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Selfies Research Project

Abstract

Background: The new culture of taking pictures by smartphones is prevail especially through the young generations. This new culture leads to an increase in narcissistic characteristic among people. This research purpose to investigate the narcissistic personality traits and selfie-taking conduct among people.

Materials and Methods: there were many methods that been used to investigate the narcissistic characteristic and selfie-taking conduct such as quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional survey design and multiple regression analysis.

Findings: Table 1 interprets the positive correlation between Time using Social networks sites, posting frequency, narcissism and the three types of narcissism.

Whereas, the negative correlation showed in self-posting frequency. To evaluate table 2, the researchers found there was a significant rate of the contrast in selfie posting numbers. After, when included all the variables, the narcissism has a positive correlation with selfie posting numbers (?=.21,t=8.15,pb.001). Whereas, other variables (age and gender) were intermediate the effect of narcissism on selfie posting.

On the second analysis (table 3), the researchers test the three types of narcissism and its effect on selfie posting, they made three steps, firstly, enroll all variables.

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Secondly, enroll all three types (LA, GE, and EE). Thirdly, they linked to age and gender with narcissism’s types. The results shows, LA (?= .12, t= 3.98, pb.001) and GE (?=.13, t=4.55, pb.001). It formulated a positive correlation of selfie posting numbers.

Conclusion: Finally, selfie posting is not a daily action, in place of, it is a way of express about feelings and it extremely depends on the psychological purpose.

Findings show that every user post selfies on SNSs its reflects their feelings and thoughts regardless their ages.

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In fact, everyone has a responsibly of their goals about using SNSs in general.

Keywords: Narcissism, Photo sharing, Sel?es, Social media, Social networking sites, Selfie-posting behavior, and body satisfaction.

Introduction

Selfies are widespread in online culture. Usually, users using social network platforms that become popular action. Selfie was named as ” Word of the year ” in the year 2013 due to its sudden popularity (Brumfield 2013), and is defined as ”A photograph that one has taken of oneself, typically one taken with a smartphone or webcam and shared via social media (Oxford Dictionaries 2013). Since Instagram’s first selfie hashtag (#selfie) emerged in 2011, selfies have become the most popular photos posted on Instagram (Jang et al. 2015).

Nowadays, people like to take and post their selfies in each moment or even in a hard situation for example, when someone makes car accident and his friend rather than call emergency to help, he takes selfies and posts it on social network sites. These actions foster questions about their psychological concept. The studies promote that narcissistic characteristic raised through young generations due to over usage of social networks sites (SNS).

Narcissism is a social disorganize describe by self-centeredness, dominance, entitlement and guess that a person is better, intelligent and more famous and attractive than others. Even though narcissists evoke a sense of superiority to others, they are marked by a sense of insecurity and react to threats to their self-esteem with defiance, rage, and humiliation (Halpern, Valenzuela, & Katz, 2016). It’s difficult to identify who has a narcissist trait because they incline to show themselves as successful. Even though they are basically antisocial, they incorporate “cheater strategies” to appear likable and “to achieve interpersonal and social goals” (Fox & Rooney, 2015).

Selfies became a widespread significant topic for researchers to review and examine as a result of since 2012, the speed of usage of selfie raised by 17,000% (Preston 2017). Investing have reported selfie-taking being coupled to psychopathologies like grandiosity, narcissism, and body dysmorphic disorder.

In this research, I am covering the relationship between different aspects of narcissism and selfies.

Research Strategy

This study of the literature review was taken on by searching the date such as Google, Scholar & Books. The investigate scope on two aspects: the relationship between different aspects of narcissism and selfies posting, and user gender. More than seven journals, articles, and books were collected, and it was from years 2003-2018 that to ensure they are credible and valid.

Methods

There many methods that been used to investigate the narcissistic characteristic and selfie-taking conduct such as quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional survey design and multiple regression analysis.

Objectives of the research proposal

Taking selfies and post it in the social networks sites (SNSs ) WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, snapchat and others of platforms becomes an important part of every person but in different tendency ( frequency of selfies ) and the variety of user age and gender. To investigate this case, so my objectives are:

To find out if there where the relationship between different aspects of narcissism and selfies posting.

To identify the link between and selfies frequency in a day and user gender.

Initial questions:

  • Do gender differences effects on the numbers of taking selfies?
  • Do age differences effects on the numbers of taking selfies?
  • Do selfies posting related to narcissism?
  • Do different categories of selfies depend on types of narcissism?
  • 6- The hypothesis of the research
  • Null hypothesis: Selfie posting does not depend on any type of narcissism.
  • Alternate hypothesis: Selfie posting depend on any type of narcissism.

Literature Review

Investigators rationalized in different studies about relationship between narcissism types and selfies, some of the reports that narcissism using only four items Dirty Dozen (Jonason & Webster, 2010), whereas other investigators reported that narcissism using 12 item measure (Paulus & Williams, 2002), in fact, these studies were just for males age 40 and younger.

One study that used the narcissistic personality inventory (NPI) and it was different of others studies (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988), these investigators figure out there are three of narcissism types (Vanity, Leadership (LA), Admiration demand) and they linked them to selfies posting among men and women.

Indeed, it is important to measure the narcissism types and how it impacts on selfies posting, therefore, studies reveal there was a difference in age and gender into narcissism. The young generations are more narcissism than elder generations (Twenge, Konrath, Foster, Campbell & Bushman, 2008), as well as, men are more narcissism than women (Grijalva et al., 2015).

Nowadays, showed that the NPI consist of three types of narcissism, leadership or Authority (LA), Grandiose Exhibitionism (GE) and Entitlement or Exploitativeness (EE).

LA is taken into account adjective therein it’s associated with indices of psychological adjustment (e.g., self-esteem), and unrelated to narcissism’s a lot of interpersonally dislike components. Conversely, GE and particularly EE are considered socially noxious and are a lot of promptly coupled to dysfunctional social outcomes (Ackerman et al., 2011).

The method of the study

A total of 1248 U.S. residents were recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turki (Mason & Suri, 2012). Participants completed an online survey developed through QuestionPro. 66% of participants did complete the survey. The ?nal sample (N=1204) was preponderantly men (75%) and women (65%), with age around 32.81 (range = 16-74, SD =11.56).

The study was consist of four methods to measures all related aspect of narcissism and selfies, these are:

Time using Social Network sites:

Participants indicated, on average, however many times per day they visited SNSs and therefore the average period in minutes per visit. The merchandise of those 2 open-ended responses yielded associate degree estimate of the number of time participants pay victimization SNSs (Panek, Nardis & Konrath, 2013) and was used as a covariate in later analyses.

Posting frequency:

Identify the numbers of posting per days such as status updates, comments, photos, and links), on social network sites, the scale was around 1 to 8 posting per day.

Selfies posting frequency:

  • First, the question to participants was ‘Do you know what a selfie is? ‘The majority of 79% response by ‘yes’.
  • Second, the questions were ‘have you ever shared a selfie on SNSs? ‘About 64% were responded by ‘yes’.
  • Third, participants asked “How often would you say that you share selfies on SNSs?” the responded divided into more than three answers, for example, they say “less than once a year”, “once a month “, ” weakly” and ” daily”.

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Narcissism:

Participants asked to choose one of these statements that are most -descriptive, some of the phrases lead to narcissistic and other does not. For example, “I am more capable than other people “versus “There is a lot that I can learn from other people”. Who selects the narcissistic statement is scored a 1 and the non-narcissistic statement is scored a 0.

For all types of narcissism (LA, GE, and EE) were evaluated by the used approach (Brown, 2006). In the replication of Ackerman et al. (2011). The findings interprets that the three types got these data (CFI = .941, TLI = .933, RMSEA = .048). Regard to NPI which are 40 scores (?= .88), items, the summary of three types as this data: LA (11 items, ?=.81), GE (10 items, ?= .79), and EE (4 items, ?=.51).

Results and Discussions

Table 1 interprets the positive correlation between Time using Social networks sites, posting frequency, narcissism and the three types of narcissism. Whereas, the negative correlation showed in self-posting frequency.

To ensure that Selfie posting depends on any type of narcissism (H1). They used two steps, firstly, using variables such as time using social networks sites, posting numbers, age and gender. Secondly, they enroll narcissism and two variables such as age and gender.

To evaluate table 2, the researchers found there was a significant rate of the contrast in selfie posting numbers. After, when included all the variables, the narcissism has a positive correlation with selfie posting numbers (?=.21,t=8.15,pb.001). Whereas, other variables (age and gender) were intermediate the effect of narcissism on selfie posting.

On the second analysis (table 3), the researchers test the three types of narcissism and its effect on selfie posting, they made three steps, firstly, enroll all variables. Secondly, enroll all three types (LA, GE, and EE). Thirdly, they linked to age and gender with narcissism’s types. The results shows, LA (?= .12, t= 3.98, pb.001) and GE (?=.13, t=4.55, pb.001). It formulated a positive correlation of selfie posting numbers.

In addition, the researchers’ analysis of the gender variable, and they found out that women have a strong LA more than men. Even though, the results show a positive correlation between selfie posting and both men and women users. But women take the highest figure (?=.20, pb.001) more than men (?=.12, pb.01). Contrariwise, they found out that men have a strong EE more than women, which was a positive correlation, where men (?=.13, pb.01) and women only (?=?.03, n.s.).

Overall, the findings from all results above that there is a positive relationship between Selfie posting and narcissism types. Especially, LA and GE forecasted selfie posting numbers while EE did not. Deeply, the users who have a strong narcissism they intended to be a leading authority, and dominance (LA) with seeking attention and admiration from others (GE). The users who have EE type choose SNSs as a means to obtain their goals. For example (posting a negative comment, retaliation).

Unforeseen, the age does not effect on the selfies posting frequency where achieving the all types of narcissism were available among all ages.

Conclusions

Study deduced the important of participants in testing the link between selfies and narcissism. The three types of narcissism it’s a real effect on selfie posting frequency. Also, gender and how men and women have a different type of narcissism that will affect negative or positive correlation with selfies posting numbers.

Moreover, there are also some significant traits like extraversion that not measured as variables that will be an effect on the results of selfie posting.

Finally, selfie posting is not a daily action, in place of, it is a way of express about feelings and it extremely depends on the psychological purpose.

Findings show that every user post selfies on SNSs its reflects their feelings and thoughts regardless their ages. In fact, everyone has a responsibly of their goals about using SNSs in general.

Reference

  • B. Selfie named word of the year for 2013. com/2013/11/19/living/selfie-word-of-the-year. Accessed 20 Nov 2013
  • Jang, J. Y., Han, K., Shih, P. C., & Lee, D. (2015). Generation like: Comparative characteristics in instagram.Paper presented at the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems.
  • Halpern, D., Valenzuela, S., & Katz, J. E. (2016, March 09). “Selfie-ists” or “Narci-selfiers”?: A cross-lagged panel analysis of selfie taking and narcissism. Personality and Individual Differences, 97, 98-101.
  • Fox, J., & Rooney, M. C. (2015, April). The Dark Triad and trait self-objectification as predictors of men’s use and self-presentation behaviors on social networking sites. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 161-165.
  • Preston S. Harmful impacts of taking too many selfies [Internet]; 2017 Jan [ updated 2017; cited 2018. Available from: P. K., & Webster, G. D. (2010). The Dirty Dozen A concise measure of the Dark Triad. Psychological Assessment, 22, 420-432.
  • Raskin, R., & Terry, H. (1988). A principal-components analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and further evidence of its construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 890-902.
  • Twenge, J.M., Konrath, S., Foster, J.D., Campbell, W.K., & Bushman, B.J. (2008). Egos in?ating over time: A cross-temporal meta-analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality, 76,875-901.
  • Grijalva, Emily,Newman, Daniel A.,Tay, Louis,Donnellan, M. Brent,Harms, P. D.,Robins, Richard W.,Yan, Taiyi Psychological Bulletin, Vol 141(2), Mar 2015, 261-310.
  • Ackerman, R. A., Witt, E. A., Donnellan, M. B., Trzesniewski, K. H., Robins, R. W., & Kashy, D. A. (2011). What does the Narcissistic Personality Inventory really measure? Assessment, 18, 67-87.
  • Mason, W., & Suri, S. (2012). Conducting behavioral research on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Behavior Research Methods,44,1-23.

Cite this page

Selfies Research Project. (2019, Dec 15). Retrieved from http://studymoose.com/my-project-example-essay

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