Natural Fibre

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 27 October 2016

Natural Fibre

Although cellulose is the chief component of plant cell-walls, as a naturally occurring material, it contains also a wide verity of other materials in small amounts notably protein, pectin substance es, ash and waxy materials. These are frequently called fiber impurities, but they exert a considerable influence he processing and usefulness of the fiber.

Ash: Potassium Antimony Calcium Magnesium Iron Aluminium etc,

Fat and Waxes: Cotton wax is found on the outer surface of the fiber,. Cotton wax is primarily long chains of fatty acids and alcohols. The cotton wax serves as a protective barrier for the cotton fiber. Liters (based on C15 – C33 fatty acids), Waxy alcohols (C24– C34), hydrocarbons, etc.

Pectin substances: The pectin substances play an important role in plant life. The primary function of the pectin substances is the commenting together of the individual cells that compose4 the plant e.g. prospecting, pectin and pectin acid.

Proteins (also known as polypertides): They are organic compounds made of amino acids arranges in a linear chain and folded into a globour form. The amino acids in a polymer chain are joined together by the peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues.

Organic acid and sugar: Organic acids are found in the cotton fiber as metabolic residues. They are made up of malic acid and citric acid. Sugar makes up three percent of the cotton fiber, the sugar comes from two sources plant sugar and sugar from insects. The plant sugars accrue from the growth process of the cotton plant. The plant sugars consist of monosaccharide, glucose and fructose. The insect sugars are mainly for whiteflies, the insect sugars can cause stickiness, which can lead to problems in the textile mills.


Cotton is used to make a number of textile products. These include terrycloth for highly absorbent bath towels and robes.

Socks, underwear, and most T-shirts are made from cotton. Bed sheets often are made from cotton.

Cotton also is used to make yarn used in crochet and knitting. While many fabrics are made completely of cotton, some materials blend cotton with other fibers, including rayon and synthetic fibers such as polyester.

In addition to the textile industry, cotton is used in fishing nets, coffee filters, tents, explosives manufacture (see nitrocellulose), cotton paper, and in bookbinding. The first Chinese paper was made of cotton fiber. Fire hoses were once made of cotton.

Cellulose Fibre

Among the natural fibers are cellulose, the primary structural component of plants and bacterial cell walls; animal fibers such as wool and silk; and biochemical fibers. Plant fibers are composed of cellulose (see Figure 1), lignin (see Figure 2), or similar compounds; animal fibers are composed of protein

Cellulose, the most widespread organic molecule on Earth, is the major component of plant cell walls. Plants produce approximately 50 kilograms of cellulose daily for each person on Earth. About 33% of all plant matter is cellulose (the cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50% and that of dried hemp is approximately 75%).

A linear polymer made up of 10,000 to 15,000 glucose molecules bonded in a 1 → 4 glycosidic linkage, it is made up almost entirely of glucose with the formula (C6H10O5)n. Cellulose molecules contain many polar hydroxyl groups, which allow them to interact with adjacent molecules to form fibers. These fibers are structurally strong and resistant to chemical attack, so wood products are widely used in construction and production of paper. Cellulose has no taste, is odorless, is hydrophilic with the contact angle of 20–30, is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, is chiral and is biodegradable.

Cellulose is mainly used to produce paperboard and paper; to a smaller extent it is converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as cellophane and rayon.

Cellulose is used to make water-soluble adhesives and binders such as methyl cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose which are used in wallpaper paste.

Microcrystalline cellulose and powdered cellulose (E460ii) are used as inactive fillers in tablets and as thickeners and stabilizers in processed foods.


Wool is different to other fibres because of its chemical structure. This chemical structure influences its texture, elasticity, staple and crimp formation. Wool is a protein fibre, composed of more than 20 amino acids. These amino acids form protein polymers. Wool also contains small amounts of fat, calcium and sodium.

Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, goats, camel, rabbits.

Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it is crimped, it is elastic, and it grows in staples (clusters)


Wool’s scaling and crimp make it easier to spin the fleece by helping the individual fibers attach to each other, so they stay together. Because of the crimp, wool fabrics have a greater bulk than other textiles, and retain air, which causes the product to retain heat.

The amount of crimp corresponds to the fineness of the wool fibers.

Wool fibers are hydrophilic, meaning they readily absorb moisture, almost one-third of its own weight.

Wool absorbs sound like many other fabrics.

It is generally a creamy white color, although some breeds of sheep produce natural colors, such as black, brown, silver, and random mixes.

Wool ignites at a higher temperature than cotton and some synthetic fibers. It has lower rate of flame spread, low heat release, low heat of combustion, and does not melt or drip; it forms a char which is insulating and self-extinguishing, and contributes less to toxic gases and smoke than other flooring products, when used in carpets.

Wool carpets are specified for high safety environments, such as trains and aircraft. Wool is usually specified for garments for firefighters, soldiers, and others in occupations where they are exposed to the likelihood of fire.

Wool is resistant to static electricity, The use of wool car seat covers or carpets reduces the risk of a shock when a person touches a grounded object. Wool is considered by the medical profession to be hypoallergenic.

In addition to clothing, wool has been used for blankets, horse rugs, saddle cloths, carpeting, felt, wool insulation and upholstery. Wool has also been traditionally used to cover cloth diapers. Wool fiber exteriors are hydrophobic (repel water) and the interior of the wool fiber is hygroscopic (attracts water); this makes a wool garment able to cover a wet diaper while inhibiting wicking, so outer garments remain dry. Wool felted and treated with lanolin is water resistant, air permeable, and slightly antibacterial, so it resists the buildup of odor. Some modern cloth diapers use felted wool fabric for covers, and there are several modern commercial knitting patterns for wool diaper covers.

Merino wool has been used in baby sleep products such as swaddle baby wrap blankets and infant sleeping bags.

Wool is an animal protein, and as such it can be used as a soil fertilizer, being a slow-release source of nitrogen and ready-made amino acids.


Silk is a natural protein fibre, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The protein fibre of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons. The best-known type of silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture).

The shimmering appearance of silk is due to the triangular prism-like structure of the silk fibre, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles, thus producing different colors. Silk is therefore shiny.

Silk’s absorbency makes it comfortable to wear in warm weather and while active. Its low conductivity keeps warm air close to the skin during cold weather.

USES: It is often used for clothing such as shirts, ties, blouses, formal dresses, high fashion clothes, lingerie, pyjamas, robes, dress suits, sun dresses and Eastern folk costumes. It is used for upholstery, wall coverings, rugs, bedding and wall hangings.


Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from plants in the genus Corchorus.

Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibres and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses of vegetable fibres.

Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose (major component of plant fibre) and lignin. It is thus a ligno-cellulosic fibre that is partially a textile fibre and partially wood. It falls into the bast fibre category (fibre collected from bast or skin of the plant).

The industrial term for jute fibre is raw jute. The fibres are off-white to brown, and 1–4 metres (3–12 feet) long.

Jute is the second most important vegetable fibre after cotton.

USES : Jute is used chiefly to make cloth for wrapping bales of raw cotton, and to make sacks and coarse cloth. The fibres are also woven into curtains, chair coverings, carpets, area rugs, hessian cloth, and backing for linoleum.

The fibres are used alone or blended with other types of fibre to make twine and rope. Jute butts, the coarse ends of the plants, are used to make inexpensive cloth. Conversely, very fine threads of jute can be separated out and made into imitation silk. Jute fibres are also being used to make pulp and paper.


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  • University/College: University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Date: 27 October 2016

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