The 41 questionnaire is made using many different psychologies’ theory; it includes Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), Cattell’s trait theory and Rogers’ person-centred approach using the Q-sort method. The 4 personality indicator developed by Carl Jung was then “developed into the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) by Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine Cook Briggs” (www.myersbriggs.org). In MBTI indicator they uses the 4 of these eight preferences (E or I, S or N, T or F, J or P) you get from the questionnaires to create a more specific personality into 16 different categories.
In Cattell trait theory he found “18000 words that are relevant to personality then cutting it down to 4500 word that is use to describe personality then reducing it to 160 words removing all the unfamiliar terms and synonyms words. He then added 11 traits from to the personality trait making it a total of 171 trait names. He then narrows the traits into 35 surface traits which is the personality that could be easily observable and 16 source traits which is the basic traits underlying the surface traits”( Eysenck, M.
W. (2002) pg271) creating the 16 personality traits (16PF). In the Cattell’s trait theory he uses he uses 3 different kind of information to structure a person’s personality; life data, questionnaire and objective test, he then put the 3 data from the test into the 16PF.
The similarity of 41Q and Cattell’s trait theory is that they both uses self report questionnaires, then categorized them into the personality scale the 16PF for Cattell’s test and the MBTI for the 41Q test.
The difference between the two tests is that Cattell uses 3 information to analyse a personality, on the other hand the 41Q only uses questionnaires which might be less accurate as social desirability bias might occur during the questionnaire. The types of question being asked on the questionnaires is also very different, on Cattell’s questionnaires question is ask whether the individual thinks the statement is highly accurate or highly inaccurate, but on 41Q the question will ask what the individual will do in a certain situation given 2 choices to pick which is very contradictory. The personality indicator they use is also different.
Rogers’ (1951) person-centred approach uses the concept of self-concept which is what the person currently is, and ideal self which is what the person what to be to find out each person’s personality. It uses Q-sort method which consists of a “personal statement on cards letting the individual decides which described them best, doing it for both the self-concept and the ideal self then finding out the gap between it.” (Rogers, C.R. (1959)pg184)
The similarity between the Q-sort method and the 41Q is that they both asked personal statement question which the individual have to pick which relate to them the most, then putting a similar question in with a different questioning style to guaranty the results. Rogers’ test differs from 41Q test as it is only trying to find the congruency between the self-concept and the ideal self, which does not tell much about the person’s personality, on the other hand 41Q will rate each question into scores to indicate which personality factors the individual will fall under on the four personality indicators originally developed by Carl Jung.
In conclusion the 41Q uses the Carl Jung 4 personality indicator to rate the individual’s personality and future more the individual could use the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to find out a more detail description about themselves as MBTI is a improve version of Carl Jung’s indicator. The 41q also uses part of other psychologies’ theory to create this test, it is similar to Cattell’s trait theory as they both uses a questionnaires to score each question then relate the score to a personality indicator. It is similar to Rogers’ person-centred approach theory as the style of question asked are both using a personal statement letting the individual pick which is alike themselves the most.
The 41Q has also became very popular recently with job interviews as the employee will have a clear understanding of the workers way of thinking and being able to pick which personality will suit the job best. The only problem with the 41Q is that the person taking the questionnaire might not be able to answer the questions correctly as the question is mostly asking the subject what would they do if they are in a current situation, subjects might not be able to differentiate weather the answer they pick is what they want to do or that is what they are going to do.
Eysenck, M. W. (2002), Simply psychology, 2nd ed, Taylor & Francis Inc, USA and Canada Rogers, C.R. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships, as developed in the client-centered framework. In S. Koch (ed.). Psychology: A study of science. (pp. 184-256). N.Y.: McGraw Hill http://www.41q.com
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