
Table-4.10: Nature of corruption faced at police station.
Nature of police corruption| Frequency| Percent (%)|
Gratuities| 02| 06.06%|
Bribes| 18| 54.55%|
Theft of property| 03| 09.09%|
Falsifying evidence| 04| 12.12%|
Kickbacks| 03| 09.09%|
Shakedowns| 03| 09.09%|
Total| 33| 100%|
The table-4.10 shows that maximum respondents faced “bribes” as a police corruption; in percentage 54.55% respondents faced “bribes” as a police corruption. About 09.09% respondents faced theft of property, kickbacks and shakedown as police corruption at police station separately 12.12% respondents faced “falsifying evidence” as a police corruption. And about 06.06% respondents faced “gratuities, as police corruption at police station and it is minimum percentage of police corruption faced by respondents at police station.
Table-4.11: Causes of producing corruption by police at police station.
Causes of police corruption| Frequency| Percent (%)|
Low salary| 21| 63.64%|
Lack of morality| 02| 06.06%|
power| 03| 09.09%|
greediness| 01| 03.03%|
Personal gain| 04| 12.12%|
Political party pressure| 02| 06.06%|
Total| 33| 100.00%|
The table-4.11 shows that, in maximum times police are corrupted for their lower salary. About 63.64 percent (63.64%) police corruptions are occurred at police station for low salary of the police personnel in our country. On the other hand minimum police corruption is occurred at the police station for the greediness of the police in percentage is 03.03%. For lack of morality and political party pressure is 06.06%. for personal gain is 12.12% and for police’s power is 09.09% police corruptions are occurred at police station.
Table-4.12: Facing police corruption after arrest
Faced corruption| Frequency| Percent (%)|
Yes| 23| 92.00%|
No| 02| 08.00%|
Total| 25| 100.00%|
This table-4.12 shows that maximum respondents faced corruption of police after being arrested by police; in percentage 92% respondents faced corruption of police after arrest. Only 8% respondents are not faced corruption of police after arrest.
Table-4.13: Nature of corruption faced after arrest by the respondents
Nature| Frequency| Percent (%)|
Gratuities| 01| 04.35%|
Bribes| 13| 56.52%|
Theft of property| 02| 08.70%|
Falsifying evidence| 03| 13.04%|
Kickbacks| 02| 08.70%|
Shakedowns| 02| 08.70%|
Total| 23| 100.00%|
This table-4.13 shows that maximum respondents faced bribes as a police corruption after arrest; in percentage 56.52% respondents faced bribes as a police corruption after being arrested. About 13.04% respondents faced falsifying evidence, 04.35% respondents faced gratuities and 08.70% faced theft of property, kickbacks and shakedowns, as a police corruption arrest. So minimum respondents faced gratuities as police corruption and in percentage is 04.35%.
Table-4.14: Causes of police corruption after arrest
Causes| Frequency| Percent (%)|
Low salary| 14| 60.86%|
Lack of morality| 01| 04.35%|
Power | 02| 08.70%|
Greediness | 01| 04.35%|
Personal gain| 03| 13.04%|
Political party pressure| 02| 08.70%|
Total| 23| 100.00%|
The table-4.14 shows that, maximum police corruptions at police station are produced by the police personnel for their lower salary and in percentage 60.86%. On the other hand the lowest police corruption is produced for lack of morality and greediness of the police. 13.04 percent (13.04%) police corruption is occurred for personal gain and power, political party pressure is responsible for 08.70% police corruption after arrest.
Cross table-1: Nature of corruption faced outside of the police station vs. Causes of producing corruption by police outside of police station Outside of the police station| Causes of producing corruption by police outside of police station| Total| | Low salary| Lack of morality| power| greediness| Personal gain| Political party pressure| | Nature of corruption faced outside of the police station| Gratuities| 01, 3.03%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 01, 3.03%| 01, 3.03%| 03, 9.09%| | Bribes| 08, 24.24%| 01, 3.03%| 02, 6.06%| 00, 0%| 05,15.15%| 06, 18.18%| 22, 66.66%| |
Theft of property| 00, 0%| 01, 3.03%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 01, 3.03%| | Falsifying evidence| 02, 6.06%| 00, 0%| 01, 3.03%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 01, 3.03%| 04, 12.12%| | Kickbacks| 01, 3.03%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 01, 3.03%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 02, 6.06%| | Shakedowns| 01, 3.03%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 0, 0%| 00, 0%| 01, 3.03%| Total | 13, 39.39%| 02, 6.06%| 03, 9.09%| 01, 3.03%| 06,18.18%| 08, 24.24%| 33, 100%|
This cross table-1 shows that maximum respondents were faced “bribes” as a police corruption outside of the police station, in these cases the low salary was main reason for the police corruption. In percentage it is 24.24% Cross table-2: Nature of corruption faced at the police station vs. Causes of producing corruption by police at police station Outside of the police station| Causes of producing corruption by police at police station| Total| | Low salary| Lack of morality| power| greediness|
Personal gain| Political party pressure| | Nature of corruption faced at the police station| Bribes| 14, 42.42%| 00, 0%| 02, 06.06%| 00, 0%| 02, 06.06%| 00, 0%| 18, 54.55%| | Gratuities| 01, 03.03%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 01, 03.03%| 00,0%| 00, 0%| 2, 06.06%| | Theft of property| 02, 06.06%| 01, 3.03%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 03, 09.09%| | Falsifying evidence| 02, 6.06%| 00, 0%| 01, 3.03%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 01, 3.03%| 04, 12.12%| | Kickbacks| 01, 3.03%| 01, 03.03%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 01, 03.03%| 03, 09.09%| | Shakedowns| 01, 3.03%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 02, 06.06%| 00, 0%| 03, 09.09%| Total | 21, 39.39%| 02, 6.06%| 03, 09.09%| 01, 03.03%| 04,18.18%| 02, 24.24%| 33, 100%|
This cross table-2 shows that maximum respondents were corrupted by the police at the police station for taking bribes from them and the low salary is the main reason for being corrupted of the respondents by the police at police station and in percentage it is 42.42%. So at police station the main nature of police corruption is bribe and it is more than outside of the station.
Cross table-3: Facing corruption of police after arrest vs. causes of producing corruption by police after arrest.
After arrest| Causes of police corruption after arrest| Total| | Low salary| Lack of morality| power| greediness| Personal gain| Political party pressure| | Facing corruption of police after arrest| Yes| 14, 60.86%| 01, 04.35%| 02, 08.70%| 01, 04.35%| 03, 13.04%| 02, 08.70%| 23, 100%| | No| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| 00, 0%| Total| 14, 60.86%| 01, 04.35%| 02, 08.70%| 01, 04.35%| 03, 13.04%| 02, 08.70%| 23, 100%|
This cross table shows that maximum respondents were faced police corruption after arrest for the low salary of the police. About 60.86 percent (60.86%) respondents were being corrupted by the police after arrest for sol salary.
5. Case studies
5.1. Case study: 01
Khokon was a student of Pathrail M.L. High School, Delduar, Tangail. He did court marriage a Hindu girls. He was a child of a middle class family and the girl was a child of a high class Hindu family. The girl was willing for the court marriage but the girls family wasn’t agreed of the marriage. They make a false case of women kidnapping in Delduar Thana and Khokon were responsible for kidnapping their girl. He was made the main criminal for the kidnappimg.
One day the police caught Khokon from his house with the girl. They return the girl to her parents after taking a large sum of bribe from the girls family and brought Khokon to Thana. They tortured him very much and after some days the case was dismissed without prosecution in the court.
They also demanded and took bribes from Khokon’s family. I took this cases because, I think this cases is a better example of police corruption. The causes of police corruption according to this case is low or small salary,
greediness, power of police etc.
5.2. Case study: 02
Mohammad Roton, nick nake Roton 32 years old, is a businessman. He was also a political person. One day he was going to main town for his occupational necessity with the help of his motor-bike. On way, he was stopped by police and asked for his driving license as well as the license of his motor-bike. But at that moment the license of his bike was not with him, though he has no driving license at all. For this he was quite unable to show his licenses.
The police demanded money as bribe to Mohammad Roton, instead of booking a case against him. The police officer showed fear to him that if he didn’t pay the money demanded, he would be harassed. For this he was bound to give money instead of going through a legal process. He also has enough bad money
From this case, we see that denying law and having bad money increase the opportunity of police corruption.
6. Summary and Concluding Remarks
The police are a citizen’s first link with the criminal justice. But the police abuse their power for fulfill illegal desire. This research finds out the nature of police corruption and the causes of police corruption. General people’s perception towards police is not good.
Most of the people believe that police are corrupted. Police exhibit some common types of corruption, these are: bribes, kickbacks, gratuities, theft of property, falsifying evidence, shakedowns and physical torture. The police officer do corruption because of low salary, political pressure, for personal gain, lack of morality, greediness, availability of bad money and their types of job or power of police. 6.2. Concluding Remarks:
Though purposive sampling has been used in this research from some of the homogenous cases. So, I think this research find out the nature and causes of Bangladesh police. Most of the general people of our country think that the police of Bangladesh are corrupted. Bangladesh police is the high corrupted department of Bangladesh government. Bangladesh police are providing low salary and they are not morally strong. Bangladesh police has also political arty pressures, poverty of police personnel mainly who are lower in rank.
These inspire them to do corruption. The job nature and power is also a reason for police corruption we see in the study. Police officer mostly takes bribes, kickbacks, gratuities, do physical torture for bribes. This research shows that most police personnel corrupted for taking bribes, physical tortures, falsifying evidences, theft for the suspect, proving information etc. people keep bad idea on police, they think that police are not good person. So to prevent police corruption these reasons have to be removed.
The salary of the police personnel have to be increased enough, they have to provide moral education so they do their duties honestly. Public perception on police have to exchanged from bad to good by the police person doing well behave with them.
1.5. Limitations of the study
This research has many problems and limitations, such as:
I. The hypothesis and some other test such as chai-test, correlation are not shown here. II. In this research purposive sampling has been used so the other population’s opinion was avoided and the sample size was small. III. Sufficient data can’t be found because of want of some other technical method. IV. More questions should be used to collect more effective data about this research topic but the questions were less than needed.
Ahuja, Ram, (1996): Sociological Criminology. New Age International (P) Limited, India. Bohm, Robert M. and Haley, Keith N. (2002): Introduction to Criminal Justice, third edition. Glencoe McGraw-Hill.
Frankfort-Nachmias, Chava and Nachmias, David (1997): Research Methods in the Social Sciences, Fifth edition, St. Martin’s Press, lnc., New York. Haque, ANM Nurul. The Ferocity of the Police, In The Daily Star.3rd July, 2006 Hughes, Michael and Kroehler, Carolyn J.(2000): Sociology,6th edition,
McGraw-Hill companies, Inc., New York. Huda, Mohammad Nurul. Controlling Crime and All That. In The Daily Star- 29th July,2006.
Kashem, Mohammad B.(2002): Preventing Crime: Police and Crime Control in Bangladesh. Khasrul Alam Quddusi, Kazi SM, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Administration, University of Chittagong. Use of Hartal and Police, In The Daily Star,9th JuIy,2006. Malek, Adam. Police Remand. In The Daily Jugantar, 4th January, 2006. Paranjape, N.V., (2005): Criminology and Penology.
Central Law Publication, Allahabad-2, India. Pearson, Judy; Nelson, Paul; Tetsworth, Scott; and Harter, Lynn, (2004): Human Communication. McGraw-Hill Companies, New York. Police Activities: A Study on Three Police Stations, (2004): Transparency International Bangladesh. Putwain, David and Sammons, Aidan (2002): Psychology and Crime. Taylor and Francis Group. Quinney, Richard(1979):Criminology. Little, Brown and Company (Canada) Limited.
Reiner, Robert (2001): Introduction: what Is Police Research? In Doing Research in Crime and Criminal Justice. Sanders, William B., (1983): In Criminology, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Schaefer, Richard T., (2004): Sociology: A Brief Introduction, Fifth edition, McGraw Hill Companies, New York. Stotland, Ezra and Berberich, John. (1979): The Psychology of the Police.
In Psychology of Crime and Criminal Justice. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In United Nations Civilian Hand book. (1995): United Nations Department of Peace-keeping operation. Vadackumchery, James (1997): Indian Police and Miscarriage of Justice. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. New Delhi. Wilson, James Q. & Kelling, George L. (1982): Broken Windows. In Atlantic Monthly. In Urban Society, 11th edition. McGraw-Hill company. Worden, Robert E. (2001): The causes of Police Brutality: Theory and Evidence on Police Use of Force.
Mawalana Bhashani Science and Technology University
Department of Criminology and Police Science.
(All the below information only will be used for research purpose. A respondent can answer the following question without any fear or hesitation)
(1) Male (2) Female
3. Marital status:
(1) Married, (2) Unmarried, (3) Widow.
4. Years of Schooling:
5. What is your occupation?
(1) Public service, (2) Private Service, (3) Business, (4) Labor.
6. What is your income?
7. How much knowledge you have about the State Law?
(1) Very much, (2) Much, (3) Less, (4) Not at all.
8. How much knowledge you have about the Police Law?
(1) Very much, (2) Much, (3) Less, (4) Not at all.
9. How much knowledge you have about the Human Right?
(1) Very much, (2) Much, (3) Less, (4) Not at all.
10. What is your attitude towards police?
(1) Good, (2) Bad, (3) No idea.
11. Are you believed Police are corrupted?
(1) Yes, (2) No.
12. If yes, why?
13. Have you ever been to police station in order to any service? (1) Yes, (2) No.
14. If yes, why?
15. If yes, did you face any problem at police station?
(1) Yes, (2) No.
16. If yes, what types of problem did you face?
(1) Gratuities, (2) Bribes, (3) Theft of property, (4) Falsifying evidence, (5) Kickbacks, (6) Shakedowns, (7) ……………………………………………… 17. Have you meet with police for any cause?
(1) Yes, (2) No.
18. If yes why?
19. If yes, did you face any problem?
(1) Yes, (2) No.
20. If yes, what types of problem did you face?
(1) Gratuities, (2) Bribes, (3) Theft of property, (4) Falsifying evidence, (5) Kickbacks, (6) Shakedowns, (7) ……………………………………………… 21. Why did police produce that problem according to your view?
22. Had you ever been arrested by police?
(1) Yes, (2) No.
23. If yes, why?
24. If yes, did you face any problem after arrest?
(1) Yes, (2) No.
25. If yes, what types of problem did you face?
(1) Gratuities, (2) Bribes, (3) Theft of property, (4) Falsifying evidence, (5) Kickbacks, (6) Shakedowns, (7) ………………………………………………